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Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour Document Transcript

  • A Dissertation Report onBehaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer (Customer) towards Cosmetic Products. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Session: 2009-2011) Faculty Guide Mr. Arun Kumar Submitted By Lalit Singh Roll No.29047 PGDM (2009-2011) NIILM Centre for Management Studies Plot No- 53, Knowledge Park 5, Greater Noida, UP
  • Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer (Customer) towards Cosmetic Product.
  • Certificate of CompletionThis is to certify that dissertation report on" Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer(Customer) towards Cosmetic Product" prepared by "Lalit Singh" Roll No. "29047" ofPGDM 2009-11 Batch has been completed under my guidance and supervision.__________________Arun KumarFaculty Production and OperationsNIILM Centre For Management Studies.
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis project is the outcome of sincere efforts, hard work and constant guidance of not onlyme but a number of individuals. First and foremost, I would like to thank NIILM-CMS, NewDelhi for nurturing me. I am thankful to my faculty guide Mr Arun Kumar , NIILM-CMSfor providing me help and support throughout the project.I would also take the opportunity to thank the entire staff of NIILM Centre for Managementstudies who helped and shared their knowledge about each and every principle ofmanagement, for which I am highly grateful.Last but not the least I would like to thank all my Faculty members, friends and familymembers who have helped me directly or indirectly in the completion of the project. Lalit Singh PGDM 2009-2011 NIILM-CMS, New Delhi
  • ContentsCertificate of Completion ........................................................................................................................4ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ......................................................................................................................51.Introduction:-......................................................................................................................................10 THE INDIAN COSMETIC INDUSTRY MARKET:- .....................................................................112. Literature Review;- ...........................................................................................................................12 2.1 A History of Men’s Grooming : Mens makeup and skin care ....................................................12 2.2 Indian Cosmetic Story: CII..........................................................................................................15 Indian Cosmetic Industry in General:- ..............................................................................................16 Defining Cosmetics:-.........................................................................................................................16 Consumer Behaviour and Attitude:-..................................................................................................16 There are four main applications of consumer behavior:-.................................................................17 The most obvious is for marketing strategy— ..............................................................................17 A second application is public policy............................................................................................17 Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something........17 As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. .....................18 2.3 Customer Segments:- ..................................................................................................................18 2.4 Brand Positioning: .......................................................................................................................19 2.5 Product Preference:- ....................................................................................................................19 2.6. Recent Updates :- .......................................................................................................................20 2.7. Vaseline Debuts Skin-Whitening Facebook App In India .........................................................21 2.7 Purpose of study;-........................................................................................................................21 2.8 Delimitations: ..............................................................................................................................22 2.9. Plan: - .........................................................................................................................................223. Methodology: ....................................................................................................................................23 3.1 Method ........................................................................................................................................23 3.1.1Deductive and inductive approaches:-...................................................................................23 3.1.2Qualitative and quantitative approaches:- .............................................................................23 3.2 Type of Research .........................................................................................................................23 3.3 Population and sample ................................................................................................................24 3.4 What sampling method is used? ..................................................................................................24 3.5 Instrument/technique to collect data............................................................................................24 3.5.1 Secondary data collection:.................................................................................................... 24 3.5.2 Primary data collection:- ......................................................................................................25
  • 3.6 Advantages:-................................................................................................................................25 3.7 Disadvantages: ............................................................................................................................25 3.7 The questionnaires (cf. annexure) ...............................................................................................26 3.8 The administration of the questionnaires ...................................................................................27 3.8.1The questionnaires were administrated by one method;-......................................................27 3.9 Instrument used to analyze the empirical data ............................................................................274. The Market ........................................................................................................................................28 4.1The global market of men’s cosmetics .........................................................................................29 4.2 The men’s cosmetic market in India ;- ........................................................................................30 4.3 MARKET VALUE:- ...................................................................................................................31 4.4 MARKET SEGMENTATION for overall cosmetic product:- ...................................................31 4.5 MARKET DISTRIBUTION:-..................................................................................................... 31 4.6. The Actor, Leader, Challenger and their Strategist:- .................................................................32 4.6.1Beauty Industrial’s stakes ..........................................................................................................32 4.6.2 The market actors- ....................................................................................................................32 4.7. Strategies & targets ....................................................................................................................32 •Sales in specialized selling points (pharmacies, institutes, spas…) .............................................33 •Sales in super stores (Shoppers Stop, Big bazaar, Lifestyle) .......................................................335. MARKETING MIX:- ........................................................................................................................33 5.1 The Product:- ...............................................................................................................................33 5.2 The Promotion:- ..........................................................................................................................34 5.2.1 Communication Strategies :- .................................................................................................... 35 Print Advertising:- .........................................................................................................................35 Boutique:- VLCC and Body shop- ................................................................................................36 Wide Distribution;- HUL and P&G ..............................................................................................36 Private Label .................................................................................................................................36 5.3 THE PRICE , Different startegies and theories- .........................................................................36 5.3 The Place .....................................................................................................................................366. The Consumer Behaviour..................................................................................................................37 6.1 The Consumer behaviour: The facts ...........................................................................................37 6.2 Main tendencies...........................................................................................................................38 6.3 Man behaviour towards aestheticism:- ........................................................................................39 6.4 The social factors’ influence on men ..........................................................................................40 6.4.1•The environmental factors: Culture .........................................................................................40
  • 6.4.2 The social class.....................................................................................................................40 6.4.3 The group and family ...............................................................................................................40 6.4.4 •The socio-demographic factors ...............................................................................................40 The location:- ....................................................................................................................................41 6.6 Taboos link to masculinity and virility: The gay fear .................................................................43 6.7 The homosexuality and its purchasing power .............................................................................43 6.8 The femininity and masculinity evolution...................................................................................44 6.9 The Market segmentation: ...........................................................................................................457. The SELF-CONCEPT theories .........................................................................................................46 7.1 The Variables that shape the Consumer behaviour .....................................................................47 7.2 The individual differences:..........................................................................................................48 7.3 The Environmental factors: .........................................................................................................48 7.4 The purchasing advisor: ..............................................................................................................48 7.6 •The self-concept .........................................................................................................................49 • Different types of self concepts: ............................................................................................49 7.7 Self concept and body image.......................................................................................................50 Reflected appraisal (Feedback from others) ..................................................................................50 Own observation by Social comparison: .......................................................................................50 7.8 The Self Esteem ..........................................................................................................................50 7.9 The Self Image:- ..........................................................................................................................51 7.10 Link with Men’s Cosmetic market: ...........................................................................................52 7.11 Mechanism between market and theory ....................................................................................52 7.12 Improving the self-esteem through the self-image ....................................................................53 7.13 Cosmetics and health .................................................................................................................548. SURVEY ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................559. CONCLUSION:- ...............................................................................................................................6410. Limitations: .....................................................................................................................................6611. Bibliography:- .................................................................................................................................67 11.1 Printed sources (Books, articles and surveys) ...........................................................................67 11.2 Internet source:-.........................................................................................................................6712. Annexure .........................................................................................................................................68 1. Questionnaire:- ..............................................................................................................................68
  • 1.Introduction:-Everyone wants to be beautiful. And same is the case with the Indian Men.Like the rest of the post-colonial world, India has a strange cultural preference for fairer skin.Unlike the rest of the world, however, in India, advertising and sales of highly produced skinlightening cream flies. Why?“The Aryans, who came from central Asia, in addition to the Portuguese, the French and theBritish colonisers ruled over the country and probably contributed to this negative perceptionof dark-skin,” sociology professor T. K. Oommen at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in NewDelhi. “Indian cosmetics giant Emami launched the first skin-whitening cream for men in 2005,called “Fair and Handsome” and advertised by Bollywood superstar Shahrukh Khan. Itcame 27 years after the first cream for women.Since then a half dozen foreign brands have piled into the male market, including Garnier,L’Oreal and Nivea, which promote the seemingly magical lightening qualities of theirproducts in ubiquitous advertising.”1In recent years, men have become more conscious about their image than ever before,resulting in sales on male grooming products are expected to increase by 18 per cent globallybetween 2006 and 2011, when the market is forecast to be valued at $25 billion (Mermelstein& Fielding 2007). This change in male grooming is becoming a new trend and is expected toblossom in regions where consumers are increasingly adapting to Western lifestyles. Indianmen’s spending on specialized skin care is increasing as their drive for youthful looks andgrasp of changing beauty standards grow.Finally, the Indian male is ready for creams and potions. Male consumers are now demandingproducts that are made specifically for them. Previously, they were satisfied with usingcreams and lotions that their mothers, wives or sisters used. They didn’t really feel the needfor a separate set of products. But habits are changing rapidly, and male consumers in Indiaare becoming increasingly conscious of the need to look groomed in order to matchinternational trends, and the market for male grooming products, including skin care, isexpected to achieve significant growth over its current $185 million size2.The beauty market in India has been monopolized by women’s beauty products. From thestudy conducted by Euromonitor it is found that one third of Fair & Lovely hidden customersare males. This tempted Emami to create a new category in the cosmetic market with itslaunch ‘Fair & Handsome’. Later on many players joined the bandwagon. Spending onmen’s grooming products is expected to rise by 24% to Rs. 14.5 Billion, or $320 million , inthe next five years (Euromonitor International forecasts). The growing attention to malegrooming in India mirrors a trend in North America and Europe that was pioneered by DavidBeckham, the English soccer player (International Herald Tribune, November 16, 2006).1 http://www.styleite.com/beauty/vaseline-skin-whitening-cream visited on 17th feb 20112 Article by Priyanka Bhattacharya, Journalist Covering the Issues like Men’s Grooming and Health Care.
