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ISPER - 8th National Seminar - Presentation 23rd-24th April, 2014
 

ISPER - 8th National Seminar - Presentation 23rd-24th April, 2014

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Presentation on "Ancient Civilisations and Sustainability of 20th Century New Capital Cities" prepared by Prof. Er. Jagjit Singh Ghuman, Formerly Chief Town Planner and Head T&CP Dept., Govt. of ...

Presentation on "Ancient Civilisations and Sustainability of 20th Century New Capital Cities" prepared by Prof. Er. Jagjit Singh Ghuman, Formerly Chief Town Planner and Head T&CP Dept., Govt. of Punjab in 8th National Seminar organised by ISPER, Panchkula, Haryana on 23rd-24th April, 2014

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    ISPER - 8th National Seminar - Presentation 23rd-24th April, 2014 ISPER - 8th National Seminar - Presentation 23rd-24th April, 2014 Presentation Transcript

    • 8TH NATIONAL SEMINAR Prof. Er. Jagjit Singh Ghuman Formerly Chief Town Planner and Head T&CP Dept., Govt. of Punjab Immortal Cities: Past and Future Concepts, Changing Morphology and Sustainability Ancient Civilisations and Sustainability of 20th Century New Capital Cities 23rd – 24th April, 2014
    • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This presentation takes a holistic view on ancient civilisations, its changing morphology, structure, shape, size, form and composition of Cities. Study also covers the modern age city or town planning concepts with focus on its application in the 20th century motor age New Capital Cities. It evaluates use of natural building material i.e. stone, brick in lime mortar or concrete and sustainability of modern reinforced cement concrete in a city landscape. ANCIENT CIVILISATIONS – CITIES Pre-historic or Ancient Global Civilisations, the bronze age (3300-1300 BCE) show a strong dependence of man on fertile agriculture lands along river valleys with abundant gift of fresh water and food for their livelihood. The many Achievements of the Bronze Age civilisations include, unique surveying & construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental structures, temples, obelisks, pillars, towers, statues to commemorate the ruler or events, introduced quarrying in stone & minerals, developed earthen ware & glass technology, and a system of literature-mathematics.
    • Safety of the poor peasants in self-made mud-thatch roof single storey informal shelter-clusters was the primary concerned of the ruling powers in well laid-out protected enclosures, palaces, gardens and open spaces, with an elite group to ensure the unity of the people in slavery or in an elaborate system of religious beliefs. INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILISATION (3300-1300 BCE) The fertile agriculture lands in Indus River Valley in N-W Punjab, the Indo- Gangetic / Brahmaputra River Basins, are said to have been highly, socially & culturally advanced. The Indus River Valley or Harappan civilization extended upto Afghanistan in the N-W, the Ghaggar River Valley in the East i.e. Chandigarh City Region and S-W upto Gujarat, was spread over some 1,260,000 km², population 50.00 Lacs making it the largest known ancient civilization Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Ancient Cities were flourishing centre for trade in exotic spices from the South Indian sub-continent and silk, cotton jute & other products from the east pre-urban civilisations. Most of the Ancient Cities i.e. 1,056 settlements were built of sundried or burnt bricks, paved roads-drainage system, and single or two storey houses with circular working platforms to the south of the “granary” or Great Hall.
    • Ancient Harappa City: Gateway- Brick Houses with Open Drainage System along a street Harappa City Muriel - Terracotta/Stone Muriel
    • Mohenjo-daro: Panorama view of stupa
    • EGYPTIAN CIVILISATION – (2686-2181 BCE) Ancient Egyptian Civilization, survived from its ability to adapt to the changing conditions of the Nile River, its un-predictable flooding and controlled irrigation. The fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fuelled social development and culture. Egyptian Pharaoh’s and successive rulers in the early period developed an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and trade with surrounding regions, ruled by a strong military force. Ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with accuracy and precision. Egyptian Monumental Ruins have inspired the imaginations of travellers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian Civilization and a greater appreciation of its Cultural Legacy. Its Art and Architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world.
