Information behaviour


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Information behaviour

  1. 1. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans1EXECUTIVE SUMMARYWithin Information behaviour there is a continuous dialogue with other voices that share ourtheories and frameworks. These voices aid our discipline in various depth and scope. Thisopen space allows focus on interests that can be sometimes overlooked.Within the sports discipline many publications have examined behaviours of footballsupporters in areas of hooliganism and alcohol. The following analysis diverts away fromthis, negative aspect of football supporters.Analysis will be viewed with a twofold approach, and shall form two strands (A) howsupporters seek information prior to a specific game (B) how they use this information duringthe specific game along with the added information from the actual game. In addition otherbehaviours shall be analysed, these behaviours are closely linked to the context the supporteris in. Within this analysis the setting is a bar, three different football matches have beenchosen, along with three different settings, which results in 3 different groups being analysed.To clarify 6 different football teams will be within these 3 different groups, however analysiswill be given as 1 group per football match, and a comparison shall be made between thegroups, level of intensity and location. This comparison will give the analysis a richer anddeeper meaning in interpreting the information. This analysis shall be used in conjunctionwith the various theories and frameworks within information behaviour. The two maintheories shall be (A) T.D. Wilson’s “Evolution in Information Behaviour Modelling” (B)David Ellis’s Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. Within this, an addition ofSavolainen (2012) shall be used to highlight the importance of context. These theories form athread that runs through the activities supporters take part in while seeking information aboutvarious elements of sport. These elements include previous game performance, player’sinjuries, managerial decisions, relevance of game, i.e. Quarter final/Semi-final etc. Taking the
  2. 2. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans2above approaches and mapping them with these three theories provides the analysis to form amodel which will illustrate the path a football supporter takes when seeking informationabout a specific topic. Observations will act as a guide in seeking these stages of informationbehaviour and add as ‘tags’ to the theories which in turn will assist Information behaviour increating a better model in understanding the needs of football supporters.A discussion of how I approached this observation will give the report an in depth glance asto the effectiveness of the observations, and the observations themselves shall gleaminteresting points which will act as tags to the theories and models within. The framework forthis is Wilson’s revised general model of information seeking behaviour. This frameworkshall aim to seek the outcomes of the information that is gained along with a supporter’sdecisions when seeking information.In addition to keep the report from losing focus I shall follow stages and steps that werecarried out continuously through each research strategy and observation, altogether mappingthese to the frameworks that have been outlined. A continuous cycle will form throughoutthe report, documenting information seeking behaviour through the three observations usingthe three frameworks. With this the report shall have a consistency and continuity with thefinal conclusion bringing together various loose strands to compile a coherent report. Afurther recommendation shall be listed for additional research. Weakness within this currentreport will be addressed and possible solutions shall be acknowledged.Findings within the 3 games have been different however this has been pre arranged in orderto view different behaviours within football fans. Behaviour has shown similar traits, Angerhas illustrated swear words. Happiness has illustrated clapping and seeking out othersupporters to enter into a congratulation response. Frustration has illustrated head in handsand encouragement towards team and certain players.
  3. 3. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans3INTRODUCTIONThe topic of football supporters has many branches to focus within. How they seekinformation and use that information through watching football matches is the main topicwithin this report. Many elements are at play here: (A) the continuation of a football season,(B) the timeline of this season, richer results may be gained towards the end of the season (C)the setting.Within these elements is how and where the supporters source their information and how theyuse it. The information gained within the three settings highlighted how information seekingbehaviour began before the game started. This behaviour is illustrated in many ways, andshall be documented within observations. The decision to look at this group is how thecontext plays a vital role, the intensity of the situation along with the knowledge each personhas going into the setting and how that information can be used in an effective way, i.e. thesupporters club is winning the match or how the information can be used in an ineffectiveway, i.e. the supporters club is losing the match.These observations taken alongside the theories of Wilson and Ellis and embeddingSavolainen as a core, it will help map the challenges football supporters face in seekinginformation. In addition these results will help theorists better understand how football fansrelate to seeking different information channels and the behaviour situated within thesechoices.APPROACH TO OBSERVATIONSThe foundation for this research stemmed from a personal interest in the activities of malefriends and family towards their information strategies on various sports. The realisation thatthere was a thread between sporting fans and information seeking behaviour became relevantas I begun to watch various friends act towards sporting events.
