Education and Training Foundation Project
University of Derby

Siobhan Neary
Pete Scales
Jo Hutchinson

www.derby.ac.uk/eh...
Programme






Introductions and overview of project
Professionalism
Research practitioner
 Benefits to self and or...
What’s
your
problem?
Choosing an area to research


Consider an issue affecting your work/workplace
 What could the objective of your study?
...
Action research
What is research?
What does research look like?
What is action research?

Jo Hutchinson

www.derby.ac.uk/e...
What is research?
1.

The act of searching (closely or carefully) for or after a specified thing or
person.

2.

A search ...
Frascati Definition of Research




"Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work
undertaken on a ...
Researchers and scholars


Ernest Boyer
 The scholarship of discovery
 The scholarship of integration
 The scholarship...
Question?

 Do you see yourself as a researcher or a scholar?

www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
Action Research


Action research is a term which refers to a practical way of looking at your
own work to check that it ...
What are research methods

Quantitative

Research methods
that explore things
which are
measurable (using
numbers)
e.g. su...
What does quantitative research involve?






Surveys (paper surveys of those using survey software such as Google D...
What does qualitative research involve?








Interviews
Focus groups
Observations
Field work
Textual analysis
Jo...
Action Research
 What issue am I interested in researching?
 Why do I want to research this issue?
 What kind of eviden...
What issue am I interested in researching?
 What problem did you identify earlier?
 Is this something that you can reaso...
Example research problem
‘Youth clubs’ is not a research issue
‘What activities and other factors do young people enjoy en...
Activity: write your action research issue
 Write a research problem/question relating to your area of
interest.
 Write ...
Why do you want to research this?





To improve your practice?
To improve learning among your students?
To make the ...
Research Values and Research Ethics

Jo Hutchinson

www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
Research Values – that underpin ethical research
Using frameworks in ethical thinking: a scenario


You are researching a new teaching method in a secondary school that
i...
Key concepts derived from both frameworks

j.hutchinson@derby.ac.uk
Basic principles: Setting up







Obtain informed consent in advance
Avoid coercion and be aware of power relations...
Basic principles: During the research






Process-based consent: Consent for participation in each part of the
resea...
Basic principles: personal safety
First and foremost the researcher should make sure that they look after
themselves.
Phys...
Basic principles: after





Researchers and participants should have an opportunity to debrief.
Don’t promise anonymi...
Back to action research….
 What issue am I interested in researching?
 Why do I want to research this issue?
 What kind...
What can I do? What will I do?
 You should understand the dimensions of the problem a bit better
after going through the ...
The next stages in action research
 What kind of evidence can I gather to show that I am having an
influence?
 How can I...
Activities for next session
The blog
• Make at least one entry (more are welcomed)
• Outline an area you wish to focus you...
Contact details
Pete Scales
 P.R.Scales@derby.ac.uk
 01332 591595
Siobhan Neary
 S.Neary@derby.ac.uk
 01332 591580
Jo ...
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Eft training day part 2

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  • Boyer's (1990) ideas on the scholarships of academia form the basis of recent developments in the scholarship of teaching and learning. He proposed the concept of four scholarships (teaching, integration, discovery and application) to enhance the status of teaching in universities. Yet in many places in the world, research (i.e. the scholarship of discovery) still takes prominence, with the scholarship of teaching and learning seen mainly as research into teaching. What are the consequences of such a viewpoint and does it matter? Are there alternatives and has it enhanced student learning? Finally, have these developments sufficiently considered students learning needs? (Trigwell and Shale, 2004).
  • http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=z5ecPW1kzQHyzM&tbnid=EK5tcNwl2M14NM:&ved=0CAQQjB0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcinema.theiapolis.com%2Fmovie-0MTS%2Fmirror-mirror-iv-reflection%2Ftechnical-details.html&ei=yaz4Upq1B6Op0QXPxIC4Ag&bvm=bv.60983673,d.ZGU&psig=AFQjCNHEyghelbVt9b9aJ3cRoplounV0LQ&ust=1392114707702746
  • An issue that you are going to be investigating. Both do this
    An attempt to narrow your field of study down. The second one does, the first one doesn’t – “the gulf war and ….the environment, and oil, and cola, and religion etc etc”
    An early attempt to establish a thesis or an argument – e.g. that it had an effect on terrorism
    Look at the paragraph description of a research project that the person sitting next to you had. Re-write it as a research problem in a sentence. Ask each other any questions that you need to have explained to try and refine the research problem.
    Now look at what they wrote – can you improve on it?
  • Eft training day part 2