    • Ancient Egypt: Brick Making & Laying Process Ancient Egypt: Carriage of Building Material Giza Pyramids: Egypt Nile River Valley Giza Nile River Valley Civilisation N-E African Sub-Continent Memphis Thebes
    • The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: the Great Pyramids of Giza and the temples at Thebes. Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the power of the pharaoh. Colossal statue of Ramses II, carved from limestone, that once adorned the great temple of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt. MEMPHIS Ptah Temple GIZA PYRAMIDS AND TEMPLES
    • ANCIENT CIVILISATIONS – CITIES (900 BCE TO 100 CE ) Ancient Greek City Planning-Architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both in sculpture and structure. In the case of temples each building is conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground to enhance its elegance. Indigenously formulated Lime Concrete Technology was known and used by many Ancient Civilisations including Ancient Greece and Rome, in and around the Mediterranean Region. The Architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. From the Renaissance, revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture, but also its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. The Pantheon, in Rome-Italy, built in 27 BCE is a circular temple dedicated to the Gods is the world’s largest Unreinforced Lime Concrete Dome with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft).
    • Pantheon a circular temple in Rome, completed in 27 BCE and dedicated to all the gods. Outer view of the Roman Pantheon, still the largest unreinforced solid concrete dome. Inside the Pantheon dome, the concrete for the coffered dome was laid on moulds, probably mounted on temporary scaffolding Pantheon – Rome 27 BCE
    • The Colosseum (70-80 CE) Rome, Italy is the world’s largest ancient elliptical amphitheatre-sports arena. Built in stone, laid in lime mortar- concrete, it is the largest ancient amphitheatre of the Roman Empire. It is considered as one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. • The Roman Colosseum is a free- standing structure, elliptical in plan and is 189 m long, and 156 m wide, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 m2). • The height of the outer wall is 48 m. The perimeter originally measured 545 m. • The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide, surrounded by a wall 5 m (15 ft) high, above which rose tiers of seating. • The Colosseum could accommodate 87,000 people, although modern estimates put the figure at around 50,000.
    • Pompeii City in present Southern Italy was founded in the 700 BCE, captured by the Romans in 80 BCE, stand midway between the Greek & Roman Building Architecture. By the time of the natural disaster / destruction, 160 years later, it had a population of 20,000. The Ancient City and many villas in the surrounding area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of ash and pumice on the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Pompeii: Paved Stone Block Street with raised side walls in Random Stone Masonry
    • Pompeii was provided with a reasonably effective drainage system and generous water supply. Shops and workshops are located along the main street. Most of the streets are 8m (28ft.) width and some other street, about 25.5m (32ft.) width, and the smaller roads of about 3.5m to 5.5m (12 to 18 ft.) in width. All the roads well paved and provided raised side walls. Formal Greek / Roman Architecture is based on use of natural / native building materials. The monolithic building structures with wood trusses, supporting burnt clay roof tiles. Pompeii: Necropolis of Porta Nocera consisting of a podium, with niches containing the statues. Built in random stone masonry & located on a main street.
    • INDIA HISTORIC ERA (326 BCE – 1715 CE) Alexander’s / Greek Invasion of India in 326 BCE, was followed by other invasions, Muhammad Bin Qasim 711 CE, Feroz Shah Tuglak 1350 CE, introduced Islamic Rule in Northern India. Sher Shah Suri an ethnic Pashtun warrior, took control of the Mughal Empire in 1540. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah named Sher Shah Suri’s setup a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupee and re-organised the postal system of India. The Military Road (Jarnailly Sadak) from the West to the East in Northern India, at one time also extended to Kabul in Afghanistan, crossing the Khyber Pass. It is dotted with Pillars, “Kos Minar” every 2.25 miles and “Caravan-Sarai’s” (highway inns) at regular intervals with fortified separate living area and kitchen for the communities.