  4. 4. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans4Observing friends on a daily basis on how they interacted with sport and information beganto come together as I noticed the level of information I was gaining about sport was risingand this was through no avenue of my own, only from what information they were giving me.It also began to emerge that if a particular sporting event was approaching, the level ofsporting information gathered pace around me. For instance the radio station “Newstalk” hasa programme called “off the ball” this would have been occasionally turned on, however asvarious games grew in intensity the programme was now on daily. In addition, Sky SportsNews was intermittently; however as the intensity surrounding a specific match increased sodid the timeframe of the sports channels.The need to understand the many elements surrounding the upcoming match was crucial at alltimes. Information that was secure included the position where the team were in within thecompetition table. For example, on one occasion all teams were situated on equal points,however if this particular team would win it would have increased the points by 3 which inturn would of made the team top of the table. These patterns began to occur on a daily basis,as I began to follow these patterns I decided to see how this information reflects the setting inwhich a football match is watched. Here my first decision was to personally go to footballmatches, UCD often have many matches played on campus. However after further analysesof how I would observe in an unobtrusive way it began to be problematic. The next decision,I wanted to analyse the differences between the different levels of games and differentsupporters. Here I analysed the upcoming football games and decided to choose 3 differentgroups of supporters, and 3 different levels of intensity towards the games. In addition tothese I chose 3 different locations, all where in bars, however I mixed up the type of bar inorder to match 1) the group of people who would be watching the football match 2) Theintensity of the football match which would result in a busier bar.
  5. 5. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans5Research prior to each game included the following; (a) analysing the Football matches thatwere scheduled for the coming week, (b) focusing on players that have been picked, or notfor the squad, (c) Score from previous games. For example, (a) within the first observationmy choice to observe Real Madrid and Manchester United supporters stemmed from it beinga Champion’s league Round 16, which means the last 16 teams are competing. The team thatwins this match moves into the Quarter finals. (b) Rooney was on the bench, Ronaldo wasstarting for Real Madrid, so in the public’s perception Real Madrid had the stronger team.(c) Score from 1stleg: 1:1, this scenario is where Man Utd needed to score an away goal inthe second leg to win and not allowing Real Madrid to score at all because if the aggregatescore were level at 2:2 for example it would go to penalties to decide the winner. Otherwisethe team with the most away goals scored. In this case a draw on aggregate would besufficient to advance to the quarter finals.As this research proved extremely successful, the next stage was to see how informationseeking behaviour would differ with a second group. Here I sought to generate similaroutcomes yet slight variances in behaviours.The results from each observation were quite interesting and matched my ideas in how Ideveloped the research around choosing football matches, and settings. Each analysis shall bedocumented further, and conclusions shall be given with evidence from chosen theoreticalframeworks.DESCRIPTION OF GROUP OBSERVEDThe description of Football Fans is the same yet very different depending on team beingplayed. The following documents the similarities and differences found within each group.Groups observed are as follows:
  6. 6. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans61stMatch: Manchester United versus Real Madrid. This is particularly interesting as there areIrish people supporting an English football team, whereby the supporters for Real Madrid arefrom Spain and living in Ireland.2ndMatch: Ireland versus Austria. Here the group in the setting all support Ireland as themajority are from Ireland and relate to the ethnicity and cultural aspect.3rdMatch: Barcelona and Paris Saint-Germain, here the groups watching the game have norelation, attachment or bond towards either team. If the relation, attachment or bond is to beanalysed here it is purely football related and how the skill of football between eachplayer/team.Similarities:‘Gender’: the majority of supporters in each context where men.‘Relationship’ in which the supporter had to the football club, this relationship is similar to anattachment the footballers have towards “their” club.‘Bond’ this is similar throughout the 3 games where groups of supporters will sit together,although dispersed throughout the pub, however these will be large groups.Bond links to ‘Interaction’ whereby each time the particular football team scores or has achance to score, the singular groups will celebrate first and then seek other groups tocelebrate with.Differences:A slight cultural distinction can be shown between the 1stand 2ndobservation and 2ndand 3rdobservation. Whereby supporters in the 2ndobservation were all the same, the reason peoplewere supporting the specific team can be noted as everyone was Irish and supporting the Irishfootball team. The difference in the 1stobservation there was a clear distinction between