  • From 2000 to 2005, worldwide spending on personal care products for men rose by 13% to$29.7 billion, according to Dublin-based Research and markets. Indian men are taking theircue from actors like Shah Rukh Khan, who is “delicately handsome”, according to AbrahamKoshy, a marketing professor at the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmadabad.“Feminine beauty is being accepted as a concept of male beauty,” he said. Beautyconsciousness is found more in urban fraternity than in rural population. Society perceivesthat ‘grooming’ is a characteristic feature of females but not males.3THE INDIAN COSMETIC INDUSTRY MARKET:-The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growth over the past few years and emerged asone of the industries holding huge potential for further growth. In 2009, the cosmeticsindustry registered impressive sales of INR 356.6 Billion (US$ 7.1 Billion) despite the globaleconomic recession. The sector has mainly been driven by improving purchasing power andrising fashion consciousness of the Indian population. Moreover, the industry players havebeen spending readily on the promotional activities to increase consumer awareness.According to our new research report “Indian Cosmetic Sector Analysis (2009-2012)”, theIndian cosmetics sector is expected to witness noteworthy growth rate in the near futureowing to rising beauty concern of both men and women. The industry holds promisinggrowth prospects for both existing and new players. To support this evidence, we have doneextensive analysis of various segments of the cosmetics industry keeping in view of both theservices and products sector.The baseline for the optimistic future outlook of the Indian cosmetics industry is that thethere has been a rise in variety of products offered by the industry players. The companieshave started going for rural expansion and are offering specialized products to generaterevenues from all the corners. Improvement and strengthening of the Indian economy from2010 will also pave the way for the Indian cosmetics market over the forecast period.4This created an impulse to conduct a study on “Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer(Customer) towards Cosmetic Product”. The research was carried on the Men’s with primaryresearch. Data collected through Online Survey.Males respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire online prepared on GoogleDocuments. Respondents participated in the exercise were members of Different SocialNetworking sites and professionals sites like, Linked In and Facebook.According to an independent study by the National Hairdressers and Beauty Association(NHBA) in India, the demand for in-salon skin care treatments by men is increasing by40% year on year. “Earlier grooming for men meant shaving and a hair cut at a salon, andmaybe the [occasional] massage,” says Blossom Kochhar, president of NHBA. “But nowthey demand much more. They want a facial, manicure, pedicure, hair removal and even3 Research Paper by Jyothsna Priyadarsini, Read on 15th February 2011.4 http://www.reportlinker.com/p0119505/Indian-Cosmetic-Sector-Analysis.html#ixzz1F2n8SGEv visted on 17th February 2011
  • laser treatments to look more youthful.” In fact, seeing the demand and potential forspecialized male skin care, Pevonia Botanica’s Indian Tamaya Spa has launched specificfacials targeted at men. “We have special caviar facials and treat ments that have been madefor our male customers. This is very different from what we offer our female customers,”says Nirvaan Shroff, education manager, Pevonia Botanica India.It’s not just facials and pedicures. Indian men are also seeking laser treatments and Botox tolook young and fresh. According to a spokesperson at Clinic Dermatech, one of Delhi’sleading cosmetology centers, body hair removal, face contouring and skin smoothingtreatments via laser are the most requested treatments by men, and that four of every 10customers are men.5Nowadays, men are more conscious of their body and the need to conform to the injunctionsof youthfulness, healthiness, and thinness which make them go from “sanitarians to bodyaesthetics”. The development of fashion magazines for men reinforces this new concern ofthe men for their appearance. The explosion of the male press in general goes hand in handwith the one of consumption of beauty products for men. Thus, the men conform more andmore to certain patterns of beauty and are more sensitive to the cosmetics, like productsenable them to improve their appearance, to put it in scene, to dramatize it.62. Literature Review;-2.1 A History of Men’s Grooming : Mens makeup and skin careMen’s grooming and makeup has its origins in evolution. Mother Nature chose to endow themale species with more color and splendor. The more a male stood out from his competition,the greater his chance of attracting a mate. It is for this reason men have had, and always willhave a predisposition towards their personal grooming and use of makeup to be prominent ina competitive society.Cosmetics have been used for as long as there have been men to use them. The associationbetween men and makeup was mentioned in the Old Testament (Ezekiel 23:40), and eyeshadow was used in Egyptian burials dating back to 10,000 BC. Men’s grooming and skincare has its origins in the word "cosmetae" which was first used to describe Roman slaveswhose function it was to bathe men in perfume. Since the Egyptians, each subsequentcivilization invented unique words that referred to cosmetics and fragrance as one science.The Greeks used the word kosmein which conveys the thought - to decorate, to make-up, tocare for and to produce harmony between body and mind. Grooming and to make-up theexternal appearance to enhance ones beauty in harmony with the mind was regarded by manyin pre-Christian Greece as being the basic requirement for a deep inner feeling of happiness.5 India Skin Care, GCI September 2008 Read on 15TH February 2011.6 4Maffesoli, Au creux des apparences, pour une éthique de l’esthétique – Plomb – 16/02/2011
  • Men’s grooming and skin care first included the use of fragrant oils. As early as 10,000 BC,men were grooming themselves using scented oils and ointments to clean and soften theirskin and mask body odor. Mans use of makeup began with dyes and paints that were used tomake-up and color the skin, body and hair. At this time men’s makeup not only includedrouge for their lips and cheeks, but makeup for the nails using henna as a stain. Men’smakeup also included the use of Kohl to heavily line the eyes and eyebrows. Kohl was adark-colored powder made of crushed antimony, burnt almonds, lead, oxidized copper, ochre,ash, malachite and chrysocolla. When used by men as makeup, Kohl was applied using asmall stick as a makeup applicator. The makeup was applied to the upper and lower eyelids,painted in a line that extended to the sides of the face for an almond effect. In addition to itspurpose as men’s makeup, Kohl also reduced the suns glare, and it was believed that kohleyeliner could restore poor eyesight and reduce eye infection. Men who used Kohl as makeupkept it in a small, flat-bottomed pot with a wide, tiny rim and a flat, disk-shaped lid.From 7,000 to 4,000 BC, the fatty oils of olive and sesame were combined with fragrantplants to create the original Neolithic ointments for use in men’s grooming and men’s skincare. When the Egyptians were learning to write and make bricks in 3,000 BC, they were alsoimporting large quantities of myrrh. The earliest recorded items of Egyptian commerceincluded spices, gums, and other fragrant plants that were used in men’s make-up, grooming,and skin care products.Men’s grooming became an inherent part of Egyptian hygiene and health. Oils and creamswere used for skin care protection against the hot Egyptian sun and dry winds. Myrrh, thyme,marjoram, chamomile, lavender, lily, peppermint, rosemary, cedar, rose, aloe, olive oil,sesame oil and almond oil provided the basic ingredients of most men’s grooming ointmentsand perfumes. Man and makeup took a step forward with the use of a clay called red ochre,which men used to make-up their lips, cheeks and nails. Grinding ochre and mixing it withwater made this men’s makeup. Men’s makeup was stored in special jars that were kept inspecial makeup boxes. Women would carry their makeup boxes to parties and keep themunder their chairs, but men did not carry their makeup kits with them.History did document the jealousy one man had over another man makeup, skin care andgrooming collection. When Alexander the Great entered the tent of defeated King Dariusafter the battle of Issos, Alexander threw out the kings makeup box of priceless groomingointments and perfumes. Ironically, after Alexander had traveled extensively in Asia, he toobecame addicted to men’s grooming, makeup and aromatics. He sent plant cuttings to hisAthenian classmate in Athens from everywhere he traveled. His classmate then used thecuttings to establish a botanical garden in Athens to create skin care, makeup and groomingproducts.Men’s grooming habits including the use of men’s makeup did not fade. By about 300 BC,myrrh and frankincense from Yemen reached the Mediterranean by way of Persian traders.The trade routes swelled as the demand for roses, sweet flag, orris root, narcissus, saffron,mastic, oak moss, cinnamon, cardamom, pepper, nutmeg, ginger, aloe wood, grasses and gumresins used to make men’s grooming, skin care and makeup increased.
  • Men’s grooming and the use of men’s makeup also became common in the Middle East. Iraqimen’s makeup included the practice of painting their faces with kohl just like the Egyptianshad. Some historians believe this use of men’s makeup was to protect them from the evil eye:however, it is also believed that Iraqi men using makeup was a natural predisposition basedon the prominence of the male species in society.The original Egyptian intention of men’s skin care, men’s grooming, and men’s makeupsuffered a bastardization beyond any reasonable recovery with the Romans, who wereunabashedly hedonistic. Egyptian oils intended to be used for men’s skin care and men’sgrooming became nothing more than sexual accoutrements in Rome.Around 100 AD, the Romans took men’s grooming and men’s makeup to a higher level.Men’s makeup included the use of barley flour and butter on pimples, and sheep’s fat andblood on fingernails for polish. The Romans crowning contribution to men’s skin care wasthe practice of taking mud baths laced with crocodile excrement. Men’s grooming practicesexpanded to the frequent dying of their hair. Blond was the preferred color of the times, andthis men’s grooming habit was intended to make-up men to look young; however, thepractice was curtailed, as dyes were so caustic they had the affect of causing ones hair to fallout. By the middle of the 1st century AD, mans use of makeup was common practice. TheRomans were known to make-up their eyes with kohl, use chalk for whitening theircomplexion, and rouge for their cheeks. Men’s grooming consisted of depilatories for hairremoval and pumice for cleaning teeth. Men’s grooming practices included the use of oil-based perfumes in baths and fountains, and the application of these oils to their weapons…take that as you may!There is evidence that the Vikings also liked to wear make-up as the Arab traveler IbrahimAl-Tartushi who visited the Viking trading hub of Hedeby in 950AD wrote: "there is also anartificial make-up for the eyes, when they use it beauty never fades, on the contrary itincreases in men and women as well". What he was observing was probably the use of kohlas men’s makeupMen’s grooming and makeup was at times controversial throughout history. It was oftencriticized on religious and moral grounds. In fact, in Victorian times, men’s makeup wasconsidered the devils making, and as a result, men’s grooming and their use of makeupfaded. During the reign of Elizabeth I of England, men’s grooming and men’s makeup madea popular come back. Man’s use of makeup was prevalent and everyone was enthusiasticallyjoining in the fun. Popular men’s grooming treatments included rosemary water for the hairand sage to whiten teeth. Men’s skin care included elderflower ointment for the skin, bathingin wine, and an egg and honey mask to smooth away wrinkles. Men’s makeup includedgeranium petal rouge and lipstick to suggest health, wealth and gaiety. Pale skin became amake-up trend de jour. Unknowingly, the makeup used to whiten the skin was made withlead and arsenic, which resulted in many early deaths…some premeditated. Men’s groomingalso included the bleaching of their hair with lye, which understandably caused it to fall out.So men’s grooming began to include wigs, and men’s makeup included the use of powder.
  • Although men’s grooming remained popular, men’s skin care and the use of makeup againfaded in prominence in the late 1800’s. In 1865, Anthony Overton created a face powdercalled "High Brown" to be marketed to African Americans in the United States, but men’smakeup and fragrances could not be sold. Overton had to practice law and serve as a judge tomake ends meet.In the late 1900’s men’s grooming, men’s skin care and men’s makeup began to pick up inpopularity. With the introduction of the Metrosexual phenomenon in 2000, men beganfocusing on their grooming and the use of skin care and makeup. Mans use of makeup tomake-up their appearance is again becoming common practice in society… as it was with theEgyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans before them. The next decade will truly be a colorfulone. Men’s grooming, skin care and the use of makeup to standout has always been a part ofour history, and we look forward to documenting its continued use for the record.72.2 Indian Cosmetic Story: CIIThe Indian cosmetics and toiletries market has seen major changes both in terms of userperception and product availability over the past five years. There have been market shiftsduring this period and the past two years have seen the market take further momentum.According to figures given by the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), the total Indianbeauty and cosmetic market size currently stands at US$950 million and showing growthbetween 15–20% per annum. The overall beauty and wellness market that includes beautyservices stands at about US$2,680 million, according to CII estimates.The steady growth rate in the Indian cosmetic and beauty service market has made the Indiangovernment see it as a source of potential revenue for the country. In fact CII organized itsfirst beauty B2B event—Beauwell India 2005—in Chennai in March, which attracted foreignparticipation especially from Europe. In presenting the event, TT Ashok, chairman, CII(Southern Region), said, “As the cosmetic industry is growing so rapidly, we at CII felt theneed for an industry event to showcase the opportunities in the beauty and wellness business,and present a business platform for suppliers as well as players in the beauty servicebusiness.”8The increasing market size is the direct result of the changing socio-economic status of theIndian consumers, especially women. Higher paying jobs and increasing awareness of theWestern world and beauty trends there have served to change the tastes and customs of themiddle class and higher strata of the society, with the result that a woman from such socialstrata now is more conscious of her appearance and is willing to spend extra cash onenhancing it further. Today increasing numbers of women, especially from the middle-classpopulation, have more disposable income leading to a change in cosmetic and skin careproduct consumption. This actually has fuelled a growth in certain product categories in themarket that hardly were experiencing it earlier. Two such categories are color cosmetics andsun care products that have shown growth rates of 46% and 13% respectively over the pasttwo years, according to Euromonitor International.7 http://www.4voo.com/education/ed_history.htm visited on 17th February 20118 India’s Cosmetic Market Ready for Big Leap By: Priyanka Bhattacharya
  • Indian Cosmetic Industry in General:- The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growthover the past few years and emerged as one of the industries holding huge potential forfurther growth. In 2009, the cosmetics industry registered impressive sales of INR 356.6Billion (US$ 7.1 Billion) despite the global economic recession. The sector has mainly beendriven by improving purchasing power and rising fashion consciousness of the Indianpopulation. Moreover, the industry players have been spending readily on the promotionalactivities to increase consumer awareness.According to new research report Indian Cosmetic Sector Analysis (2009-2012), the Indiancosmetics sector is expected to witness noteworthy growth rate in the near future owing torising beauty concern of both men and women. The industry holds promising growthprospects for both existing and new players. To support this evidence, we have doneextensive analysis of various segments of the cosmetics industry keeping in view of both theservices and products sector.9Defining Cosmetics:- But how to define cosmetics? Cosmetics are substances used to enhancethe beauty of the human body. It implies psychologically that you are compensating forsomething you do not have. Cosmetics include products such as shampoos and soaps as wellas make-up, hair cares and perfumes.Men’s cosmetics are comprised of skin care, shaving, hair care, and general groomingproducts. We do not, of course, mean lipstick and eyeliner, but beauty products specificallydesigned for men. Everything, in a sense, to keep you clean, healthy and looking your bestaround the clock. Once upon a time, men subtly bought these items at the women’s makeupcounter in the local department store or pharmacy and looked for unscented versions of theproducts made for women. Manufacturers now offer specifically designed men’s cosmetics --marketed to them -- but offering transformative results. A man’s skin is often much tougherand thicker than a woman’s due to his testosterone and pH level. As a result, he needsstronger lotions and cleansers to reach deeper into his pores. It is true that hair skin tonics, asthey were called, have always been made with "manly" men in mind, but most of these hadalcohol as a main ingredient, which was very harsh. Today, we know better -- and look bettertoo.10Consumer Behaviour and Attitude:-The term “customer” refers to someone who regularly purchases from a particular store ofcompany. Thus a person who shops at Big Bazaar is viewed as customer for these firms. Theterm “consumer” more generally refers to anyone engaging in any of the activities used in ourdefinition of consumer behaviour. Therefore a customer is defined in terms of specific firmwhile a consumer is not.11One "official" definition of consumer behavior is "The study of individuals, groups, ororganizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products,services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on9 http://www.reportlinker.com/p0119505/Indian-Cosmetic-Sector-Analysis.pdf Read on 16th Feb at 1500hr10 http://www.askmen.com/fashion/keywords/mens-cosmetics.html visited on 16th Feb 2011 at 1400hr.11 Consumer Behaviour Manual
  • the consumer and society." Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it bringsup some useful points.Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g., friends influencewhat kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions asto which products the firm should use).Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how theyare purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this mayinfluence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption.Since many environmental problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sentinto sewage systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills) this is also anarea of interest. Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible products.The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressivemarketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have seriousrepercussions for the national health and economy.There are four main applications of consumer behavior:-The most obvious is for marketing strategy—i.e., for making better marketing campaigns. Forexample, by understanding that consumers are more receptive to food advertising when theyare hungry, we learn to schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. Byunderstanding that new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and onlyspread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn that (1)companies that introduce new products must be well financed so that they can stay afloatuntil their products become a commercial success and (2) it is important to please initialcustomers, since they will in turn influence many subsequent customers’ brand choices.A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Accutane, a near miracle cure for acne,was introduced. Unfortunately, Accutane resulted in severe birth defects if taken by pregnantwomen. Although physicians were instructed to warn their female patients of this, a numberstill became pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers’ attention, the Federal DrugAdministration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic pictures of deformedbabies be shown on the medicine containers.Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something.Marty Fishbein, a marketing professor, went on sabbatical to work for the Centers for DiseaseControl trying to reduce the incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use.The best solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop. This,however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the practice of sharingneedles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be stopped. As a result, using knowledge ofconsumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbein created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needlesin bleach before sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.