    • The Ancient Unit Human Scale to measure Land / Distance, used in the Vedic times for over three thousand years was re-introduced in the Mughal period, Sher Shah Suri 1540 CE to 1545 CE. A standard “Karam”, measures 5’-6” i.e. 3 paces of a normal adult on plain ground. PUNJAB CITY PLANNING (1545 CE – 1825 CE) Sri Guru Ram Dass Ji fourth Guru founded Amritsar Sarowar (Fresh Water Tank) “Pool of Nectar” in 1577 CE, with his residence at Village Guru-Ka- Chak (Gurdwara Guru-Ka-Mahal) away from Amritsar Sarowar. The first brick of Sri Hari Mandir Sahib in lime mortar and concrete was laid by the Saint Miyan Meer Manu / Sri Guru Ramdas Ji in 1589 CE. Sri Hari Mandir Sahib Temple Building was completed in 1604 CE. Later the sixth Guru Shri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji laid the foundation of Sri Akal Takhat west of the Sarowar in 1606 CE, as the seat of the Sikhs in Punjab. Sri Hari Mandir Sahib and Sarowar after the Development of its Periphery in Walled City Amritsar in 2010
    • The Ancient Mediterranean Sub-continent City Planning (900 BCE to 100 CE) is predominantly laid-out in a grid iron road network system in contrast to the axis-informal plan of ancient heritage cities in the Indus Valley Civilisation or the 16th Century Amritsar Walled City. The Walled City is built in Nanakshahi Brick and lime mortar-concrete in 3-4 storey high buildings, Havelies-Residence with central green open courtyards. The Nanakshahi, brick is 1 ½” x 4 ½” x 9”. The flat roof is laid in wood girders & batons with burnt brick tiles of 1 ½” x 6” x 12” size. Randomly laid-out narrow streets, 1 karam (5’-6”) to 3 Karam (16’-6”) with 4 karam (22’ wide) main street. Safety & protection was marked by fortification i.e. wall around the city.
    • URBANISM: 19TH CENTURY NEW GARDEN CITIES Ebenezer Howard (1850 CE – 1928 CE), book on Garden Cities of Tomorrow published in 1898 laid the foundation of the “Garden City” concept in UK. It focused on the effect of industrialisation, mechanisation & automation, generating rapid urbanisation, employment opportunities and need for better social & recreational facilities. Two New Garden Cities Letchworth & Welwyn developed on Howard’s concepts changed the cycle in urban civilisation. Letchworth the first "Garden City" based on the concept of Sir Ebenezer Howard Planned by Sir Raymond Unwin and Richard Barry Parker 1904. Welwyn the second "Garden City" based on Sir Ebenezer Howard concept is planned by Louis de Soissons 1921 Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities Concept 1898 CE
    • Conceptually, The Garden City is designed for healthy living and industrial growth, of a manageable size, that makes it possible for a healthy social life, surrounded by a rural belt, whole of the land being in public ownership or held with a trust / local authority for the community. It generally refers to Magnificent Boulevards, each 36m (120 ft.) wide traversing the city from the centre to its circumference, dividing it into six equal parts. In the centre is a circular space allotted for garden with public buildings, like theatre, museum, library & hospital around the garden. The plan provides for walk ways beyond the garden. The Residential Dwellings are distributed beyond the public buildings. The shopping centre would be the edge of the town, whereas industries are on the outskirts. The total population is 32000 extending over an area of 400 hectares (1000 acres). A permanent agricultural belt of 2000-5000 acres surrounds the entire city. Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932), also highlighted the relationship of mankind (folk), with place of work & place of living. In 1892, he founded the “Outlook Tower” on Castle Hill in Edinburgh and was creatively responsible to introduce the first “British Town Planning Act 1909”.