  7. 7. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans7supporter and team, in the 3rdobservation it was very unclear between supporter and team asthe interest towards the football match was minimal.DESCRIPTION OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKSThe first theoretical framework is Wilson’s 1995 revised model of Information SeekingBehaviour. Wilson’s earlier models have a contemporary strand through them as they weredesigned in a time when technical development had not reached the level we see today. Athreefold outlook reflects the structure of this model and relates to the situation that shall beapplied within this report. First, the context the seeker is in while seeking information isembedded. Secondly the system that employs the information along with the informationresources that are used.In order to fully understand the diverse aspects of this group and the multiple strands ofinformation seeking behaviour it incorporates, context shall be a core focus. As Wilson usesthis within his framework it is already embedded within the continuous description.Savolainen (2012) shall strengthen this description in providing a substantial definition ofcontext within the group of football fans and map the various analysis of how importantcontext is within information seeking behaviour.Embedded into Wilson, is Ellis’s (1989) “behavioural characteristics”, here the pattern opensto look at the other activities the information seeker is engaged in while actively searching.Within the context that this group is in this aspect highlighted the activities that reoccur whilethey are engaged in receiving information. These behavioural characteristics could be linkedto many emotional aspects that surround football fans. Here I shall attempt to highlight apattern. However any further depth or scope within this segment of analysis would result in aloss of structure to the original topic.
  8. 8. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans8Each component maps the series of events a football fans goes through, and through thesecomponents I shall endeavour to link the many observations that has been documented and adetailed comparison will be shown for each observation with a hypothetical reasoning usingthese components to bolster my claim.Wilson (1996)Savolainen EllisThe information seeking behaviour of football fans incorporates a wide circle course. Toillustrate this course Wilson’s (1995) model shall be used, mapped out by Fisher (2005, pg.34). The stages, which include; context, the activating mechanisms, the intervening variablesand decisions processes and usage are all relevant in the process of a football fansinformation seeking behaviour. The aim here is to use Wilson’s framework to keep the manystrands of a footballers seeking behaviours contained. To do this I shall embed Ellis’sdifferent types of activities into the next inner circle of stages.This course starts at an even level with the same patterns emerging. These patterns that arealways there, yet built upon can be reflected in Ellis (1989) mapped out by Fisher (2005, pg.138) here it can be see that 6 steps emerge:1) Starting; this at the beginning of the season can be crucial in sourcing new information onnew players, financial aspects on the club, new strip including home and away jerseys. Asthese elements are then cemented into the club, a starting point will also form from theprevious match, sustained injuries, and previous tactical systems employed by the manager.2) Chaining 3) Browsing 4) Differentiating; will all happen simultaneously, as sources andconnections and areas of interest will have been built upon over the years of following thiscertain team. However the intensity of checking this information will increase along with the
  9. 9. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans9amount of information that the supporter will receive will also increase. Here the main issueis to document over time, what pieces the supporter chooses to take and which one theyleave.5) Monitoring 6) Extracting; these will be keeping abreast of changes constantly, this willmainly be focused on the various sources from above and will be analysed (a) before thematch, (b) during the match and (c) after the match.The last circle and core centre of this framework shall be Savolainen (2012) Conceptualisinginformation need in context. The study here recommends analysing context in a new way, asthe focus towards this concept has been overlooked in many information seeking studies.Context within this report is crucial; Savolainen sets out six steps for the observer toindentify. These steps allow the observer to use context as a foundation to solidify the rangeof information seeking behaviours that will arise from each setting. In addition variousdefinitions are given to support the range of ways one can look at context. Context involvesasking; when is the best time to observe, where the best place is, to observe and how best theobserver is going to be able to document what is in the setting. The concept that suits thisreport is taken as “situation of action” when defined it illustrates “dynamic environments,within which interpretive processes unfold, become ratified, change, and solidify”(Savolainen, 2012 pg. 6).ANALYSIS OF OBSERVATIONSThe analysis of observations shall be broken up into each match, with date, time, location andmatch noted. A detailed yet condense analysis of each match shall be documented, eachmatch shall give the information researched before the match, details given from the footballchannel during the match, a brief half time analysis and a brief fulltime analysis.First observation 5thof March 2012, Kick-off: 7:45 Manchester United versus Real Madrid.
