Emf radiation by gtpl(glare technocons pvt. ltd.)


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RF & BTS Parameter Collection
Deployment Plan
EMF calculation using formulae (software based)
EMF testing using specialized EMF testers
Identify RF restricted areas where over-exposure is a possibility
Documentation & Report generation

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

Emf radiation by gtpl(glare technocons pvt. ltd.)

  1. 1. www.glare.co.in
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONEMFs are invisible lines of force created whenever electricity isgenerated or used. EMFs are produced by power lines, electric wiring,and electric equipment and appliances. The frequency of EMFs ismeasured in hertz (Hz, or cycles per second). People are exposed toboth electric and magnetic fields, but scientists are most concernedabout magnetic fields.In all examples of EMF, the energy field causes a change ineverything it encounters.EMF (or Electro Magnetic Field) is a broad term which includeselectric fields generated by charged particles, magnetic fieldsgenerated by charged particles in motion, and radiated fields such asRF antenna and microwaves. Electric fields are measured in units ofvolts per meter or V/m.
  4. 4. EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEINGcommon complaintsConcentration, memory, behavior, etcEpidemiological studies - Sleep disruption, Headache ,Depression,discomfort, irritability, nausea, dizziness, appetite loss, muscle spasms,numbness, tingling, altered reflexes.Measure EffectsBlood Brain barrierDNA DamageHigh Risk to ChildrenFetus and MotherEffect on SkinTinnitus and Ear DamageIncrease in Cancer riskEffect on EnvironmentSheep, dogs, cats, rabbits living near base stations affected
  7. 7. SAR VALUE
  8. 8. Cell Phones and SAR values
  9. 9. Steps to be Safe from Cell Phone Radiation1 .Limited use only : Listen Carefully , Call of two minute also changes the natural electrical activity of the brain. Therefore, it is better to use your mobile phone for limited calls only and for short period of time.2 . Keep Kids Away : These radiations harm them the most, because they have developing skull. So allow them to call in case of emergency only.3 . Use Air tube headset : The Air tube headset is more better because , the regular wired headset generates radiation with more intensity. The wired headset not only transmits the radiation but also serves as an antenna attracting electromagnetic fields from the surroundings.4 . Keep away from your lower body area(When its ON) : The lower portion of body has good conductivity and absorption power than upper portion of body. A study showed that if a person wears cell phones near the lower body portion, it could have their sperm count dropped by as much as 30 percent.
  10. 10. Steps to be Safe from Cell Phone Radiation5 . Wait till connection is made : If you are using your mobile phone with a headset, then wait for the call to connect before placing next to the ear.6 . Don’t use in enclosed spaces (metal enclosure) : The metal enclosure also acts as a cage that traps the radiation and reflects it back onto the user.7 . Never make calls at low signal strength : This makes your cell to work harder to establish a connection.8 . Buy a phone with a low SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) : he SAR level is the way to measure the radio frequency of mobile phone. If SAR level is low, it will generate less radiation. So, whenever you purchase your mobile phone see the SAR level.9 . Use validated EMF protection device : Do not use second hand mobile phones; because when you are not using your mobile phone, still they generate second EMF radiation.
  11. 11. Revised Test procedures for EMF measurement ScopeThe main aim of the measurement is to confirm the compliance of base stationinstallation as per the limits prescribed by the Department of Telecommunications.The latest current limits/reference level are reproduced below Types of Frequency Electric field Magnetic Equivalent Exposure range Strength field Plane Wave (v/m) Strength Power Density (a/m) S eq ( w/m2) General 400-2000MHz 0.434f1/2 0.0011f1/2 f/2000 Public 2-300GHz 19.29 0.05 1 Notes: 1 GHz = 1000 MHz
  12. 12. Revised Test procedures for EMF measurementNOTE: ICNIRP stand for International Commission for Non- ionizing RadiationProtectionAn inherently compliant source for International Commission on Non –ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limits has EIRP less than 2 W.For each site, an installation belongs to the normally compliant class, if thefollowing criterion is fulfilled:where EIRPi is the temporal averaged radiated power of the antenna at a particularfrequency i, and EIRPth,i is the EIRP threshold relevant to the particular antennaparameters and accessibility conditions.
  13. 13. Difference Between old guideline and new guideline Old Guideline New GuidelineICNIRP limit is less than 0.5 ICNIRP limit is less than 1 but TEC allowsbut TEC allows (EIRP/EIRPth) ratio to be (EIRP/EIRPth) ratio to be less than 0.5less than 0.5 Building with in 20 m from Building with in 60 m from middle of cell tower middle of cell tower
  14. 14. Difference Between old guideline and new guideline Frequency Old Guideline New Guideline Formula range Formula Power Power Density ( w/m2) Density ( w/m2)1. f/200 f/2000 MHz2. 900 900/200=4.5( w/m2) 900/2000=0.45 ( w/m2)3. 1800 1800/200=9( w/m2) 1800/2000=0.9 ( w/m2)4. 2100 10( w/m2) 1 ( w/m2)
  15. 15. Difference Between old guideline and new guidelineOld Guideline
  16. 16. Difference Between old guideline and new guidelineNew Guideline
  17. 17. Difference Between old guideline and new guideline Old Guideline New Guideline
