The explorations


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The explorations

  1. 1. Age of Exploration & Discovery <ul><li>When? 1450 – 1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Who? The Spanish and the Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Where? The Spanish went West / The Portuguese went East </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Why is a big question in 2 nd year history. The reasons? The causes? </li></ul><ul><li>See the next slide for Why? What can you remember before looking at the next slide? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself questions about the information on this slide before you move on </li></ul>
  2. 2. Why? <ul><li>They wanted safer cheaper trade routes to the spices of Asia (the land route was blocked by the Turks) </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers of Spain and Portugal paid for the voyages because they wanted new land, gold and slaves. (greed) </li></ul><ul><li>Explorers like Columbus wanted to be rich and famous </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to convert the people in the new world to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>The renaissance meant that people were more questioning and curious. They were also more confident. </li></ul>Count the reasons and count them off as you recall them Be Active Test yourself
  3. 3. How: What made the voyages possible? <ul><li>New Ships </li></ul><ul><li>Caravels – faster & stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Square sails that sail quickly with the wind behind them </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular sails allowed caravels to sail into the wind </li></ul><ul><li>The clinker built hull made them stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Large rudders made the ship easier to steer </li></ul><ul><li>New Aids to Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Compass for direction </li></ul><ul><li>A log and line measured speed in knots </li></ul><ul><li>The lead and rope measured depth in fathoms </li></ul><ul><li>Astrolabe / quadrant measures latitude which means ships know where they are </li></ul><ul><li>Portolan charts were accurate coastal charts. Now they improved maps by being able to marks maps with latitude and longitude </li></ul>Visualize the ship Look at lots of pictures of it
  4. 5. Aid to Navigation
  5. 7. Treaty of Tordesillas <ul><li>The treaty was an agreement to divide the world between Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Any new lands found to the west went to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>They did this to prevent war </li></ul>
  6. 8. The Portuguese <ul><li>There are 3 important Portuguese men to remember. They each played a part </li></ul><ul><li>Henry the Navigator set up a school for navigation at Sagre </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomew Diaz sailed to the Cape of Good Hope (the tip of Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama sailed to the Spice Islands by sailing up the coast of Africa to Malindi and found an Arab guide to take them across the Indian Ocean to the Spice Islands </li></ul>
  7. 10. Columbus Voyage <ul><li>He was Italian </li></ul><ul><li>His idea to sail west to go east and find India (looking for a sea route to India) </li></ul><ul><li>His voyage is paid for by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Crew of 90 / some experienced sailors, but some are from local jail </li></ul><ul><li>3 ships the Nina and the Pinta (caravel) and the Santa Maria (nao) </li></ul><ul><li>Food on board: salted meat, dried fish, garlic, beans, bread and wine </li></ul><ul><li>The Pinzon brothers captain the 2 ships. Columbus captains the Santa Maria. </li></ul>
  8. 11. The Voyage itself <ul><li>Left Palos </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped at Canary Islands to take on water and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Crew almost mutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Spot land after 33 days: San Salvador </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>thought </li></ul><ul><li>he was in </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul>
  9. 12. Columbus Discovery <ul><li>Explored Jamaica, Hispaniola and Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Called the natives Indians and mistreated them </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Maria ran aground and they dismantled the ship to build a fort </li></ul><ul><li>He was disappointed, but the Isabella and Ferdinand gave him the title ‘Admiral of the Ocean’ </li></ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci realized this was not India </li></ul><ul><li>It was named America after him </li></ul>
  10. 13. Life for the Sailor <ul><li>Cramped ships were uncomfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Easily wrecked in storms </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger: food became infested with maggots and weavils and they almost starved on long journeys (eg Majella’s ) </li></ul><ul><li>Scurvy (from lack of vitamin C in fruit and veg) made gums bleed and joints swell </li></ul><ul><li>They feared sea monsters and were afraid of sailing off the side of the earth </li></ul>
  11. 14. Magellan: Circumnavigation Straits of Magellan Sailors suffered crossing the Pacific Ocean Sailed West across the Atlantic Magellan killed in the Philippines Del Cano leads the expedition back to Spain
  12. 15. Conquistadores <ul><li>A conquistadore is a professional conquerer </li></ul><ul><li>Two famous Spanish conquistadores are Pizarro and Cortes </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes attacked and destroyed the Aztecs . They thought he was a God. He also had superior weapons and horses. He burned Tenochtitlan to the ground and built Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro invaded Peru where the Inca people lived. They were peaceful, civilized people. The Spanish murdered Atahualpa (the Inca God King) and the Incas were so shocked they gave up. They were enslaved and their civilization was destroyed </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Spanish weapons were superior. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannon, crossbow, spears and swords made of iron. </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztec had bronze and copper shields, stone knives, and woven-cloth armor, were no match for them. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Consequences <ul><li>Consequences are why something is important to history </li></ul><ul><li>2nd year history is all about causes and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>There will be questions on every history exam about consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Big events in history are important because they change the world: they have long lasting consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Another word for consequence is result / impact / outcome </li></ul>
  15. 18. Consequences for Native people <ul><li>The Aztec and Inca civilizations (art, religion, language, way of life) were destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians were robbed of their land, their gold and silver </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of native peoples died from over-work, European disease or were massacred </li></ul><ul><li>The colonizers needed so many slaves to work in America that they began to raid Africa for slaves </li></ul>
  16. 19. Effects for Europe <ul><li>Europe became very rich on the gold, silver and valuables they stole. Slavery was also a source of great wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>New goods like tomatoes, turkeys, chocolate, potatoes, coffee and rum </li></ul><ul><li>War broke out between European countries over the American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Migration (movement) people began to leave Europe to live in the new world. Even people from non conquering countries like Ireland migrated to the new world </li></ul>
  17. 20. Write about a named Explorer: Columbus <ul><li>From Genoa, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Had a plan to sail west to reach India (in the east) He was looking for a new sea route to the spices </li></ul><ul><li>Persuaded Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain to sponsor his voyage </li></ul><ul><li>See notes on voyage </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus was rewarded by being made governor of the lands he discovered </li></ul><ul><li>He was very disappointed not to find spices, silks and gold </li></ul><ul><li>You need 10 statements of fact for full marks on people in history question </li></ul>