  10. 10. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans10Location: The living Room Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin.Pre-match research (a) Champion’s league Round 16. Winning team enters Quarter finals.(b) Rooney was on the bench, Ronaldo was starting for Real Madrid. (c) Score from 1stleg:1:1, this scenario is where Man Utd needed to score an away goal in the second leg to winand not allowing Real Madrid to score at all because if the aggregate score was level at 2:2for example it would go to penalties to decide the winner. Otherwise the team with the mostaway goals scored. In this case a draw on aggregate would be sufficient to advance to thequarter finals.INTRODUCTION: The bar is very busy, inside 3 big screens are showing the pre-matchcommentary and 4 television screens are located behind the bar. The bar has an outsidesmoking area, which is notable bigger than inside the bar, this has 1 large screen, with a signsaying largest big screen in Dublin (the screen is extremely large) which now makes sense asto why the bar is full to capacity. It is noted is that the nationalities of the majority of thepeople in the bar are not Irish. The match starts everyone begins to clap, it is now emergingwho is clearly supporting Real Madrid and Manchester United, as they shout “Come onRM/MU”.Match commences: random shouting is given towards the screen, with many relation toplayers names, as they take possession of the ball.Real Madrid’s first chance of shooting is missed and 70% of the people outside are showingsigns of disappointment, this is given by holding their head in their hands, and shouting “Ohno”. Real Madrid and Man Utd player are fighting; this then manifests itself onto the crowd.Differences shown between the two groups illustrate (a) the Spanish are very engaged withwanting to know the situation (b) the Man Utd supporters are waiting for the referee’sdecision and then they react. Levels of energy and engagement rise, every time Ronaldo takes
  11. 11. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans11possession of the ball a cheer will go up from the supporters. As each team attempts to scorethe Manchester United supporters will clap and say nothing, whereas the Real Madridsupporters will shout in Spanish. A Man Utd player gets booked for a foul, this enrages thesupporters who start to shout insults at the referee, they stop shouting as the replay is beingwatched, and then they engage in more aggressive shouting after it has been shown. The RealMadrid supporters clap illustrating the referee’s good choice and the Man Utd fans continueto throw insults saying it is a bad decision.At 21 minutes: no score, two players go to head the ball and both get hurt, the image onscreen was very forceful, and even though the majority of the group are men they all reactwith “hurt”, and a recoiling gesture to administer how they feel.2ndHalf: Real Madrid score an “own goal”. The crowd are jumping and shouting as thisunfolds on screen; the Man Utd supporters are laughing and the Real Madrid supporter arevery embarrassed. The Real Madrid supporters use a lot of swear words, both English andSpanish, as the replay is shown they do not look at the screen. Referee decides to give aplayer a red card; the crowd administer confusion, both between Real Madrid supporters andMan Utd as to figure out what happened and why the referee has made this decision. Onscreen Alex Ferguson (Man Utd manger) is clearly angry and goes after an official on theside lines which is against football rules, as this is shown on screen it entices the Man Utdsupporters who react with clapping and shouting “Go on fergi”.66thminute: a goal is scored by Real Madrid each group of supporters stand and shout andclap, and hug each other. All of the supporter turn to the screen and shout praise to the screen.The Man Utd supporters stay still, and do not engage with each other.68thminute another goal is scored by Real Madrid and the atmosphere is so electric thesupporters are now running to each groups with hugs and kisses and cheering. Many are
  12. 12. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans12standing on the tables dancing and cheering their drinks. As this is over a player is beginchanged as the new player comes on the supporters chant his name “Pepe”.As this celebration stops the referee is giving another yellow card and the Man Utd fans yell“referee is a wanker”, one guy starts to sing this slogan. At 72 minutes Rooney is brought onwhich make all the Man Utd supporters stand and shout “Rooney” and clap. Many Man Utdsupporters get very aggressive towards the players as time is running out and they are losing.Real Madrid goalie is injured, and the Man Utd supporters are shouting “time waster”, “Getup”. As it is nearly full time the Man Utd fans get very frustrated and nervous they sitforward and concentrate intently on the player’s actions.Game Over: Real Madrid fans clap and watch the players finish and leave the pitch, as itcome to full time analysis everyone is leaving the outside area. Inside the analysis is on,however on one is watching it.Second Observation: 26thMarch 2013 Kick-off: 7:30 Ireland versus Austria.Pre match research: Ireland needs to win this game in order to have a confident position inthe table. These matches are to qualify for the World Cup. This game will determine howconfident they will be for future games. The decisions documented in the press by themanager Giovanni Trapattoni to leave some players on the bench and to give older playersthe opportunity to start has caused some controversy in the media. Previous match was adraw which means Ireland need to win this to move up the table.LOCATION: Russell’s Bar, Ranelagh, Dublin.INTRODUCTION: 30 to 40 people are in the pub, the pub only has televisions in the backwhere most of the people are seated. The focus is on the match however mainly men arewatching. There are 3 tables with 3 groups of women having food, they do not seem interestin the match, some men are on their own yet have combined into at group at the bar all
  13. 13. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans13waiting on the match to commence, 6 couples are also among the crowd they seem to beordering food yet positioned facing the screens.Match commences: Prior to the volume being turned on as the match had not started themajority of the people in the pub are seated in the area where the televisions are yet they arein conversation with each other. Once the volume is changed to the background noise of thefootball match people stop their conversations. Three groups of people are observed asfollows: 1. Couples will do the following: men positions themselves to get a better view andtotally disregard the previous conversation, women will look up for a few minutes and thenproceed to do 1 of 2 things: (a) find their phone (b) try and engage in the previousconversation after 3-5mins of being interested in the television screen. 2. The women ingroups, all stop their conversations turn their attention to the television, look confused, thenintrigued as they ask the question “It is Ireland playing”, and then return to theirconversation. 3. Men in groups, stop the conversation immediately, position themselves, pickup their drink, and watch the screen intensely.First half: focus in conversation seems to surround an Irish player called “McClean” theanalysis towards this player is positive. However another Irish player is captured on screenand on his Jersey is the name “Sammon”. Overhearing conversation men are making fun ofhis name and the analysis towards this player is negative. Within the first half Austria score,many of the men stand and shout “get the fucking ball”. The most interesting observationhere is that all the men in couples will seek out the men in groups to analyse the goal and anynegativity towards Ireland will be displayed. As the game moves on people return to theirown position/place. Another observation within this moment is: as the men in a couplesituation sought other men to converse with, the women all turned to engage in theconversation as well, however before the conversation had ended they have lost interest and
  14. 14. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans14return to either the screen or picked up their phone. A free kick is given men reply with“yes”, a foul is made by Austria and a penalty is given. At this moment all the men look foreach other and shout “go on”. The action made here is hands being open and raised towardsthe screen, some people don’t look at the penalty being taken, but clap and cheer when hescores. The anticipation towards the player taking this penalty is noted as: in his own club hehas taken 2 penalties for them in the last 3 matches and missed. When Ireland do misschances a mixture of behaviour is analysed it seems disappointment mixed with hope, theaction that is observed here is “hands in head” & a fist being made at the screen.Ireland get a brilliant chance and miss it by a hair, the crowd get very involved. Thefollowing is observed in the crowd: men who are eating stop eating, people who have beenengaged in their phones disregard phones and look to the television. When the player missessome people laugh, women go straight back to conversing or their phones. Men who arereally engaged in the match enter into a conversation seeking out the people they hadpreviously spoken to. The outcome of this is the men realise the player had no choice in andwhat he did; however they clearly are shows signs of frustration.SECOND HALF: Second half starts and people move their attention towards the screen,they seem to realign themselves and get comfortable. Ireland misses at a free goal kick andmen look to the screen. The action observed here is they raise their hands, and shout“oooohhh”! The Irish goalie saves a goal kick and people clap and say “well done”. AnAustria player comes on and people start talking in a worried tone, this player is a goodplayer for the Austria team as he plays for an English team and may hinder the performancefor Ireland. When Austria try to score people hold their hands over their mouth.2 minutes to go people seem to get less involved, however when a foul is made by an Irishplayer worry sets in, here the men seem “torn”, it seems they want to celebrate that Ireland