  • As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. Commonsense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64 liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, youshould pay less per ounce than if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, youoften pay a size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case, knowingthis fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels to determine if you arereally getting a bargain.12Attitude:- Social Psychologist unfortunately, do not agree on the precise definition of anattitude. In fact, there are more than 100 different definition of the concept. However fourdefinitions are more commonly accepted than others. One conception is that an attitude ishow positive or negative, favorable or unfavorable, or pro or con a person feels towards anobject. A second definition represents the thoughts of Allport, who views attitudes as“learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorableor unfavorable way”. A third definition of attitude popularized by cognitively oriented socialpsychologist is: “an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, andcognitive process with respect to some aspect of Individual world. Fourth definition, this lastdefinition has considerable appeal, because it has been shown that consumer perceives aproduct (object) as having many attributes and they form beliefs about each of theseattributes. An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals degree of like or dislikefor an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, orevent—this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted orambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive andnegative attitudes toward the item in question.Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behavior, and cognition){van den Berg et al., 2006; Eagly & Chaiken, 1998}. The affective response is an emotionalresponse that expresses an individuals degree of preference for an entity. The behavioralintention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitiveresponse is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individuals beliefs aboutthe object.2.3 Customer Segments:-According to a CII report, US$0.68 per capita is spent for cosmetics, which might be lowerthan some other countries, but this indicates a growing awareness among consumers. “Thereare two major factors that are swaying the buying decision among women here. Firstobviously is the television and media exposure they have today. The other not so obvious oneis the corporate dressing culture, which slowly is evolving in the Indian market. Due to setdress code in MNCs, a female employee is conscious about picking the right makeup colorsfor the office. Today she has the money and the inclination to spend it on separate sets ofproducts, especially color cosmetics,” said Abdul Rahim, managing director of the Chennai-based cosmetic distribution company GR Fragrances Pvt Ltd, which markets the Diana of12 th http://www.consumerpsychologist.com visited on 19 February 2011 at 1600hrs
  • London range of cosmetics. According to a source at L’Oréal India, women in the age groupof 30 and above are getting very selective about the type of products they choose. “As olderwomen have more cash and are more conscious of their appearance, especially skin, they arewilling to spend more on separate sets of creams and lotions that target problem areas. Thesewomen also are more open to buying higher-priced products,” he says. In addition, men aswell as the beauty professionals and beauty services segment are emerging as big buyers ofcosmetics and skin care here. Pradeep Verma, managing director of Derma Color, which sellsKryolan in India, said “The market is ready for professional makeup products since theIndian professional makeup artists are very well-trained and are aware of the products andprefer to use international brands. Earlier they were sourcing their products from internationalmarkets such as Dubai or Bangkok or Singapore. But now players such as Kryolan and MAChave direct presence, so the professional makeup artists are picking up from us.”2.4 Brand Positioning:With increasing awareness among customers, it has become very important for the cosmeticand skin care companies here to develop the right brand positioning and create the rightproduct and brand awareness.Pricing of the product and the nature of product usage are the two criteria that define brandpositioning. For instance products falling under the price range of Rs 45 to Rs 200 are in themass-market category. The middle market price can range from Rs 200 up to Rs 800. In thehigh-end market, pricing can range from Rs 800 to about Rs 5000. Finally there is thepremium range of products where the pricing can touch up to Rs 35,000.“Today it is important for big brands like us to define different brand positioning to retain theright market share. For instance, at L’Oréal we push Maybelline and Synergie ranges to theyounger generation and also in the lower income group mass market. While L’Oréal range ofcosmetic and skin care products are for the middle and higher-middle class women and Vichyis for high-end users,” explains the source at L’Oréal India. Brands such as Lakme and ColorBar are being pushed as mass market products and focus on younger women and women withlower buying power. Then there is Revlon, Chambor, Diana of London, Bourjois and Pupathat make the mid-range while Clarins, Shiseido, MAC, Christian Dior, Nina Ricci, YSL andLancôme make the high end. La Prairie touches the premium end of the market. BesidesL’Oréal, Unilever, through its Indian arm Hindustan Lever, Procter & Gamble, and mostpremium and high-end brands prefer to come to the country through distributors such asBaccarose, Euro Traditions, Cosmos Brands, MKP and GR Fragrance.2.5 Product Preference:- India presents a big opportunity for global cosmetic vendors selling color cosmetics andspecialized skin care products in the market. Today these product segments are showingimpressive growth rates.
  • In skin care, the most popular are anti-wrinkle, anti-blemish and skin-whitening productsfollowed by sun care and bathing products. However, while presenting a market potential,other specialized products such as anticellulite lotions or nail creams and nail care products,while presenting a market potential, need more customer education before they can grow.Meanwhile, hair color and styling products also have logged in impressive revenue forplayers such as L’Oréal and Schwarzkopf in the market. In fact, HLL recently launched haircare products through its brand Lakme for the mass market in India.In color cosmetics, lipsticks and nail colors still account for nearly 65% of the marketfollowed by eye makeup, especially eyeliners and Kohl pencils. In the fragrance market,while most popular brands are available here, the deodorant versions are showing betteracceptance than the EDPs or the EDTs mainly due to the pricing factor.2.6. Recent Updates :-Article Heading “Now, a store for mens luxury cosmetics, grooming needs”To cash in on the $44 million cosmetics, skin and hair care market in India, Men and boyS, adivision of Arus Retail, founded by Amit Bagaria of Asipac Group, has recently opened anexclusive store catering to men’s grooming needs. The first store, opened at the MantriSquare mall in Bangalore in May this year, offers a wide range of men’s shaving products,regular and special cosmetics, skin care products, hair care and styling products, deodorants,colognes, fragrances and the world’s first range of cosmetics specially made for teenageskin.13 The range of products sold at Men and boys includes face washes, cleansers andscrubs, facial clay, lava and mineral mud masks, purifying and energizing masks, facialmoisturisers, exfoliation scrubs, detoxifying exfoliating masks, anti-breakout gels, pore-reducing serums, pre-shave oils and guards, hot towel pre-shave treatment, electric pre-shaveoptimisers, shaving creams, foams and lathers, after-shave creams, soothers and moisturisersand after-shave balm, among others.13 India Retailing Bureau- http://www.indiaretailing.com/news.aspx?topic=1&Id=4834
  • 2.7. Vaseline Debuts Skin-Whitening Facebook App In India WhiteningThe image below is the landing page for the new Vaseline Facebook app that allows users to lightentheir skin in profile pictures. What’s worse is that it was launched to advertise a product that does thesame thing in real life. Aimed at Indian men, Vaseline’s new skin whitening cream Be Prepared skin-whiteningmakes it possible for users to achieve “can get the perfection we vouched for.” It gets rid of fivedifferent types of dark spots. It has B3 and triple sunscreens to prevent light from activating one’smelanin. In under one minute a day, you can transform your real face the way only Photoshop can —and the guy in the ad, Bollywood star Shahid Kapur, seems to love it.2.7 Purpose of study;-The behaviour of the men is not easy to understand and is actually the core of this work. The actuallyfocus will be on the relationship that men have with self self-appearance and cosmetics or beauty arancecare product. Some said that men were not ready to use cosmetic products whereas others productsconsidered the mentalities ready to face a boom in this market. Is it relevant to talk about one Ismentality? Or is it rather better to define different targets with different needs an wants? andAnd therefore different marketing strategies? ifferentTo answer those questions, this study will focus on the customer behaviour and more theprecisely, on developing the self self-concept theories: self-esteem and self-image. Self concept is image.the totality of the individual thoughts and feelings having reference to himself14. The self ndividual referenceesteem is part of self-concept: It is in connexion with the need for an individual to be concept: therecognized by himself and by the others. It is an element about the ability for a person toassert himself, to look at him, to assume his mistakes and his regrets, to love himself and thus rtto be self-confident15. And finally, the self self-image is the mental picture someone has about ntal14 Morris Rosenberg, Conceiving the Self, New York, Basic Books, 1979 nceiving15 Christopher J. Mruk, Self-esteem Research, Theory, and Practice, third edition, 2006, p 8 esteem
  • himself, based on experiences or on the internalization of others’ judgments16. After havingdefined those theories, the next part will wonder about the mechanisms that link the customerand the self-esteem. As a matter of fact, the self esteem is directly influenced by the use ofcosmetics: the purpose will be to identify in which extent self esteem influence the menbehaviour.2.8 Delimitations:The project’s limitations are firstly that the product’s offer will not be analyzed, because thestudy will rather focus on the demand since the topic is more in connexion with the customerbehaviour. The market share of different cosmetic companies will not be discussed. Then, allthe different kinds of products will not be studied. Indeed, it is considered that perfume is notrepresentative enough; those products are already common in the male gender. Therefore thefocus will be on the cosmetics that have had a late development such as the moisturizingcreams the scrubs etc. The inquiry is mainly concerning the Indian market. The culturaldimension is quite obvious in the inquiry; the consumption of cosmetics products is probablynot the same in every age category, according to cultural dimensions. However it has beendecided to consider this dimension, firstly because it would help us know the age group ofcosmetic user and behaviour. This can help the Cosmetic Companies in developing theproduct catering to this age category/group.2.9. Plan: -The first part of this study is a market and product analysis: the history of this market, thedifferent actors and the main trends in the marketing mix. Then, the second part is about themale customer’s behaviour by considering the evolution of the mentalities, the taboos stillpresent in the today’s society. This part will be finished by presenting the different types ofcosmetics’ customers. This customer behaviour will be then analyzed through the self-esteemtheory and finally, the theoretical data will be compared with the empirical ones: the survey.Those parts are considered to be the most interesting since so far, no studies have treated thelink between the self concept’s theories and the use of cosmetics for the male gender.16 Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A., Kirker, W.S. (1977) Self-Reference and the Encoding of Personal Information, Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, 35, 677-688
  • 3. Methodology:3.1 Method3.1.1Deductive and inductive approaches:- A research can be deductive or inductive. The inductive inquiry means that theories aredeveloped from specific observations. A deductive inquiry is a model in which theories aredeveloped on the basis of general principles.As general principles were used to develop the first part of the study and for the theory, theadopted approach was a deductive one. Nevertheless, specific observations were also usedthanks to the questionnaire: as a consequence, both of the approaches have been adopted.3.1.2Qualitative and quantitative approaches:-A quantitative research is a method based on statistic data’s gathering via questionnaires orsurveys, in order to know the general public tendency.17A qualitative research is the second research method, which evaluates information aboutopinions and values, at the contrary of statistic data.18To answer to the problem, the choice was to collect information about the global market in afirst part, concerning the market’s history and its facts and its actors, and about the marketingmix. The second part is about the consumer behaviour and then the theory about the self-concept is developed. To check the theory, a questionnaire has been made, to see what theglobal tendencies are.As these statistic data have been used, the approach was quantitative. It was relevant to use aconcrete survey to illustrate and to compare with the theory. Also, it is interesting to haveproper and unique results, rather than use only already done surveys.3.2 Type of ResearchExploratory research allows determining the best research design, data collection method andselection of subjects. It is often in connexion with secondary data collection or qualitativeapproaches. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making bythemselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation.19Descriptive research describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenonbeing studied. It is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations.20 Theadopted approach for this survey is a descriptive one, because it is concerning thephenomenon of the men’s cosmetics consumption. Data and characteristics have been used,from secondary and primary data collection method. The aim of this study is to describe andanalyse them in order to better understand this phenomenon.17 http://www.google.fr/search?hl=fr&rlz=1T4SKPB_frSE213SE213&defl=fr&q=define:Recherche+quantitative&sa=X&oi=glossary_definition&ct=title, Visited on 16th February 201118 http://www.google.fr/search?hl=fr&rlz=1T4SKPB_frSE213SE213&q=define%3ARecherche+qualitative&meta, Visited on 16th February201119 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploratory_research, visited on 17th February 201120 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descriptive_research, visited on 17th February 2011
  • 3.3 Population and samplePopulation: Obviously, as the survey is about understanding the relationship between menand the cosmetics world, the choice of focusing the questionnaires on men, and moreespecially on young ones was relevant.At the beginning of the research, it has been decided to interview Indian men: 2 targets werechosen for these questionnaires: People aged between below 20, 20-30, 30-45 and above45years old were targeted. Generally Students were the major respondent. They would havebeen picked up at different social networking site like Linked In and Facebook. for example.It was quite sure that they used cosmetics whatever they were. But, then, it seemed that thebrakes to the consumption of cosmetics for men more concerned the former generation, thatis to say men aged more than 45 years old. It had been chosen to question persons of eachgroup (100 in total) in the city of Noida, NIILM Centre For Management Studies Campus.However, as the research was going on, it has been discovered that this market is developingsince few years and is a quite Indian tendency. So, it could be interesting and quite relevant tofocus the survey on a mixed population of men from different states. Moreover, young menbetween 20 and 35 years old tend to be the most receptive to the market. So, the chosenpopulation was young men between 20 and 30years old.3.4 What sampling method is used?To sample is to use a subset of the population in order to represent the whole population.Probability sampling or random sampling is a technique in which the probability of gettingany particular sample may be calculated. But, for the work, it has been decided to choose anon profitability sampling. Performing non profitability sampling is considerably lessexpensive than doing probability sampling, and the result have a limited value. Thegeneralizations obtained from a non probability sample must be filtered through one’sknowledge of the topic being studied. The convenience sampling is one of non probabilitysampling, and is the one that was chosen for the survey. The members of the population arechosen based on their relative ease of access. Here, the sample was Facebok.com friends andLinkedIn friends. So, by combining both trends (men from different age category like below20, 20-30, 30-45 and above 45years old. Being in NIILM Centre For Management Studies fora PGDM program was very useful. Thus, students form NIILM, from different batch and, Ithas been decided to take 100 respondent in total in order to have a good representation.3.5 Instrument/technique to collect data3.5.1 Secondary data collection: This concerns all data that have already been found bysomeone else, for a different purpose from you.2121 http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1u3/hm1u3fra.htm, visited on 19th February 2011