    1. 1. Education and Training Foundation Project University of Derby Siobhan Neary Pete Scales Jo Hutchinson www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    2. 2. Programme      Introductions and overview of project Professionalism Research practitioner  Benefits to self and organisation Action research Focus for day 2 www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    3. 3. What’s your problem?
    4. 4. Choosing an area to research  Consider an issue affecting your work/workplace  What could the objective of your study?  What research question are you trying to answer?  What type of research approach is best suited to your questions?  What research methods will be appropriate to collect data?  Who will you select to be part of your study?  What constraints of ethical issues could your study raise? (Scales, Pickering, Senior, Headley, Garner and Boulton, 2011). www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    5. 5. Action research What is research? What does research look like? What is action research? Jo Hutchinson www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    6. 6. What is research? 1. The act of searching (closely or carefully) for or after a specified thing or person. 2. A search or investigation directed to the discovery of some fact by careful consideration or study of a subject; a course of critical or scientific inquiry. 3. Investigation or pursuit of a subject. Oxford English Dictionary www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    7. 7. Frascati Definition of Research   "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." "R&D is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development.  Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.  Applied research is also original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective.  Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, that is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.“  (Second chapter of the OECD 1993 Frascati Manual)
    8. 8. Researchers and scholars  Ernest Boyer  The scholarship of discovery  The scholarship of integration  The scholarship of application  The scholarship of teaching  See Boyer, E (1990) Scholarship reconsidered: priorities of the professoriat, Princeton Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
    9. 9. Question?  Do you see yourself as a researcher or a scholar? www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    10. 10. Action Research  Action research is a term which refers to a practical way of looking at your own work to check that it is as you would like it to be. Because action research is done by you, the practitioner, it is often referred to as practitioner based research; and because it involves you thinking about and reflecting on your work, it can also be called a form of self-reflective practice.  Action research is open ended. It does not begin with a fixed hypothesis. It begins with an idea that you develop. The research process is the developmental process of following through the idea, seeing how it goes, and continually checking whether it is in line with what you wish to happen. Seen in this way, action research is a form of self evaluation. Jean McNiff, http://www.jeanmcniff.com/ar-booklet.asp So it is a form of applied research, and because it relates to your professional role in teaching it is also a form of scholarship of teaching. www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    11. 11. What are research methods Quantitative Research methods that explore things which are measurable (using numbers) e.g. surveys, laboratory analysis Mixed Qualitative Research methods that explore things which are not measurable (using numbers) e.g. interviews, focus groups, diaries, images
    12. 12. What does quantitative research involve?      Surveys (paper surveys of those using survey software such as Google Docs or Survey Monkey or Lime Survey) Laboratory experiments Formal methods such as econometrics Numerical methods such as mathematical modelling Network analysis (e.g. of internet data)
    13. 13. What does qualitative research involve?        Interviews Focus groups Observations Field work Textual analysis Journals or self-reflection Image analysis
    14. 14. Action Research  What issue am I interested in researching?  Why do I want to research this issue?  What kind of evidence can I gather to show why I am interested in this issue?  What can I do? What will I do?  What kind of evidence can I gather to show that I am having an influence?  How can I explain that influence?  How can I ensure that any judgements I might make are reasonably fair and accurate?  How will I change my practice in the light of my evaluation? www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    15. 15. What issue am I interested in researching?  What problem did you identify earlier?  Is this something that you can reasonably be expected to have an influence on?  Is it tightly focussed? What kind of evidence can I gather to show why I am interested in this issue?  How can you demonstrate to someone else that this is a problem?  This requires some data gathering. www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    16. 16. Example research problem ‘Youth clubs’ is not a research issue ‘What activities and other factors do young people enjoy engaging in at youth clubs?’ is better ‘Examining the reasons why new recruits to Nottingham’s youth clubs say that they started attending.” This is even more specific We might even want to focus this on a particular group (NEETS? Young women? A particular ethnicity?)