  15. 15. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans15have won the game but from past games, Ireland have always slowed down and become tiredtowards the end. It is the last 5 minutes that is crucial to Ireland not to lose their performance.This background knowledge explains the behaviour administered by the group.3 minutes extra time: Ireland is winning, the women that were only intermittently involvedare sitting forward, conversations have become really quite between the groups of girls.Austria is moving towards the goal and is in the area to score, Ireland is in a danger zone andit seems like people are actually scared that Austria will score or get the ball.Austria score: people are silent, disbelief is observed on all the faces, each person looksaround to see if they have really seen this happen. As the realisation sets in the men listenintently to what the commentators are saying. One man gets very angry and loud to whichtwo men ask him to be quiet. As the analysis goes to a break nobody engages in conversationonly the man that is angry, he speaks to the barman. Game Over.Third Observation: 2ndof April Kick-off 7:30 Barcelona versus Paris St-GermainLOCATION: Humphrey’s pub, Ranelagh.Pre-Match research: this match was chosen as it was in the same league as the first matchhowever at this point in the championship the final teams are playing each other. Two of thestrongest teams are now in the quarter finals. A major focus is towards Paris Saint Germainas they have purchased a new player, the media is analysing how this person will improve theteam’s performance towards an already powerful team Barcelona.INTRODUCTION: As the pub has an older clientele many of the people are sitting aroundthe bar, there are 2 screens behind the bar. Altogether there are max 20 people in the bar, I amthe only woman. We are sitting at the bar facing the second screen, I position myself so I canview the majority of the group and see the television screen.
  16. 16. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans16As the match commences everyone looks to see what players are starting for each team, and aconversation beings around how skilful all the players are. The barman gets very involvedwith this conversation and gives a lot of information surrounds certain aspects of the playersmentioned. The men return to their individual conversations, men that had newspapers infront of them return to reading.As the first half commences each team is playing with equal pressure as for each team this isthe 1stleg of the quarter finals, whatever happens here will put added pressure on the teamswhen they meet again for the second leg. Little happens in the first half, many of the peoplein the bar do not pay close attention to the screen; however when a yellow card is given in the17thminute a conversation begins surrounding if the referee made a right choice.As the game continues with no interest from the group in the bar, conversation surroundswhat interests are in the newspaper. Many issues are raised that are not sport related. As thegroup is older the conversation is surrounded about what government decisions were made inthe past, and how they made it through the last recession etc. As the group get involved inthis conversation a goal is scored in the 37thminute for Barcelona by Lionel Messi, this turnsthe conversation back to the screen. Here an increased interest surrounds the skill of thefootballer, and the skill of the goal which he has made. The group start to laugh as the onlywoman in the pub starts to cheer the goal, no one else is cheering or clapping they are simplyconversing about the skill that is being played in the game.As the second half starts interest in the woman in the bar restarts with question being askabout team performance and skill of team players. The second half begins like the first half,Paris St-Germain have played with a lower performance and Barcelona look to be thestronger team. The bar has begun to get busier, the majority of the people are men, and 3more women have entered in the company of men. Some of these have taken notice of the