  • Secondary data were used in the first and second part, concerning the global market of men’scosmetics, and also when developing the theory about self-concept.To collect the secondary data, many sources were used. Firstly, some books of marketing andpsychology were taken at the library in order to talk about self-concept theory, self-esteemand about the consumer behaviour in General. Also, many really interesting articles from theInternet were found, about for instance the men’s cosmetics market in facts and figures, theoffer and the supply, the link between cosmetics and self-concept. Finally, the universitydatabase has been used to find some information about social construction of masculinity3.5.2 Primary data collection:- Primary research (also called field research) involves thecollection of data that does not already exist, which is research to collect original data.Primary Research is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into theissue by collecting secondary data. This can be through numerous forms, includingquestionnaires, direct observation and telephone interviews amongst others. This informationmay be collected in things like questionnaires and interviews.22 Here, you collect datayourself using methods as questionnaires or interviews. The advantage is that the collecteddata is unique, so it gives all its importance to the work.23Primary data is used in the third part. The technique chosen is a survey realized with the helpof questionnaires (instrument). The purpose of the survey is to check if the theory isconforming to the research’s results (reality).3.6 Advantages:-1. Addresses specific research issues as the researcher controls the search design to fit theirneeds Great control, not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specificsubjects, it also enables the researcher to have a higher control over how the information iscollected.2. Taking this into account, the researcher can decide on such requirements as size of project,time frame and location of research.3. Efficient spending for information, primary data collection focus on issues specific to theresearcher, improving the chances that the research funds are spent efficiently.4. Proprietary information, primary data collected by the researcher is their own.3.7 Disadvantages:1. Compared to secondary research, primary data may be very expensive in preparing andcarrying out the research.2. In order to be done properly, primary data collection requires the development andexecution of a research plan. It is longer to undertake primary research than to acquiresecondary data.22 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_research visited on 20th February 201123 http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1u3/hm1u3fra.htm, visited on 19th February 2011
  • 3. Some research projects, while potentially offering information that could prove quitevaluable, may not be within the reach of a researcher.4. May be very expensive because many people need to be confronted.5. By the time the research is complete it may be out of date.6. People may have to be employed or avoid their primary duties for the duration of theresearch.7. People may not reply if emails or letters are used. 243.7 The questionnaires (cf. annexure)First of all, it should be précised that the questionnaire could have been more relevant if focusonly on the “new men’s cosmetic product” rather than including the basics one. Indeed, weincluded products such as shaving foam, shower gel, deodorant that should not have beenincluded for a consistent concern. Moreover, when talking about shower gel or deodorant, weare obviously convinced that most of men use it, but we were more thinking about productsspecifically made for men.A questionnaire about a score (twenty two) questions was built. It is a funnel-shapedquestionnaire that is to say that it begins from the more general information such as the ageand the nationality and then, asks questions about the consumptions habits of the respondentssuch as what kind of products they bought, the brand that they like, the budget, the placewhere they bought them…. And finally, it finishes by questions about consumer behaviour:Why do they use or not cosmetic? Do they feel more self-confident or guilty by buying andusing cosmetics? If they fear to be consider as a homosexual by using cosmetics? At thebeginning, the questionnaires had much more questions like: What cosmetics means for you?Or, questions about the purchase frequency… But, it was chosen to put them away because itseemed that it was necessary to ask direct questions, easy to answer… And moreover, theimportant purpose was to link it with the theory which is much more about the consumerbehaviour and the self-esteem. Another problem happened when building the questionnaireconcerned the people who would use cosmetics and the one who would not. In fact, they hadto be separated, but at the same time, some questions were relevant for both. And after somediscussions, it was finally found how to organize the questionnaire for both targets.The types of questions used were for the most “closed” questions but with a multiple choicewhich enable to guide the respondents to answers relevant for the link with the theory. All ofthe information found in the secondary data enables to build the question and the possibleanswers. Just a few opened questions were used for the age, the nationality and the budget.24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_research visited On 19th February 2011
  • Here is the table showing the category of information and the specific information asked inthe questionnaire:-Information Category General information, Consumptions habits, Consumer behaviourDemographics AgeConsumption Habit Use or not cosmetics, Mens or womens products, Kind of products, Products typical for men, How long the use, The brands, The place to buy them, The budget, The purchasing advisor, The decision-making process through the product’s characteristicsConsumer Behaviour (Psychographic) The reason for using or not cosmetics, Guiltiness by buying cosmetics Self- confidence, Self-image, Men or women area, Virility, Homosexuality3.8 The administration of the questionnairesBefore everything, it was important to pre-test the questionnaire with ten or so persons inorder to see if the analysis was relevant or not, and in this case, if it will be important tomodify some questions. The pre-test was relevant. Often, people were surprised by the absentof perfumes in the answers. But, it was a thinking choice because perfumes for men, even ifthey are cosmetics, exist since a long time. And the survey is more about cosmetics such asskin cares…that appear few years ago.3.8.1The questionnaires were administrated by one method;- By Using e-mail and by uploadingthe questionnaire on social networking site like Facebook, LinkedIn, And respondents fromsocial networking sites were asked to participate in the survey. The questionnaires wereuploaded on the Google, and Google doc link have been sent to the friends through mail andlink was uploaded on the Facebook.com and Linked In websites. With all of these means,more than one hundred in total questionnaires were easily collected.3.9 Instrument used to analyze the empirical dataTo analyze data, the Google document features were used. This software is specialized indata’s treatment and analysis and realizes automatically graphs and results. But the analysisof the results of the questionnaires will be developing in the last part of the work.
  • 4. The MarketThe cosmetic market for men- The market of men’s cosmetic is relatively a new market. So,it is interesting to study the beginning, when this market was considered as a niche market,until the rapid development nowadays. It seems to be also interesting to try to forecast in amid-term the evolution of this market and understand why the growth will probably continuethese following years.Previously men cosmetic product was for Niche market- what is niche market? The definitionof a niche market is that the product interests just a few people. The target is represented by alimited segment and, in order for the market to be profitable, only one or two companies canbe positioned on this specialized segment25In the market of hygiene and beauty for men, and especially in the cosmetics, the offer hasbeen ignored by the cosmetics brand for a long time. In fact, until the end of the 1990s,beauty products for men were almost non-existent on the market. They did not have a specialspace the stores and the men strictly used products in a utilitarian aspect. This market hasinterested just a few brands because it was considered as a niche. Only the group L’Oréal hadthe courage to launch itself in this segment in 1985 with Biotherm Homme. This brand isconsidered like a pioneer in the men’s’ cosmetics. In fact, Biotherm was almost alone formore than 15 years, and it is the first one which dares to proclaim that men also need to takecare of themselves, to clean their skin, combining the pleasure and the wellness by usingcreams, lotions, even anti-wrinkle creams. In the 90s, Nickel, an exclusive brand for men,launched an offensive by creating masculine beauty institutes. Then, in 1996, it launched itsown line for men only. In fact, thanks to the succeed of its institutes, the brand noticed an realcapacity and opportunity in this market. This new brand bound to men only knew how toenter in this market, thanks to its concept composed by different offers: one on the products,and the other one on the performance of services. But, the real revolution occurred in 2001with the arrival of Vichy for men and Clarins in 2002. A lot of brands begin to be seriouslyinterested in this growing segment and real competition appears. A new potential is detectedby the big cosmetologist firms. The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growth overthe past few years and emerged as one of the industries holding huge potential for furthergrowth. In 2009, the cosmetics industry registered impressive sales of INR 356.6 Billion(US$ 7.1 Billion) despite the global economic recession.Images showing how cosmetics products are positioned themselves in their marketingcommunication;-25 Kotler et Dubois (2004), Marketing Management, p.304
  • 4.1The global market of men’s cosmetics26Over the last 15 years, the cosmetics market has grown on average by +4.5% a yearexcluding currency fluctuations, with annual growth rates ranging from around +3% to+5.5%. It is a market which has demonstrated both its ability to achieve sustainable growthand its capacity for resilience in unfavourable economic conditions. In 2008, the worldwidecosmetics market totaled €110.3 billion. The cosmetics market is divided into five mainbusiness segments: skincare, haircare, make-up, fragrances and toiletries. These segments arecomplementary and thus able to meet consumers’ needs in all their diversity. In the differentcategories, a good many of the products are intended for everyday hygiene, comfort andbeauty purposes. Shampoos, cleansing lotions and moisturizing creams are products whichmeet everyday needs: 92% of French people, for example, use a shampoo three times a weekon average. Other products, such as hair colorants, anti-dandruff shampoos, sun protectionproducts and anti-ageing skincare lines are also features of everyday life. At the meetingpoint between body and mind, cosmetic products furthermore play a part in the fundamental26 http://www.reveal-thegame.com/docs/The_cosmetics_market.pdf Visited on 20 february 2011 at 1800 Hrs
  • need for beauty, enabling all individuals to express their personalities to the full, gain self-confidence open up to others and achieve self-fulfillment.Worldwide Cosmetics Market top ten (2008) includes United States, Japan, Brazil, China,Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Russia and Spain.In the space of 10 years, the worldwide cosmetics market Top 10 has been substantiallychanged by the growth of the emerging markets, and particularly the BRIMC27 countries.China, eighth in 1998, became the fourth largest market in 2008. Brazil is now in third place.Lastly, Russia is now one of the world’s top ten markets.4.2 The men’s cosmetic market in India ;-The Indian make-up market generated total revenues of $141.6 million in 2009, representinga compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.9% for the period spanning 2005-2009. Lipmake-up sales proved the most lucrative for the Indian make-up market in 2009,generating total revenues of $72.5 million, equivalent to 51.2% of the markets overall value.The performance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 7% forthe five-year period 2009-2014, which is expected to lead the market to a value of $198.7million by the end of 2014.28Market analysis : The Indian make-up market witnessed a double digit growth between 2005and 2009, as a result of strong sales growth in the eye make-up, face make-up, lip make-upand nail make-up categories. However, the growth rate in this market is expected todecelerate in the forthcoming five years.The Indian make-up market generated total revenues of $141.6 million in 2009, representinga compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.9% for the period spanning 2005-2009. Incomparison, the Chinese and Japanese markets grew with CAGRs of 9.1% and 1.7%respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $1.1 billion and $4.3billion in 2009. Market consumption volumes increased with a CAGR of 7.5% between2005-2009, to reach a total of 75.6 million units in 2009. The markets volume isexpected to rise to 92.9 million units by the end of 2014, representing a CAGR of 4.2%for the 2009-2014 period. Lip make-up sales proved the most lucrative for the Indianmake-up market in 2009, generating total revenues of $72.5 million, equivalent to 51.2%of the markets overall value. In comparison, sales of nail make-up generated revenues of$24.9 million in 2009, equating to 17.6% of the markets aggregate revenues. Theperformance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 7% for thefive-year period 2009-2014, which is expected to lead the market to a value of $198.7 millionby the end of 2014. Comparatively, the Chinese and Japanese markets will grow with CAGRs27 BRIMC..ie..Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, China28 Data Monitor report 2011
  • of 6.6% and 1.3% respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $1.5billion and $4.6 billion in 2014.294.3 MARKET VALUE:-Table 1: India make-up market value: $ million, 2005–09YEAR $ million INR millions Euro millions % Growth2005 87 4,258.6 62.72006 100.5 4,909.0 72.3 15.32007 115.1 5,620.3 82.7 14.52008 129.3 6,316.2 93.0 12.42009 141.6 6,918.0 101.8 9.5CAGR for 2005-1009 12.9%Source: Data Monitor4.4 MARKET SEGMENTATION for overall cosmetic product:- Lip make-up is the largest segment of the make-up market in India, accounting for 51.2% ofthe markets total value. The nail make-up segment accounts for a further 17.6% of themarket.Table 2: India make-up market segmentation:% share, by value, 2009(e)Category % shareLip make-up 51.2Nail make-up 17.6Face make-up 17.3Eye make-up 13.9Total 100Source; Data Monitor4.5 MARKET DISTRIBUTION:-Specialist Retailers form the leading distribution channel in the Indian make-up market,accounting for a 63% share of the total markets value. Department Stores (incl. Duty-FreeShops) accounts for a further 21.8% of the market.Table 3: India make-up market distribution: % share, by value, 2009(e)Channel % ShareSpecialist Retailers 63Department Stores (incl. Duty-Free Shops) 21.8Independent Retailers 12.3Others 2.9Total 100Source : Data Monitor29 Data Monitor May 2010 report on Indian Makeup.