    • Sir Patrick Geddes’s planning concepts refer to a sequence of planning strategies i.e.: Regional Planning, Town planning, City design and Rural framework. He visited India (1915 CE-1925 CE) and gave expert advice for the improvement of about 18 major towns in India. He was invited by Maharaja Bhupinder Singh & prepared the First Regional-Master Plan for Patiala, laid out the Baradari Gardens & other developments in Patiala City, Pinjore Gardens & Chahal Town. The Maharaja’s Residence is prominently placed on the Chahal Ridge. His report was published and made an official document for the regional growth of Patiala. It is presently available with the Punjab Archives at Patiala. He also Proposed the Development of Canal & Road Network in the periphery with tree plantation in gardens and play grounds, retain the existing storm water impounding reservoirs and tanks in an effective sanitary state. His proposals for Indian Towns, Geddes focused on the health, hygiene and poor sanitary conditions of the people, discarded manual scavenging and develop mechanical sanitary facilities. This changed the mind-set and outlook of the officialdom to meet new challenges-ideals in urbanisation and development of healthy settlements.
    • C. A. DOXIADIS: 20TH CENTURY CITIES Constantinos A. Doxiadis and his associates in Athens-Greece in the promoted “Ekistics”, the theories and science of human settlements, relationship of man in his environment i.e. an earnest & scientific endeavour to find ways & means to make a viable-healthy human settlement. Doxiadis idea of a city in the modern age refer to 5 basic elements i.e.: i. Nature from which it is built i.e. its morphology. ii. Man’s influence on nature in the development process. iii. Society, which has been formed by man. iv. Shells or shelters combining small house to public buildings or work centres. v. Network i.e. roads, railways, water supply, electrical system etc. Doxiadis idea of a “Dynamic City” focuses on its geophysical growth and its relationship with man in a changing environment. It is purely abstract in form & structure. The laws of development of the city structure generally focus on the socio- economic conditions, natural climate and political structure, which favour the growth and spread of cities beyond its geopolitical boundaries.
    • CORBUSIER’S: RADIO CONCENTRIC CITY 1950’S CE Mons. Le Corbusier an eminent Architect & Urban Planner in France, president of the assembly of builders for architecture renovation (ASCORAL) in Paris in 1942 CE, released its first conclusive work on “Three Human Establishments” i.e. “Radio Concentric City” & “Linear Industrial City”. It highlights the infusion and side by side existence of the urban-rural and industrial activities in the folds of “Mother Nature”. The concept highlights the “Human Scale” and high rise buildings with a network of roads, pedestrian paths for safe & free movement of people in the city landscape. High Rise Building in a City Landscape
    • The Radio Concentric City Concept, illustrated by Le Corbusier, visualise the city or town as a huge park where the work-living units are distributed in shape, size and a true vertical form. The sun, space & greenery blend with nature. The buildings are set in a lace-work of trees in the urban landscape. The revolutionary modern structure connects the ground with free space: a void, passage and free flow of air, light & sun with columns of reinforced concrete The vertical building structures are set in a lace-work of trees & greenery in the urban landscape. The vertical building structures are set in a lace- work of trees & greenery in the urban landscape.
    • CORBUSIER’S: LINEAR INDUSTRIAL CITY 1950’S CE A country is engraved with a network of rivers, roads, rails & canals fundamentally dictated by its geography. The road network passes in different terrains and in certain places two or more roads cross at eminent points or predestined points, places of concentration and center of dispersion. It is at these junctions that cities or towns of exchange are established. When the road stops at the sea or at the ocean, the network is completed by maritime routes and the place thus determined became a particularly center of exchange.
    • It is natural to attribute the spatial network phenomena as an essential value in the organization of work or machinist civilization. The Radio Concentric City and the Linear Industrial City illustrated by Le Corbusier refer to: i. Radio Concentric City of Exchange i.e. Town as work & living units. ii. Distribution of Concrete buildings with free flow spaces-nature, sun, air & light. iii. The buildings are set in a lace-work of trees in the urban landscape. iv. The revolutionary modern vertical structures connect with free spaces, ensure flow of air, light & sun. i. Linear Industrial City as unit of nature i.e. agriculture production. ii. Funtacular (Primary) city, National or Regional Capital Cities or Towns. iii. Linear Industrial City with free flowing green spaces infused with nature. iv. Rail, road & canal transportation & communication network.