  17. 17. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans17football match as they order their drinks from the bar; here they engage in “small talk”surrounding who scored the first goal the player David Beckham and Lionel Messi. As theyget their drinks they move towards a table they have chosen which it situated near the 3rdscreen however they are more engaged in conversation than interest towards the footballmatch.79thminute, PSG score and this is scored by the footballer they purchased for high price toincrease the team’s performance. Many people look to the screen to watch the goal the menmake a general comment and continue to watch the screen for around 5 minutes more. Thepeople who were already engaged in conversation will resume to the conversation at hand,however the men who are on their own will keep watching the match and engage with the barman if he engages first about the match.10 minutes later, Barcelona score, this has put added pressure on PSG, if they do not scorein the next 3-5min that means their next game is twice as difficult to win in order to get intothe semi finals.4 minutes added for extra time: PSG score, so now the pressure is again equal to eachteam. The game has been very tense as each team has needed the same result in order for thenext game to be successful. This translates into how each team played, making similarchoices, and trying to undermine the other team’s ability in order to keep ahead in the goalsthat are scored. GAME OVER.RECOMMENDATIONSWithin information seeking behaviour, there are many ways to observe people and the meansof obtaining information and using information. Information is a powerful tool whenadministered, which can be seen in the emotion portrayed within the first two matches. The
  18. 18. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans18information and behaviour towards the particular team work together to strengthen that bondand increase the level of information gained through each stage.Analysing football fans has many elements and finding the certain elements that can producefascinating results is the important aspect. Within this report the focus is on the context.Another option to observe football fans is in an actual match setting at a game, as theintensity would increase and the information received would be similar to the television yet ina different way as the football stadium would announce a lot of information. Anotherapproach in mapping footballer’s information seeking behaviours is to observe a set of peopleprior to each match. This could be done by analysing the types of informational sources theyuse to find the relevant pieces of information. Technology could be used as a main focuswhereby the observer maps the material people use. These include the many websites,television channels, and apps that may be used in seeking information.Regarding the emotions that are administered throughout the observations, this element couldbe further analysed through a psychological aspect. Emotions here would be the main aspectof the study using the information gained through the football match to illustrate the range ofbehaviours. Research here would surround psychology and the way information theories canmatch, for instance monitoring and blundering theory by Suzanne M. Miller a psychologistcould be used as a starting point.CONCLUSIONSThe above report was done on a small scale, in total six hours were taken to observe. Thesettings that were chosen are, secure and small. The group observed were small to medium insize. A comparison was achieved between the three different groups, on the basis of eachfootball match. The theories chosen gave the report focus, as each stage mapped a series ofsteps required by one or more of the theories. Through the analysis of the observations it
  19. 19. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans19became clear that behaviour through each match was similar. This behaviour gathered a rangeof emotions as the decisions of the football players changed throughout the match. Threeemotions were apparent which produced a circular model. This circular model began withhappiness as the game began, if goals were produced the happiness levels intensified, if goalswere not produced frustration and anger would be produced. These emotions would continuethroughout the football match, resulting in one emotion or another as the game ended,depending on the relation between group and football team. Interaction is also administeredthrough the groups, the most interesting point within this focus is the interaction betweenstrangers, however the groups do not act like the other is a stranger as they have a mutualbond already established through the specific football team. Further analysis for this reportmay include the focus on behaviours and emotions from a psychological aspect.REFERENCESFisher, E.K & Erdelez, S. & McKechnie, L. (2005). Theories of Information Behaviour.America: American Society for Information Science and Technology.Savolainen, R. (2012). “Conceptualizing information need in context” [Available at ] Information Research, 17 (4)paper 534.
  20. 20. 09765018: Siobhan McGuinness: Analysing the Information Seeking Behavioursof Football Fans20APPENDICESAPPENDIX 1