  • 4.6. The Actor, Leader, Challenger and their Strategist:-4.6.1Beauty Industrial’s stakesIn a market which is developing faster and faster, the actors are faced to the following stakes:- Making a specific cosmetic offer: Male skin has different characteristics from the ones offemale skin (thickness, rhythm of ageing, sebum secretion)- Investing in R&D to guarantee the product, because men are looking for simple careproducts, quick to use, with immediate efficiency and convincing results- Getting an image of men beauty’ specialist with a wide and deep offer, most often afterhaving initialized the market with shaving products- Organizing a proper distribution to the male target, knowing two major factors:• Men beauty is still under taboos, what means an anonymous and discreet distributionexcept for perfumes• Woman still has a strong prescription power and realize most of the purchases4.6.2 The market actors- Men cosmetics’ market is still in a structuring phase. Nevertheless,3 kinds of actors are appearing:Cosmetics industry leaders: These actors are the most powerful in the market. They all haveimportant financial and organisational ways to impose their products in the male market.They pursue a roll-over strategy close to the one used since a long time in the female market.The leaders in Indian market includes, HUL, P&G, Emami, Godrej, Loreal etcCare universe actors: Some brands benefit of a strong credibility thanks to the care market.This market has several advantages in the distribution network - pharmacies, institutes, spas -thanks to their support. Actually, these actors take advantage of the know-how and thecredibility which characterize care and pharmaceutical world, and could get a determinantrank in the market.Independent cosmetics’ makers;- They strongly stimulate the market by adapting theiroffer to men, but their diffusion stay confidential. To become strong, this group needsdistributors to give visibility to beauty for men through specific spaces or special concepts.4.7. Strategies & targetsThe steady growth rate in the Indian cosmetic and beauty service market has made the Indiangovernment it as a source of potential revenue for the country. In fact CII organized its firstbeauty B2B event—Beauwell India 2005—in Chennai in March, which attracted foreignparticipation especially from Europe. In presenting the event, TT Ashok, chairman, CII(Southern Region), said, “As the cosmetic industry is growing so rapidly, we at CII felt the
  • need for an industry event to showcase the opportunities in the beauty and wellness business,and present a business platform for suppliers as well as players in the beauty servicebusiness.”The increasing market size is the direct result of the changing socio-economic status of theIndian consumers, especially women. Higher paying jobs and increasing awareness of theWestern world and beauty trends there have served to change the tastes and customs of themiddle class and higher strata of the society, with the result that a woman from such socialstrata now is more conscious of her appearance and is willing to spend extra cash onenhancing it further. Today increasing numbers of women, especially from the middle-classpopulation, have more disposable income leading to a change in cosmetic and skin careproduct consumption. This actually has fuelled a growth in certain product categories in themarket that hardly were experiencing it earlier. Two such categories are color cosmetics andsun care products that have shown growth rates of 46% and 13% respectively over the pasttwo years, according to Euromonitor International.Differentiation by the distribution - The brand positioning depends on the chosen distributionway.•Sales in specialized selling points (pharmacies, institutes, spas…)Selling in pharmacies, institutes or spas means a selective market target. For example, VLCCand The Body Shop: the products’ prices are medium-high. The objective of this strategy is togive the consumer the message that these types of products are provided with medical care, toemphasize on quality and safety.•Sales in super stores (Shoppers Stop, Big bazaar, Lifestyle)When selling in a super store, the market target is the most wide as possible: it concerns thewhole clientele. The strategy becomes by the same way a mass-marketing strategy, withaligned prices. For instance, Cosmetic section in Shoppers Stop.5. MARKETING MIX:-5.1 The Product:-Definition of the product: “a product is anything that is offered to a market for attention,acquisition, use or consumption and that might satisfy a want or need. It includes physicalobject, services, persons, places, organization and ideas”30The men’s products cannot be the same as those offers to women. Everything should berather different: the packaging, the container, the product’s texture, smell and aspect and thevocabulary (lexical field) have to be reviewed. Indeed, their skins are different: men have athicker skin, tougher and so it is greasier. Thick skin and excesses of sebum are not good: thepores quickly will dilate, to clog itself: buttons and black spots appear. The skin of the males30 Kotler, Amstrong, Sounders and Wong, Principles of Marketing
  • ages differently from the women’s one: the wrinkles appear later, but will be deeper31.Besides, they shave. The razor’s blade attacks the skin and dries it that makes it moresensitive and wrinkled. The men prefer products less scented than the ranges traditionallyintended for the women. As they refuse to spend too much time in the bathroom the creamsmust have light textures with fast penetration.5.2 The Promotion:-Advertising and marketing specialists are aiming at young, urban Indian women, whoare earning their own money and are potential customers for a host of products,including name-brand clothes, cosmetics and new cars.Promotion campaigns of the cosmetic products marketer trying to match up with newtrends and technology.The Vaseline Cream for men deveolped a application on facebook and contineous marketingby HUL during the world cup through internet is a one of best examples. Cosmetic makerhave a big bunch of Celebrities who are doing endorsment for the cosmetic products. ShahRukh Khan for Fair and Handsome, Shahid Kapoor for Vasleine, Hrithik Roshan forChinthol are few examples of celebrity endorshment for mens cosmetic product.Promotion campaign by Loreal during the Aicha release, was a perfect exapmle of howmarketer are using Movies as a tool for marketing.Billbaords and OOH is widely use for the promotion of cosmetic products.31 Wikipedia
  • 32 Garnier case Study:-Garnier has been very active and upfront in adopting new promotional techniques to marketits products. The company follows a very popular technique to advertise and market itsproducts that is the Viral Marketing policy. Viral marketing is a term coined to define theproductive ways a marketing message is made available. And corporate are using the mediumto circulate brands and brand messages. The idea has caught on like a virus, as efficiently asInformation Technology has entered households and businesses. Firms are now structuringtheir businesses in a way that allows them to grow like a virus and lock out the existing brickand mortar competitors through innovative pricing and exploitation of competitors’distribution channels. The beauty of this marketing technique is that none of it requires anymarketing. Customers, who have caught the virus, do the selling. Viral marketing describesany strategy that encourages individuals to pass on a marketing message to others, creatingthe potential for exponential growth in the message’s exposure and influence. Like viruses,such strategies take advantage of rapid multiplication to explode the message to thousands, tomillions.Off the Internet, viral marketing has been referred to as “word-of-mouth”, “creating a buzz”,“leveraging the media” and even “network marketing.” It’s a deceptively simple concept:Create a message, send it via e-mail, and make it so compelling that recipients want to pass iton to everyone in their address book. Advertisers are hot on the tactic, and the idea of puttingconsumers to work spreading the word about a brand or service seems sound.5.2.1 Communication Strategies :-Communication for men is different following the market target. To attract the best thetarget, a communication campaign is necessary. Two kinds of communication can bedistinguished: The media communication and the non-media communication. The first one isconcerning all types of communication using one of the 6 medias which are the Internet,cinema, TV, press, billboards and radio. All the other types of communications, such aspublic relations, personal sellings, direct response marketing and sales promotion are non-media communication.Media promotion includes Press release, Television, Radio, and The Internet. Where as nonmedia promotions includes sponsoring, sales promotion.Some wide spred practice for marketing of cosmetic includes;-Print Advertising:-Where the marketer Increase the status of beauty products by having models and famousactresses using products. In magazines, they try to get products used on the cover model andin featured articles. Fashion magazines, teen magazines and magazines for women typicallydescribe the makeup and beauty supplies used to create the models appearance. Whencustomers want to replicate the look, they will look for your products.32 http://www.mbaknol.com/management-case-studies/case-study-loreals-promotional-strategies-in-indian-cosmetics-market-for-garnier read on 23 February 2011
  • Boutique:- VLCC and Body shop- Marketing the beauty products as prestige items bylimiting sales to boutiques or limited retailers. Train the sales associates in these locations onthe high-quality ingredients used in your products, special techniques and how to select thebest product to enhance a customers appearance. Offer demonstrations, makeovers andbeauty training sessions for customers. Making sure that the ambiance of the store enhancesthe prestige image of products through a clean, upbeat atmosphere. With a prestige, boutique-marketing strategy, you can command a premium price for many beauty products.Wide Distribution;- HUL and P&GBy going for high-volume sales through wide distribution of beauty products. They sell aroutine product that is not suitable for prestige pricing, by try to obtain as much market shareas possible. Placing the products in mass-market retailers, in convenience locations and instores where competition has not targeted.Its being stated that if you offer a quality beauty product at a highly competitive price and itis readily available, you will increase customer loyalty and repeat sales.Private LabelExpand your sales by offering private-label options to stores, salons, spas and other beautyretailers. These locations can increase their profile by offering your products with theirbranding on the label, and you can increase sales of your existing product. Consider makingsmall formula changes such as the fragrance to help sell your private-label services tomultiple beauty vendors.5.3 THE PRICE , Different startegies and theories-The selling price-fixing is defined after the study of various data about the market, thedemand and the offer. More precisely, the price which the firm chooses to impose depends onthe cost of the product, on the positioning choice, on the evaluation of the competition or ofthe vision of quality and the value perceived by the price. The price gives an element ofdifferentiation to the customer; moreover it influences its choice and the image which heguesses of the product. Indeed “the price-setting must be set in relation with the value offeredto the customer and perceived by him”33. Besides the relationship exiting between the priceand the customer, the price takes part in the decision of the volume of the sales, of the rate ofthe profit and its global volume.In the market of the cosmetic for the men, there are various price ranges. It often depends onthe channel of distribution.5.3 The PlaceDistribution channels can generally be divided into three parts in the men’s cosmeticmarket. • Super store: Men are looking for low price and discretion when they buy a product in a super store. Of course the line is not very wide and the products are not very specific but it is enough for a certain kind of product. Besides, brands such as l’Oréal are33 Kotler et Dubois (2004), Marketing Management, p.505
  • launching products more and more specific as anti-shining gel or anti-wrinkles to reach all the targets via super store. • Perfumery and drugstore: Those distribution channels point at a more specific target since crossing over a perfumery is a sign that you are seeking for skin cares, for something that you could not find in a superstore. It is still rather difficult for men to go in those specialized shops because they mean that they feel no shame about their consumption (the next part will talk about the consumer behaviour). • Kirana Store. Organise retailing is just a 4% percent of the retailing. Unorganised retailing is the major constituent of retailing which constitute 95% of the retailing industry. For success of any FMCG product in india is necessary that that product should be available at the kirana store.6. The Consumer BehaviourIt is often said that men often have apprehension about using cosmetics. But as regard to thefigures, men are not that shy and the market is booming. Still it is known there are manybrakes in the market, notably because of the mentalities and the mores. The core of this parton the theory will be to define and analyse the customer behaviour. Is it possible to talk aboutone behaviour? Should we rather talk about several behaviour considering the differentmentalities? What do a man feel when he uses cosmetics? What are the impacts on his imageand on the way he sees himself?First, the research will focus on the facts with a study of the consumer behaviour, then will bedeveloped the self image and the self esteem theories that is a great source of influence whentalking about men cosmetics. Then, the existing link between the market and the theories willbe developed.6.1 The Consumer behaviour: The factsChanges in the consumer behaviourThis first part is mainly oriented on the consumer and in particular his behaviour and itsenvironment. Since, it is necessary to begin this study by specifying the exact definition ofthe consuming term. The consumer can be defined as being “individual or household thatpurchase and use goods and services generated within the economy”34.Talking about the consumer without quoting the consumer behaviour is not possible. Thisdiscipline deals primarily with the process of decision-making of the individuals as regardsconsumption while holding account of the social and economic environment in itsinteractions with the psychological attributes of these one35.Defining the consumer behaviour as “the study of the buying units and theexchangeprocesses involved in acquiring, consuming and disposing of goods, services,34 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer -visited on 23th February 201135 http://ladwein.free.fr/index2.html - visited on 23 February 2011