    • 20TH CENTURY NEW CAPITAL CITIES Edwin Lutyen’s, New Capital City (New Delhi) was designed and built in 1920 CE-1930 CE British Era in India. Industrialisation, with a rail-road transportation-communication network and infrastructure was also introduced in the motor or machine age in India. The design & layout of Lutyen’s New Capital City with ring & radial road network system is the new seat of governance. The monumental buildings in red sand stone, cement and concrete focused on work-living relationship in the mechanisation & automation age. It is infused with the garden city concept “Modern-Urban Landscape”. Parliament House: Lutyen’s New Capital City Rashtrapati Bhawan with Garden design by Lutyen’s include the Rashtrapati Bhawan earlier Viceroy’s Residence Lutyen’s New Capital City, Delhi
    • Monumental Buildings in Red Sand Stone North Block: Lutyen’s New Capital City, Delhi Bungalow Houses in Cement and Concrete Lutyen’s New Capital City, Delhi
    • A series of New Towns were setup in Europe i.e. UK, France etc. in the population range of 50,000 to 3 Lacs after WW-II, 1939-45 CE. The New Towns are designed on the garden city concept and located in the country side or sub-urban peripheries of major cities, with a view to re- habilitate the people, decentralise major socio-economic & industrial activities and re-build the war damaged urban centres. Three mega New Capital Cities, namely; Brasilia in Brazil, Islamabad in Pakistan and Chandigarh in East-Punjab, India were setup in 1950’s, to meet the administrative, socio-economic or geo-political changes in their respective regions. The New Capital City Brasília is Brazil's National Capital w.e.f. 22nd April, 1960 and is in UNESCO's World Heritage List. Brasília had an estimated population of 2,789,761 in 2013, making it the 4th most populous city in Brazil Constantinos A. Doxiadis of Athens, Greece in 1937 CE -1975 CE, formulated plans and programmes for the Greater Rio de Janeiro City in Brazil in 1950’s. Later, the New Capital City Brasilia was planned and developed in 1956 CE with Lúcio Costa as the principal urban planner, Oscar Niemeyer as the principal architect and Roberto Burle Marx as the landscape designer.
    • New Capital City Brasília
    • The New National Capital City (Islamabad) of Pakistan was setup in 1950’s as an outcome of geo-political changes in the Indian Sub-Continent. The essential development works in Islamabad were completed in 1966 CE. Islamabad is located in the North-East of Rawalpindi in West Punjab. Constantinos Apostolos Doxiadis, designed the master plan & most of the buildings in the city which was based on garden city concept, grid plan with its apex towards the Margalla Hills Forest Reserve in the north & north- west. Islamabad is the seat of the Government of Pakistan; the Presidential Palace (Aiwan-e-Sadr), is home to the Pakistan Monument, which is one of the two national monuments. Each Residential Sector is divided into 4 sub-sectors and covers an area of approximately 2 km×2 km (1 ¼ mi×1 ¼ mi), lettered from A to I. Islamabad has grown from 95,940 to 805,235 as of 1998 making it the ninth largest city in Pakistan. As per the 2012 estimate, the population of Islamabad including its surrounding territory has increased to 2 million. Islamabad together with its neighbouring twin city of Rawalpindi, the greater Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the third largest conurbation in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants.