  18. 18. Guideline to ascertain the height of the antenna for calculation methodCase 1: GBT (Antenna installed on (If tower ht istop of the tower) 30m) h= 30m (If building ht bCase 2: RTT (Antenna installed on is 10m) ha roof top tower On the terrace of Mast/tower hta building) is 12m h= 12m b
  19. 19. Guideline to ascertain the height of the antenna for calculation method (If building ht bCase 3: RTP(Antenna installed on h is 10m)a pole on the terrace of a Pole ht is 6m,building, Serving outside the h= (b+h) = 16mbuilding) bCase 4: RTP p (If building ht bAntenna installed on an h t is 10m)inaccessible building Pole ht p is 6 mHeight Water tank, LMR etc. Water b tank/LMR ht is 3m h= (p + t) = 9m
  20. 20. RESPONSIBILITY OF SERVICE PROVIDERS AT SHARED SITES(1) A shared site may be defined as having:(a) Multiple towers on the same or different plots within 60 m radius.(b) Multiple Roof Top Poles on a BTS Site/ Adjacent Building within 60 m radius.(2) Responsibility for EMF compliance of shared site shall lie with all the participatingoperators.(3) Placement of signage at shared site will also be joint responsibility of all theparticipating operators.(4) For self certification of shared sites, participating operators will also separately issueself certification of their individual BTS.(5) In case of overall non-compliance of shared site, penalty shall be imposed on allparticipating operators.
  21. 21. CALCULATION PROCEDURESEvaluation of EMF for telecommunication installations can be done by followingtechniques:(i) Calculation MethodFollowing two methods are being prescribed. Either of which could be usedfor predicting compliance to the radiation limits.(a) Prediction of RF Fields.(b) Calculation Method for determination of EIRPth(ii) Field Measurement Approach.(iii) Electromagnetic mapping by software simulation method.An assessment of the value of (EIRP / EIRPth), is made at various publiclyaccessible points in the environment surrounding the BTS Site under study (Onrooftop, On Ground, and at adjacent buildings).The assessment is based on the formulae given in the Appendix-A of thisdocument for measurement of EMF from BTS.
  22. 22. Formula & Calculation ProcedureAs Per ICNIRP LIMIT: 1.Calculation of maximum power density exposure S limit=1800/2000=0.9w2.Calculation the maximum safe distance by rearranging the equation S=EIRP/(3.14R2)where EIRP is stand for Equivalent Isotropic Radiated power Exclusion Zone Length a(m) Calculation From the distance from the Antenna R min=(EIRP/3.14*9)1/2 So a(m)=Exclusion zone Length=R min
  23. 23. CALCULATION PROCEDURES Calculation of ASLAsl is the Attenuation of the largest side lobe of the antenna in VerticalPattern w.r.t. main lobe, converted to decimal.Suppose Side Lobe Attenuation 17 (dB)So that ASL=power(10(-17/10))= 0.0199526 =0.02 Calculation of EIRP(BCCH)EIRP(BCCH)=Tx power-Combiner loss-(Cable length*Unit loss) +Antenna Gain in dbm
  24. 24. CALCULATION PROCEDURES Change EIRP value dbm to watt EIRP (w)=Power (10,(EIRP (BCCH)-30)/10) 30 dbm=1 watt P(W)=10 ( (P (dbm)-30)/10) Calculation of EIRP threshold =EIRP (T)EIRP(T)=EIRP(BCCH)in watt+ EIRP(BCCH)in watt*0.9*0.9 *(Carrier/sector-1)
  26. 26. CALCULATION PROCEDURES CATEGORY 2Antenna is installed at ground level-theCenter of radiation is at a height h above level.There is an adjacent building or structure accessibleTo the general public and of approximatelyHeight h located a distance d from the antennaAlong the direction of propagation.There is a constraint h>3m
  27. 27. CALCULATION PROCEDURES CATEGORY 3Antenna is installed at ground level-theCenter of radiation is at a height h above level.There is an adjacent building or structure accessibleTo the general public and of approximatelyHeight h’ located a distance d from the antennaAlong the direction of propagation.There is a constraint h>3m.
  29. 29. CALCULATION PROCEDURESSimilar calculations are made for the other operators and total ratio calculated asunder:Σ(EIRP/EIRPth) = (EIRP[T]/EIRPth)Op1 + (EIRP[T]/EIRPth)Op2 + (EIRP[T]/EIRPth)Op3 Safety SignageThe mobile service operator will ensure provision of proper signage warning entry ofgeneral public of the exclusion zones. The sign board should be clearly visible andidentifiable and may contain the following text in black over white background:
  30. 30. Conclusion between Old Guide line and New Guideline•f/200 has been changed to f/2000 in the formula used for calculating EIRP/EIRPth.•With the change in formula, the new EIRP/EIRPth of the BTS site will be 10 times of the pre value calculated with f/200.•For the purpose of self certification the new (EIRP/EIRPth) ratio should be less than0.5 i.e. to the extent of 50% of revised DoT limits (< 1).•The sites having previous (EIRP/EIRPth) ratio less than 0.05 calculated with f/200 areself complied.•Broadband measurements will be done for first stage audit verification by TERM Cellcertify EMF compliance of BTS subject to the condition that measured values do notexceed 50% of levels/ limits prescribed by DOT for general public.•Frequency selective measurements with extrapolation for maximum traffic must beperformed if the broadband measurement exceeds 50 % of limits prescribed by DOT.•Mobile Service operator may self certify their BTS for compliance of limits afterassessment estimated levels of EMR up to 60 meters (Previous 20 meters) radius ofthe BTS.•A Google picture (sketch up) of 60 m radius area around the site with high buildings(comparable to the lowest antenna AGL on site) marked on the picture to be attachedin the Site Lay out. This should be verifiable on Google.
  31. 31. O: (0612)-6441097 M: (+91) 9334983960; M: (+91) 8083982243Visit Us: www.glare.co.in; Email: info@glare.co.in,