  • experiences and ideas”36 is relevant for the understanding of the research. The study of theconsumer behaviour must thus call upon various multidisciplinaryapproaches, disciplinescoming from various horizons such as the economy or from fields concerned with socialsciences such as psychology or sociology. Understanding those mechanisms provide a largenumber of benefits for the managers in their decision making. Analysing the consumerbehaviour will help to understand more about the psychological and sociological factors thatinfluence the customer.The economy studies the rational behaviour of the individual, for instance how it manages hisfinances and how it maximizes his satisfaction and profits. While social sciences lean moreparticularly on the emotional aspect of the individual, by analyzing the consumer per se, andthe consumer in his social environment confronted with the internal and external forces.Since each one of these sciences brings important information on the behaviour of theindividuals, they will be studied jointly. The beauty care is before all an appearance universein which beauty is the keyword. Appearance plays a major part in the professional, personaland social universe. The imagereleased by the individual is the essential element retainedwithin the framework of its relations with the others. The beauty is a reference value and issynonymous with success, fortune and love. The social integration passes mainly by the selfimage: the care taken to its body takes part in the self-confidence.The evolutions of the ways of life influenced the male behaviours. The tendencies that themen had to cross though the time will help to understand why men use nowadays cosmeticproducts.6.2 Main tendenciesSince the end of the sixties appears the will of the Western society to integrate the modernsociety. A quality of life is then wished by a majority of people who are looking to newgoods which simplify the life. With the court of the following decades, this movementbecomes extensive: “refusal of the authority, social justice, major revision of the relationsbetween the sexes, sexual freedom and secularization of the company” are the many eventswhich marked the spirits of the time.These elements had an impact on the consumer society, amongst other things on theconsumption of the men and the women. Virility is well anchored in mentalities; the manknows his place within the society. The statute of the women starts to become extensive. Thefeminist movement of the years 1970 challenged the role of the woman within the modernsociety, and it also enable the male to think about its identity and virility.The years 1980 are characterized by a return to more individualistic concerns. Narcissism,power and excess are at the base of consumption. The man feels strong and wants to enjoy allthe pleasures of the life; beauty, power and force are some characteristic of the man values atthis time. The consumer of the years 1990 doubts; the confidence gains during the formeryears collapses. It begins what can be called an identity crisis. Homosexuality, androgyny,36 Consumer Behavior, Fourth Edition, John C. Mowen p.4 – 23th February 2011
  • metrosexuality (term defines further), paternity, the man doubt of his virility, and affirms hisfemale side more easily.Since the events of the eleventh of September 2001, the consumer turned to other priorities,itseeks for safety and for simple values like the house, the family, the friends and thetraditions. After the shock the society has stood, the consumer arrives finally to a harmonyperiod. Its desires are directed: health, ecology, ethics, quality of life, economy… He seeksfor harmony; harmony with his body and his social background.6.3 Man behaviour towards aestheticism:- Women are for a long time aware that thetransmission of their physical image is important in the current society. Their body and theirimage are in perpetual change in order to renovatethemselves, to be thinner, taller…. “Toappear” and “being attractive” are a form of social integration. Indeed form, health and youthbecame at the present time a need in the relations as well professional and personal. The manarrives timidly in the world of the cosmetics, a world that put their virility in danger. He isnot yet in the mores to use beauty products. This is why an obsession surrounds the man whofears that its entourage does learn that he use creams. Among the men who affirm usingbeauty products, still one on two do not dare to cross the course of the purchase and are thususing their partners’ creams. The interest the men have for cosmetics comes from anawakening of the utility to take care of their body and image. The beauty care is above all asymbolic universe system, transmitting values like: form, health, beauty, youth and socialstatus. The competition in the professional world and the performance in the love conquestencourage an improvement of the appearance to express its personality through its body.The concepts of pleasure and wellbeing are two major elements that are important in thisnewmarket. The relation of the man to the aesthetic care can also be seen as a simple relationtohis appearance. It wants to feel good about him, to be in harmony and to reach a mental andphysical equilibrium. He wants to be proud of his body, this is why he uses products toembellish himself.It is also necessary to speak about the evolution of the behaviour of the consumers. Thestarting point of the change concerning these tendencies in the Western companies is the dateof May 1968 when certain values were hustled: “Research of personal fulfilment, expression,creativity, feminism and free sexuality” appeared.These new principles brought to deform the relation with the body which becomes a kind ofdraft that should be corrected. The representation of the required image of the man does notstop evolving, men passed through the strong and virile man, in the years 1980. Nowadays,the image of the “fop”, who takes care of him, follows the fashion, and remains a man inspite of his female and sensitive side, takes the top. Besides, it will be seen later that this newtrend is no longer valuable.The contemporary man admits the importance to keep an attractive body. His relation tobeauty is, as said before, always evolving. He wants to get rid of his superfluous kilos, to stopthe fall of his hair, and to reduce his wrinkles. This is a daily fight to be and stay attractive.Seduction is an essential weapon as much in the emotional life as in the relations with others:
  • friends, collaborators or employers. It is certain that the seduction passes by various physicalcompetences, as the charm, elegance or appearance. It also includes personal competences,like humour or the scholarship. But the first element perceived by others is the clay, whichimplies a need to take care of oneself to improve the image seen by the others.6.4 The social factors’ influence on menThe analysis of the consumer behaviour goes with the total analysis of its environment and itsvariables. Indeed, the man cannot be studied without talking about the social factorsinfluencing him. Before talking about the personal variables it is necessary to analyzetheenvironmental and socio-demographic factors.6.4.1•The environmental factors: CultureThe function of the culture is primarily to make it possible the individual to feel integrated,protected, to develop a membership feeling with a group thanks to its comprehension ofthemoral, mental universe and symbolic system in which he lives37.The culture governs in companies with standards and values transmitted by the formersgenerations, but those are in perpetual evolutions. These changes of inter generational valuesmade it possible for the man living in large cities to have less complexes toward their relationwith the body.6.4.2 The social classWithin any culture social classes appear whose values represent the specificity of each one.The social classes are generally delimited by the economic level, the professionalenvironment and the degree of schooling. This division of the population in differentsocialclasses implies various life styles. The social status is mainly differentiated by theconsumption (goods for the house, food but also clothes and fashion in general). Indeed,tostay competitive, the men must take care of their appearance, because to keep a goodstatute, it is necessary to be attractive.6.4.3 The group and familyIt should not be forgotten that the man is permanently surrounded by the group or the family.A human being cannot be regarded as one person, he is in relation to others. In other words,the influence of the group (and especially the reference group) and the family is importantinthe day to day behaviour. A man will buy cosmetics more easily if his entourage givesvalue to them and perceive those product as interesting nevertheless, if the group does notaccept them, the use of cosmetic product can become a threat to the group belonging6.4.4 •The socio-demographic factors • The age :- The age remains an important factor in the way of consumption, especially in the beauty market. The younger generation is more open to cosmetics than the former one.37 http://www.techno-science.net/?onglet=glossaire&definition=5826 –23 February 2011
  • Seniors represent a market that needs to be sensitized, because they have an importantpurchasing power and for the majority they seek a better quality of physical and mental life.As can be seen on the following graph, the young generation is more sensitive and lessashamed than the seniors. Young adults like new experiences and are more openmindedtoward the cosmetic industry.The demographic trends have an impact on the consumer: the population tends to get olderbut she does not want to loose the illusion of her youth. People want to take care of theirskinand to make it more attractive. After the women, the men become conscious of keepingfit their “health capital”.Besides the ageing of the population in developed countries, people work harder and longerand are more easily exposed to unemployment, situation changes, stress, vexations. Whetherit be in private life or in professional life, people have to be ready to bounce back and torespond. In such social configuration, it is important to take care of ourselves and to be ableto make a break in order to saddle with his self.The economic factor is also importance. Certain correlations exist between the employment,the income, the professional statute, the skill and the spare time. These interactions can givesome explanations about the way of consumption. Indeed, the beauty products are a pleasurepurchase, it is an illogical purchase which leads to the self realization and the selfactualization that Maslow describes in his Hierarchy of Needs38. The consumer should haveenough time and a sufficient income to purchase and use those products.The location:- The influence of the location is here at the rural and urban level. The locationchanges the consumer buying behaviour and habits. Someone living in a big city does nothave the same needs as someone living in a farm. Besides, the new trends appear most of thetime in big cities and spread all around after. Lots of new phenomenon appears in the citiesamong which the metrosexual is predomonent. 6.539The apparition of the metrosexual: Metrosexual is a neologism derived frommetropolitan and heterosexual coined in 1994 describing a man (especially one living in apost-industrial, capitalist culture) who displays behavior stereotypically associated withhomosexual men (such as a strong concern for his appearance), although he is nothomosexual. Debate surrounds the terms use as a theoretical signifier of sex deconstructionand its associations with consumerism. The term originated in an article by Mark Simpsonpublished on November 15, 1994, in The Independent. Simpson wrote:Metrosexual man, the single young man with a high disposable income, living or working inthe city (because that’s where all the best shops are), is perhaps the most promising consumermarket of the decade. In the Eighties he was only to be found inside fashion magazines such38 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow - Visited on 23 February 201139 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosexual-Visited on 23 February 2011
  • as GQ, in television advertisements for Levis jeans or in gay bars. In the Nineties, he’severywhere and he’s going shopping.However, it was not until the early 2000s that the term caught on, greatly increasing inpopularity following a series of articles and reports hyping this purportedly newphenomenon. In 2002, Salon.com published an article by Simpson, "Meet the metrosexual",which identified David Beckham as the metrosexual poster boy. The advertising agency EuroRCSG Worldwide adopted the term shortly thereafter for a marketing study. Sydneys dailybroadsheet, The Sydney Morning Herald, ran a major feature in March 2003 titled "The Riseof the Metrosexual" (also syndicated in its sister paper The Age) which borrowed heavilyfrom the Salon.com piece. A couple of months later, the New York Times Sunday Stylessection ran a story, "Metrosexuals Come Out." The term and its connotations continued toroll steadily into more news outlets around the world.Former Metro Radio presenter Mitch Murray claims that he invented the term in the 1980s.At that time, he says, the word had a very different connotation, as it was simply a play onwords involving "Metro Radio" and heterosexuals. Murray would send a weekly tape to thelocal radio station in Newcastle upon Tyne. "Very early during the process", he createdstation identification segments, one of which he claims included the phrase "We are themetrosexuals." It is unclear whether the segment was actually broadcast, and there is nodocumentary evidence of his claims. Also, when the word first became popular, varioussources incorrectly attributed its origin to trendspotter Marian Salzman, but by Salzmansown admission, Simpsons 2002 Salon.com article was the original source for her usage ofthe term.Though it did represent a complex and gradual change in the shopping and self-presentationhabits of both men and women, the idea of metrosexuality was often distilled in the mediadown to a few men -- David Beckham, Sam Romano, and Brad Pitt were frequentlymentioned -- and a short checklist of vanities, like skin care products, scented candles andcostly, colorful dress shirts and pricey designer jeans. It was this image of the metrosexual --that of a straight young man who got pedicures and facials, practiced aromatherapy and spentfreely on clothes -- that contributed to a backlash against the term from men who merelywanted to feel free to take more care with their appearance than had been the norm in the1990s, when companies abandoned dress codes, Dockers khakis became a popular brand, andXL, or extra-large, became the one size that fit all.A 60 Minutes story on 1960s-70s pro footballer Joe Namath suggested he was "perhaps,Americas first metrosexual" after filming his most famous ad sporting Beautymist pantyhose.Simpson has called Joe Namath "Americas abandoned metrosexual prototype", leaving thefield open for later Brit metro imports such as Beckham.Etymologically, metrosexual comes from the Greek meter = mother and the Latin sexus =sex." Many other terms in popular usage, however, feature both Latin and Greek roots,among them "homosexual" and "heterosexual."