    17. 17. Activity: write your action research issue  Write a research problem/question relating to your area of interest.  Write how you can demonstrate that this is an issue 2
    18. 18. Why do you want to research this?     To improve your practice? To improve learning among your students? To make the world a better place? To improve equality of access?  It is a reflection of your values. www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    19. 19. Research Values and Research Ethics Jo Hutchinson www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    20. 20. Research Values – that underpin ethical research
    21. 21. Using frameworks in ethical thinking: a scenario  You are researching a new teaching method in a secondary school that involves peer facilitated learning. The research is funded by a Research Council. You have interviewed teachers – they like it. You have interviewed students – they find it distracting and don’t like it. The teachers have provided access to the students and know which individuals participated. The students will soon do important in-school assessments. You are expected to provide recommendations to the senior leadership team.  Use the following three frameworks to help you think through what you should do:  Virtue (morally sound researchers will engage in morally sound research)  Consequentialism (the end can justify the means)  Deontological (apply a set of rules to guide research) j.hutchinson@derby.ac.uk
    22. 22. Key concepts derived from both frameworks j.hutchinson@derby.ac.uk
    23. 23. Basic principles: Setting up      Obtain informed consent in advance Avoid coercion and be aware of power relations e.g. doctorpatient/teacher pupil Respect the right of individuals to make their own decisions about participation Incentives should not be unreasonable e.g. more than nominal amounts of money, improving degree classification. Don’t promise more than you can deliver e.g. anonymity and confidentiality.
    24. 24. Basic principles: During the research     Process-based consent: Consent for participation in each part of the research should be sought on an ongoing basis. People should have the right to change their mind and opt out or not take part in elements of the research without giving a reason. No harm either physical or psychological  to participants  to researcher Think about the reading age and complexity of written material.
    25. 25. Basic principles: personal safety First and foremost the researcher should make sure that they look after themselves. Physically – Don’t put yourself into dangerous situations without precautions. Psychologically – Think about the psychological effects on yourself of what you are going to find out. Professionally – Your research should not require you to put your professional life at risk.
    26. 26. Basic principles: after     Researchers and participants should have an opportunity to debrief. Don’t promise anonymity or confidentiality if you can’t give it. Participants should be able to check and agree data and withdraw consent. Be aware of your commitments when you are writing up  And when you are publishing your work
    27. 27. Back to action research….  What issue am I interested in researching?  Why do I want to research this issue?  What kind of evidence can I gather to show why I am interested in this issue?  What can I do? What will I do?  What kind of evidence can I gather to show that I am having an influence?  How can I explain that influence?  How can I ensure that any judgements I might make are reasonably fair and accurate?  How will I change my practice in the light of my evaluation? www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    28. 28. What can I do? What will I do?  You should understand the dimensions of the problem a bit better after going through the previous phase.  So now its about thinking what you can do about it…  Use Action Learning Set to help you imagine solutions. www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    29. 29. The next stages in action research  What kind of evidence can I gather to show that I am having an influence?  How can I explain that influence?  How can I ensure that any judgements I might make are reasonably fair and accurate?  How will I change my practice in the light of my evaluation? Action research evolves and develops so we’ll return to this next time. www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    30. 30. Activities for next session The blog • Make at least one entry (more are welcomed) • Outline an area you wish to focus your research on • What are the ethical issues you need to consider Prepare an outline for your research which addresses the following:  Topic of proposed study  Aims and objectives  Rationale for the study (What has prompted this topic area)  Appropriate literature  Outline of methods  Resources you might need  Ethical considerations- consent, deception, withdrawal, confidentiality, data protection ( I will draft a proforma to guide you and upload it to the blog) www.derby.ac.uk/ehs
    31. 31. Contact details Pete Scales  P.R.Scales@derby.ac.uk  01332 591595 Siobhan Neary  S.Neary@derby.ac.uk  01332 591580 Jo Hutchinson  J.Hutchinson@derby.ac.uk  01332 591367 www.derby.ac.uk/ehs

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