    • Islamabad New Capital City Islamabad National Capital City Master Plan From top, L to R: a) Islamabad Stock Exchange, Faisal Mosque, b) Parliament House, Pakistan Monument, c) Jinnah Avenue, and Margalla Hills
    • Chandigarh New Capital City Master Plan 1952 prepared by Le Corbusier infused the basic Garden City concept on a human scale to cover a total population of 5 Lacs (Phase-I: 150,000 and Phase-II: 350,000). On completion of the Project, Le Corbusier returned to France early in 1967. Geo-political territorial changes in 1966 CE, Chandigarh City UT was constituted as the seat of governance for the reconstituted provincial states of Punjab and Haryana in India. The Union Territory Chandigarh City covers a total area of 114 Km2, has a population of 960,787 (2011) with metro population of 1,025,682, and a density of 7900 persons / Km2 Le Corbusier’s Open Hand: Symbol of Chandigarh New City to receive and give quality life and living conditions to its citizens
    • Unlike the Lutyen’s New Delhi monumental buildings in exposed stone surfaces, Le Corbusier introduced exposed concrete building structures in Chandigarh on a monumental and human scale. Chandigarh City cement concrete structures created from natural available building material, namely; bricks, stone, sand etc. are a legacy of modern architecture in a City Landscape. The City Charter-Edict enlightens the citizens on its basic urban design concepts and architecture with a view to protect its inheritance in the growth-development of the city. He introduced “Modern Age Architecture” and “Truthfulness of Building Materials” i.e. fusion of exposed cement concrete, bricks and stone in city landscape. He pointed out that “The Age of Statues is Gone”, commemoration of events to be confined to suitably placed bronze plaques. The City Capitol Complex in the N-E is the seat of Governance with contiguous landscape open spaces (Leisure Valley) etc. from the N-S. The work place Central Business District (CBD) sector 17 and the industrial area (manufacturing) is located in the S-E. The seat of Education i.e. institutions are located in the N-W with self-contained residential neighbourhoods (sectors). The city has a well laid-out Grid Iron Road Network System, a new railway station for movement of man & material.
    • Le Corbusier’s Chandigarh: Capitol Complex Siting of the Capitol Complex in the Chandigarh City Landscape A View of the Jan Marg Looking Towards the Shivalik Hills: the seven-storey blocks add a touch of urban habitat in a City Landscape
    • CHANIDGARH City Centre, Sector-17 Damaged Concrete Structure Altered Concrete Surface Texture
    • FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS A holistic view of city planning concepts-principles is taken in the study of Ancient Civilisations and Ancient Cities, vis-à-vis Sustainability of 20th Century (mid-1950’s) New Capital Cities, historic use of natural building material i.e. stone, brick in lime mortar or concrete. Mon’s Le Corbusier spent his life time to perfect skills in use of reinforced cement concrete in high rise building. He successfully executed housing projects in Marseilles, France and early in 1950’s, the New Capital City- Chandigarh in East Punjab. Motor Age Industrialisation draws attention to conservation of the modern city cultural heritage, urban form shape size and composition of modern reinforced cement concrete structures in the city. Special Areas of Architectural Interest focus on protection and conservation of the harmony / unified composition of buildings regulated by architectural and zoning controls. City Centre, the central plaza in Sector-17 designated by Le Corbusier as a “Pedestrians Paradise”, the architectural façade, cement concrete surface texture of buildings in the City Centre is not to be altered.
    • All Exposed Cement Concrete RCC Buildings in City Centre, Sector-17, public / private ownership show signs of damage and decay due to weathering action and carbonation. The red sand stone flooring of front covered corridors is also damaged / altered and is not safe for use of pedestrians. The City Development Laws, zoning plans / architectural or building control sheets prepared under the Punjab Capital (Development & Regulation) Act 1952, or the Civic Laws do not protect or conserve the historic city cultural heritage, eco-sensitive-critical zones, heritage sites & buildings outlined in the Chandigarh City Draft Master Plan 2031. Chandigarh City is a Symbol of India’s freedom, an expression of citizen’s faith in its development, i.e. urban form, city landscape and its architecture. It has also nurtured a way of life for the people in the machine age civilisation, unfettered by the traditions of the past and the citizen’s faith to sustain its legacy / future. Enabling Heritage Law and formulation of regulations are required to safeguard / protect the city historic cultural heritage / legacy to sustain a healthy work-living environment and a distinct quality of life to its citizen.
    • THANK YOU