  • 6.6 Taboos link to masculinity and virility: The gay fearThe man is full of contradiction: he wants to take care of his appearance, but at the sametime, he does not want to use products with a gay connotation to save his virility. Thestereotypes on certain products call into question the masculinity of the man. According toElisabeth Badinter, the definition of the man is that to be a man means not to be homosexual,not to be female, not flexible, dependent, not to be subjected; not to be effeminate in hisphysical appearance and his manners, not to have a sexual intercourse or too close with othermen; not to be impotent with the women40.This definition of the masculinity is called into question with the use of beauty products bythe men. A real taboo was established in the heterosexual community. Even if the thingsseem to evolve, the consumption of cosmetics by men is still labelled “gay”; this is associatedto a female41.Certain men do not dare to buy products by fear of the society’s judgement which would callhis virility in question. But the companies understood well that it was necessary to have adiscrete distribution to make men fell less guilty.- As mentioned before, certain terms and vocabulary are “forbidden” like “make-up” becauseit belongs to the female world.- The product image should not point out the products for woman, the packaging is thusadapted expressly to male consumption- Certain centres of beauty were created to accommodate men exclusivelyMasculinity has evolved a lot since the years 1970. In spite of these changes, some taboosstill remain. The heterosexuals fear that one might confuse them with the homosexuals, whowere the first cosmetics consumers. Nevertheless, men are more and more aware of theimportanceof appearance in the social life. This awareness will perhaps enable them to breakthe taboos which surround the world of the cosmetics industry.6.7 The homosexuality and its purchasing powerThe gay community often belongs, in the urban environments, to a group of consumerswhospend a lot of money. This community belongs more and more to a high purchasingpower category. They do not have a family to take care of that means they spend their moneymostly for their own consumption. Therefore, this segment is attractive for a large number ofbrands, which see in this community a target with a “high potential”. The core problem is thatthis target is still difficult to reach because they might be upset to see a “gay marketing”industry. The companies are always looking for new targets and they find in the “gay”community asegment not yet exploited. Fashion, health and attractiveness are very importantfor this target; thus, the reason why they are attracted by the cosmetic industry withoutcomplexes is easily understandable. The difficulty for the companies is to reach both the40 http://www.grep-mp.org Visited on 24th February 201141 http://www.psychologies.com Visited on 24th February 2011
  • “gay” community and the heterosexual man who is afraid of being assimilated to ahomosexual.6.8 The femininity and masculinity evolutionThe femininity evolution:- The feminist revolution that occurs in the year 1970 hasredefined the role of women. The women are no longer housewives, they are presenteverywhere: they are working, studying, training… all those things that seems normal for thenew generation but that were not like that fifty years before. They knew how to imposethemselves in fields so far occupied by men. Besides, let’s note that femininity is not anexclusive women word. Both women and men have a femininity side especially when talkingabout the cosmetic products.The masculinity evolution, the new ma:- The woman revolution has thus disrupted theman statute and calls his virility into question. The fact that women accessed to the powerreduce the men domination, reducing at the same times his masculinity and strong image. Themachismo is somehow a weapon against the women social ascension. Nowadays, the gapbetween masculinity and femininity seems to reduce tin favour of a share of the values. Thenew man changes: he implies himself in the children education, the domestic tasks or in thedaily purchases, activities formerly reserved to the women. The male identity is thus in fullupheaval: homosexual, metrosexual, androgynous, transsexuals bring a new wave in the malestereotypes.The social construction of masculinity: According to Frank Mort (1988), the evolution inyoung men’s culture results in an increased interest in the way that men look. He declaresthat young men are being targeted by the advertising industry, and are becoming moreconscious than before of how they look: Advertising industry sold to young men images thatbreak with traditional icons of masculinity. They are encouraged to look at themselves – andother men – as objects of consumer desire. (Mort, 1988)42. Mort argues that this change issignificant, and needs a reconsideration of the meaning of “masculinity”. Mort indicates thatchanges in the acceptability of the visual display of the male body have incited men to lookdifferently at themselves and other men, and to be in general more conscious of the ways thattheir bodies and dress look. Nevertheless, he notes that this new awareness is not necessarilypositive for women. The “new man” may be more conscious of the way he looks, but thisdoes not necessarily change the traditional codes of masculinity. The “new man” image mayjust be another variant of the old, macho, image of the man going it alone without/abovewomen. Rowena Chapman (1988) retook this idea. She indicates that the “new man”,nurturant and narcissist, was largely due to the style culture of the early 1980s, promoted bythe style press. The culture legitimised men’s concern with their bodies and the consumerismnecessary to adopt the role. She argues that the “new man” is not a major deviation orexpiration from the traditional, John Wayne-style macho man, but is simply an adaptation ofthe role which is better appropriate to survival in a culture that now rejects obvious machismowhich is largely the result of feminism’s power.42 Elizabeth Jagger - Marketing the self, buying an other: dating in a post modern, consumer society -Department of Social Sciences, Caledonian University, Cowcaddens rd., Glasgow
  • The conclusion is that the “new man” represents not so much a rebellion but an adaptation inmasculinity. Men change, but only to hang on to power, not to giving it up. The combinationof feminism and social changes may have produced a fragmentation in male identity byquestioning its suppositions, but the effect of the emergence of the “new man” has been toreinforce the existing power structure, by producing a hybrid masculinity which is better ableand more appropriate to retain control436.9 The Market segmentation:•The homosexual: The homosexual dared to venture as a pioneer in the world of the hygiene-beauty. It was the first target of the cosmetics’ companies, and the gay man is more attractedby the newfashions. The advantage of this segment is that it did not have to face the imagereleased by the cosmetics; in matter of fact, he does not care about not being virile ormasculine. As saidbefore, the purchasing power of this target interests more and more thecompanies since he does not have children and so he spend money more easily for his ownpleasure. This target is crucial because according to the different analysis, the rate ofhomosexual in the world population is around 6 and 9%.44•The metrosexual: Since the appearance of the men cosmetics, the heterosexual did not dareto use them, afraid of being assimilated to a homosexual. This is why the apparition of themetrosexual has been good for the market. As said before, its favourite pastime turns aroundhis body: depilation, fitness, beauty cream. It is nowadays one of the most important targetsin the market.The ubersexual is also included in this segment.•The bachelor: The man leaves his parents more and more late and settles in couple moretardily. Moreover, the education level and the life standard increase, which implies higherincomes for this section of the population. Besides, an unmarried man has more reasons to beattractive and handsome than a married one. He becomes then a potential target for thehygiene-beauty market.•The young: The young man goes easily through the prejudice founded by the society. Thenew generation is the man of tomorrow. That is why young people are an attractive target forthe marketer: they seem to be open minded, they accept cosmetics and they are the newactors on the market.•The women: It is often heard that men use their wife of mother’s cosmetics. But anotherimportant aspect is that women have both a purchasing advisor role and a buyer one! In fact,they also buy a lot of cosmetics for their husband, children or friends.•The seniors: With the increase of old people number, the marketers should not pass besidethis part of the population. People aged more than fifty belong to a segment of populationwith an important purchasing power. The need to remain in good health, to preserve an active43 Grogan, Sarah. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and ChildrenFlorence, KY, USA: Routledge, 1999 p. 77, 78, 7944 http://www.polytechnique.fr/eleves/binets/xy/article.php3?id_article=26 Visited on 24th February 2011
  • way of life and to improve its physical appearance to stay young, became the principalconcerns of the seniors. A study undertaken by Ipsos in 2001 in France45, Spain, Germany,Italy and England, shows that a man on two fears the ageing of his skin and that 70% of themtake care of it to maintain its aspect young. Although it is commonly allowed that thewrinkles are a sign of maturity, virility and charm, an excess of wrinkles would imply gettingcloser to oldness.7. The SELF-CONCEPT theories“People have a need to behave consistently with their self concept, this perception ofthemselves forms part of the basis for the personality. Such self consistent behaviour helps aperson to maintain his or her self esteem and gives the person predictability in interactionswith others”.46Before starting to talk about the theories than influence the consumer behaviour in themarket, it is important to sum up some of the main factors that influence the customerbehaviour. In fact, he is influences by many things among which the environment, theindividual differences etc. This whole part is inspirited by the chapter 4 – Consumer decisionprocess - of Engel, Blackwell, Miniard, Consumer behaviour, eighth edition.45 Remy Oudghiri – Ipsos Observatory Insight Director - http://www.ipsos.fr/CanalIpsos/articles/1881.asp read on 24thFebruary 201146 Consumer Behavior, Fourth Edition, John C. Mowen p.249
  • Purchasing Advisor (Friends, reference group, Parents, female friends, etc) Environmental factors: -Individual differences: Culture and sub-culture - consumer resources, Social class - Personal knowledge, attitude, influence- Family,Motivation,Personality, education- Situation- Value, lifestyle Family- Laws and regulations Consumer BehaviourOther theories- Maslow Marketer: - Firm, Non need theory, Viral profit organization, Marketing, The self Government agencies concept Stimuli : Marketer dominated 7.1 The Variables that shape the Consumer behaviour
  • The aim of this scheme is to show how complex the understanding of the customer behaviouris. In fact, this is not a one way mechanism, it is much more complicated than that. Althoughthis is not the core of the research, it is important to explain some of those factors.7.2 The individual differences:-Consumer resources: each person brings three resources into every decision makingsituation: time, money and information reception. There is always one question in thecustomer mind: “is the value, the benefit offered by the product is higher than the money andtime sacrifice the purchase of this product or service will involve?”-Motivation and involvement: those two words would deserve a whole dissertation. Let’s justsay that needs and motivation affect all phases of the decision process.-Knowledge is the information stored in memory. In this case, information about the product,the brand, the distribution channels, the competition… The knowledge access is nowadayseasier than before thanks notably to the Internet. It means the firms cannot lie to the customerand honesty is a often an added value.-Attitudes: the behaviour is strongly influenced by the attitudes toward a brand or a product.An attitude can be either positive or negative and plays a role on future choices.-Personality, values and lifestyles: individuals differ in many ways. Each of us has his ownvalues, beliefs, preferred behaviours…7.3 The Environmental factors:-Culture: it refers to the values, ideas, artefacts and other meaningful symbols that helppeople to communicate, interpret and evaluate a member of society.-Social class: they are division within society composed by individuals sharing the samesimilar values, interest and behaviours. They share therefore similar way of consumption.-Personal influence: our behaviour is affected by those we closely associate. A large numberof people conform with the norms and expectations provided by others.-Situation: according to the circumstances and situations, our consumption is different; forinstance, we do not buy the same things if we are in holidays and if we just got dismissed-Family: this is often the first consumption decision making unit; conflicts and cooperationoccur which make of the family a very influential factor.-Laws and regulation: according to the laws and regulations set by the government, theconsumption is different.7.4 The purchasing advisor:This person influence you behaviour because he has a strong influence on you. It can be thepharmacist who gives you a medicine rather than another, it can be an opinion leader…it canbe your parents, female friends.
  • 7.5 Other theories:Many sociologists tried to analyse and explain the consumer behaviour through differenttheories: Maslow and his hierarchy of needs (cf. figure 10) and the self-concept theorieswhich will be developed later.7.6 •The self-conceptThe self concept can be defined as “the totality of the individual thoughts and feelings havingreference to himself as an object47”. The self concept include physical, psychological andsocial attribute which can be influenced by the individuals attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas.Because people have a need to behave consistently with their self concept, this perception ofthemselves forms part of the bases for the personality. Such self-consistent behaviour helps aperson to maintain her or his self esteem.A clear and famous definition of the self-concept is given by Purkey in “An Overview ofSelf-Concept Theory for Counsellors”48 • Self-concept is the thinking aspect of self and generally refers to "the totality of a complex, organized, and dynamic system of learned beliefs, attitudes and opinions that each person holds to be true about his or her personal existence" (Purkey, 1988). • The self concept is learned, organized and dynamic: According to Purkey, three things can be said about the self-concept: • The self concept is learned: we are not born with a self-concept, it is not instinctive. It mean that it is shape and reshape through the life experiences; experiences with ourselves and with other people. A common sentence when talking about this idea is to say that self-concept is a “social product”.-The self concept is organized: “self-concept has a generally stable quality that ischaracterized by orderliness and harmony”49. According to this idea, if a person changes hisself-concept easily all the time, it can lead to an inconsistent and dependable personality.The self concept is dynamic: we already said that the self-concept enables a person to viewsher or himself, the others, the world but it also helps a person to direct her or his actions andbeing consistent in life. The fact it is dynamic also involves that it is a continuous activesystem which is permanently shapes through the experiences.• Different types of self concepts:- Actual self: how a person actually perceives himself or herself- Ideal self: how a person would like to perceives himself or herself- Social self: how a person thinks others perceives him or her- Ideal social self: how a person would like other to perceives him or her- Expected self: an image of self somewhere between the actual and ideal selves47 Morris Rosenberg, Conceiving the Self, New York: Basic Books48 Purkey, W. (1988). An Overview of Self-Concept Theory for Counselorshttp://www.ericdigests.org/pre9211/self.htm visited on 24th february 201149 Purkey, W. (1988). An Overview of Self-Concept Theory for Counselors - http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9211/self.htm – 24th February 2011
  • - Situational self: a person self concept that includes the impact of personal possessionon self image- Possible selves: what a person would like to become, could become or is afraid ofbecoming507.7 Self concept and body imageRecent studies have demonstrated that peoples self-concept and body image are influencedby social interaction through two processes: “reflected appraisal” and social comparison.Reflected appraisal (Feedback from others)This process refers to a theory which goes back to the turn of the century. It is the process inwhich we see ourselves as others see us, or as we think they do, using a sort of psychological“radar” to find out perceived reactions. “Perceived” and not “suggested” because, accordingto some research, if a person reads of others’ opinion, she will be conditioned by self-evaluation. And it may be not necessarily exact. The research also demonstrates that thecondition, to which this perception of external appraisal shapes our judgment of ourselves, isthe value and the importance to us of the people providing it. The reactions of "significantothers," people whose opinions make a difference to us are particularly influential. For youngpeople, parents, brothers or sisters are the most important influences. For students, friends arethe most significant others. Among first-year university students, parents, friends andteachers are important influences.Own observation by Social comparison: People compare themselves to determine how attractive they are. In social comparison,people evaluate themselves in relation to others, with points awarded for similarities andpoints forfeited for differences. This judgment is based on standards set by the popularculture. In many societies, physical attractiveness is defined to a significant extent by theshape and size of the body.7.8 The Self EsteemThe term “self-esteem” is one of the first concepts in psychology. It appeared in 1890,studied by an American psychologist and philosopher William James. Nowadays, it is thethird most frequently studied theme in psychology literature: as of 2003 over 25,000 articles,chapters, and books referred to the topic.51Defining self-esteem is not that easy. Everyone knows what is it because it is a humanphenomenon. However, it is hard to put that understanding into precise words. That is whythere are many definitions of self-esteem. Many psychologists have studied self-esteem.Wells and Marwell (1976) for example attempted to organize definitions of self-esteem onthe basis of 2 psychological processes: evaluation (which emphasizes the role of cognition)and affect (which prioritizes the role of feelings) as they pertain to self-esteem. “Self-50 John C. Mowen - Consumer Behavior, Fourth Edition table7-5, p.25051 th http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-esteem, Read on 24 February 2011
  • evaluation generally involves more mechanistic, causal descriptions, while self-affectiontends to elicit more “humanistic” conceptualizations of behaviour.”Still following this point of view, the result is a typology of definitions which consists of fourways of defining self-esteem.Firstly, the self-esteem can be simply characterize by a certain attitude, because this one,when held toward a given object, can involve positive or negative cognitive, emotional, andbehavioral reactions.A second definition focuses on the idea of discrepancy, especially the one between the selfthat one wishes to be (the “ideal one”), and the self that one currently sees oneself as being(the “real” or “perceived” self). That means that the closer these two precepts are, the higherthe individual’s self-esteem suffers.A third way to define self-esteem is based on the psychological responses a person holdstoward himself or herself, rather than attitudes alone. These responses are usually describedas feeling-based or affective in nature, such as positive versus negative or accepting versusrejecting.The final definition is to say that self-esteem is understood as a function or component ofpersonality. Here, self-esteem is seen as a part of self-system.527.9 The Self Image:-The self image is the mental picture someone has about himself. This image, quite resistant tochanges, is based on experiences or on the internalization of others’ judgments. The selfimage include thus the own vision of a person weight, intelligence, masculinity, femininity,attractiveness… Those items include the answers to such questions as: Am I skinny? Am Iattractive? Am I a good person? Am I strong? Am I masculine? Am I likable?...Self-image can be simply defined by the answer to this question: What do you believe peoplethink about?In social and cognitive psychologies, the technical term for self-image is self-schema. Aschema is a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. Self-schemas provideinformation and influence the manner of how we think and remember. For instance, researchdemonstrates that information which refers to the self is preferentially encoded and recalledin memory tests. This phenomenon is known as "Self-Referential Encoding" (Rogers et al.1977).For an individual, the formation of a healthy self-image can be challenging above all whenfamily, peers, community, or general society issues very negative evaluations of a person thathappen to be inexact. The effects of that on a person can be hard: he or she may learn selfhatred (the fact to dislike yourself).It is important to notice that certain information about an individual is not directly availableto others, and that information can be very appropriate to the formation of an accurate andwell functioning self-image. For instance, only the person may know if some of his or heracts were malicious or good. Only individuals know whether in their internal experience theyare male or female or, perhaps, something else. An accumulation of invalid criticisms that a52 Christopher J. Mruk, Self-esteem Research, Theory, and Practice, third edition, 2006, pp 10-11
  • person collected during the childhood can lead to a poor self-image and a damaged view ofhimself. Children are particularly vulnerable to accept false negative judgments fromauthority.53Each of us has a "self-image," a perception of how we believe we look to others. People whoare happy with their self-image are more likely to be self-confident, effective in work andsocial situations, and comfortable in their relationships. Those who are dissatisfied tend to beself-conscious, inhibited, and less effective in activities. Cosmetics encourage and promote astrong, positive self-image. Even a small change on the outside can create an extraordinarychange on the inside, allowing an individual’s self confidence to flourish.547.10 Link with Men’s Cosmetic market:This part is the last one of the theory and it is also one of the most important since it will belinked with the market. The core question of this part will be to define and analyse the bondsbetween the men’s cosmetics and the self-concept theories. The customer behaviour is verycomplex and the work from now will be focused on both the self esteem and the self image.Are those concepts brakes or opportunity for the market?As it has been said before, people always behave with their self. Obviously, this is the samewhen talking about cosmetics. It is important to notice that the market is subject to severalissues concerning the consumer behaviour: the appearance of new targets, the fact that virilityis call into question by the use of cosmetics, the fear of being assimilated to a homosexual…On the other hand, it was also noticed that the consumption of cosmetic was facilitate by thefact men were aware of the “skin’s power”.In this part, an easy link can firstly be described between the theory and the men’s cosmetics.Then the self esteem will be analyzed through the self image. In a third time, the influence ofcosmetic on health will be developed7.11 Mechanism between market and theoryAs a matter of fact, the use of cosmetic increases the self-image. Since self image can bedefine as the mental picture someone has about himself, it is easy to understand that the useof cosmetic aim to improve this image. Basically, the image will improve both on a physicaland a psychological point of view. Physical because by using cosmetic, the individual willhave a softer and better looking skin and psychological since the cosmetic user will feel moreself confident due to his appearance.Then comes the external factors: the others. Indeed, as it was said before, it will be lying tosay that someone is using cosmetics only him/her. The self image is depending on the wayothers are looking at you and the way they consider you. The cosmetics are likely to improvethis look people have on you. In any case, there is no way the use of cosmetic can has a badeffect on the self-image.For instance, this statement will be illustrated with a situation that happened to each young53 Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A., Kirker, W.S. (1977) Self-Reference and the Encoding of Personal Information,Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 677-688.54 http://www.plastic-surgery.gr/en/38/Psychological_aspects_of_Plastic_Surgery.html - 25th February 2011
  • person one day or another. By using cosmetics, an individual can normally get rid of hispimples. Those pimples which can become a nightmare and have a bad influence on the selfimage, especially for young people if he is surrounded by people who no longer have acneproblems! Cosmetics can, in this case, a great assistance.This mechanism is nevertheless not the same with the self esteem. Indeed, there are twopossibilities: either the use of cosmetics increases or decreases the self-esteem. The selfesteem can be defined as a favourable or unfavourable attitude toward the self55. Therefore,it can be easily understood why the use of cosmetics can be harmful to the self esteem.Indeed, this attitude can be threatened by many things. First, the use of cosmetics is, as seenin the part concerning the customer behaviour, still influenced by the mentalities and the fearof being assimilate to a homosexual, the fear of being compared to a women etc. In thissituation, the self esteem can decrease because the fears are superior to the desires; theguiltiness is to present in the customer mind to enables an increase of the self esteem. Then,the self esteem can decrease because the use of cosmetics can be seen as a tool to satisfy alack: thus the individual can feel dependant.On the other side, the self esteem can increase since thanks to the use of cosmetics theindividual perceive himself in a positive way. The self pride is improved that enable thecustomer to accept himself and being accepted.7.12 Improving the self-esteem through the self-imageNowadays, using men’s cosmetics is much more than just a fashion phenomenon. The manhas changed his behaviour and uses now cosmetics without any complex. In a society inwhich appearance and youthfulness have become for most of people a priority, to be carefulto your image is going through taking care of your body and your skin. 56Cosmetics do not only affect the self physically; It has also a significant mentally role onusers. It is known that taking care of your body helps to improve your self-image. But, self-image and self-esteem are not the same. It has been already seen the difference betweenthem, so what to say about the relationship between self-esteem and cosmetics?Creams, masks, cleaning products, all these products have the aim to improve appearance. Asa matter of fact, in many studies read, the participants expressed they were more pleased withthemselves when wearing cosmetics than when they were natural. When they are wearingcosmetics, they get higher feelings of self image, self worth and self confidence. Otherresearch states that people who use cosmetic products tend to think that, if they are morephysically attractive, they will be seen and treated more positively. (Sawyer, Magee, Clarkpp. 35) . As looking better physically, self-image is improved. The fact is that by improvingthe self-image, it improves the self-esteem: self-esteem is improved through self-image.Indeed, most of advertisings are selling the idea to attract women, to increase sex appeal andsexual success, thanks to a beautiful skin, a nice smell or a tanned face. All these concept areimportant in developing a high self-esteem.5755 Rosenbergs (1965) - http://www.macses.ucsf.edu/Research/Psychosocial/notebook/selfesteem.html - 24/03/0789cosmeticsformen.blog.20minutes.fr/.../index.html., Read on 25th February 201156 cosmeticsformen.blog.20minutes.fr/.../index.html., Read on 25th February 2011 at 1600Hrs57 http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~taflinge/esteem3.html, Read on 25th February 2011T 1800hrs
  • The skin, alive envelope of the body, expresses all the emotions of a person: happiness,sadness, stress, fear... The skin is the last barrier of the “self”, the “me-skin” is a physicalelement, an instrument to get a form of power on the others, to retain their interest, to modifytheir impressions, their judgments’, to seduce them. Nevertheless, the first requirement, theone which gives sense to the rest, is the relationship to ourselves, lived through the skin. Thisrelationship is crucial for the relationship with the others.Skin cares allow the person to adapt, to protect himself and to defend, to express and tocommunicate, to get pleasure and to act. All these functions can have some influences aboutthe others’ regards, but also and firstly about ourselves. In this relation, cosmetics are aprivileged mediator. They touch the person in deep. A cosmetic does not limit its action tothe physic: it colours the interior life. Indeed, cosmetics help to go through an inferioritycomplex or a depressive tendency.A “positive stress”, result of a better acceptation of ourselves, can dope a person. As well as asun kissed day can influence the psyche and stimulates all the organism, cosmetics contributeto this, improving the self-image and the image that the others return like a mirror. Bodycares are a factor of reconciliation with ourselves and with the others. It contributes to thepersonal balance and to self-confidence, what is the most important to success in socialintegration.7.13 Cosmetics and healthThe psychological benefits of cosmetics are so important that they are nowadays used inhealth’s domains. Some tests and surveys have been done in order to check the theory whichsays that health can be improved by cosmetics. For example, cosmetics are used for oldpeople, allowing them not to be younger, but to stay attractive. Also, the British Red Crosshas put beauty cares in hospitals to improve the physical well-being and the self-esteem ofpatients. Another American survey has shown that the use of cosmetics for people with heavytreatments of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Julia Rowland, Ph.D, director of the psycho-oncology program at Georgetown University,explains that cancer assaults patients’ self-esteem and self-image and the program helpscombat negative feelings by showing to the patient how to look their best. This program iscalled “Look good... Feel Better” and it has a very positive influence in the treatments’(stamina) and allows a faster recovery, thanks to the self-confidence created by cosmetics:who sees himself in a better way feels better.58As can be seen above, cosmetics can have a very important positive influence on self-esteem.This influence can be such that cosmetics are now used to fight illness and give back to old orsick people a high self-esteem. Nevertheless, if cosmetics can act on self-esteem, it is becausethey improve self-image. As an illustration, some experiences made on women and establishsimilitude for men can be described.58 http://www.skinscience.fr/_int/_fr/topic/topic_sousrub.aspx?tc=skin_science_root%5ewell_being_skin_deep_and_deeper%5eself_esteem&cur=self_esteem, Read on 26th February 2011
  • 8. SURVEY ANALYSIS In total 78 Men participated in the survey.Question 1- How old are you? Out of 78 respondents 69 respondents were between the age categories of 21-30 years. 3 respondents were between30-45 year. Since the questionnaire was circulated to all male PGDM students. Only one respondent was above 45 and 5 below 20 years of age.Question 2 Do you use cosmetics? Out of 78 respondents 77 were using cosmetics and only one respondent was not using any cosmetics. Question 3 Are you using men or women cosmetics products? Out of 78 respondents 63 were using men product while 15 were using both, no single respondent was women product.Question 4 What kind of products do you buy?
  • Major respondent were using shampoos and hair conditioner, Shaving gel, after shave lotion, deodorant, face wash. But very few respondents were using Anti-wrinkle cream, scrub, Anti dark circles, astringents. Thanks to these results, it can be saying that if obviously men use cosmetics, they do not use all kinds: make-up, matt moisturizer and so on are still women property. They mostly use health and hygiene products.Question 5 Which are for you more typical for men? According to 78 respondents major respondents were in the support that, shaving cream, after shave lotion, shampoos and hair conditioner are more typical men’s product. About typical products for men, most of people have answered shaving foam (65%) and then after shave (57%). This means that in their minds, men do not consider products such as astringent or toner, anti wrinkle cream or scrub as a product they can use without problem. These products are rather feminine ones for them. Also, it can be saying that after shave and shaving foam are obviously the most masculine because women cannot use it, concerning the beard.
  • Question 6 Since how long do you use them? 66.66% of the interviewed men are using cosmetics since more than 3 years, 17.94% since ever, and 15.38 % since between 1 to 3 years. As the majority uses them since more 3 years. Here is the illustration of the growing of the market, because 15.38% of interviewed men use cosmetics since between 1 to 3 years. This means that the market have acquired new consumers: the market have become generalized and products become more accessible. Question 7 Which brand do you like the best? Most popular brand is P&G (73%), followed by HUL(63%). Loreal(36%), Nivea(31%), Himalaya Herbal (27%). It is important to notice that the sample is mostly composed by students; that is why the expensive brands are not very popular. They prefer buying simple but efficient products.Question 8 Where do you buy them?
  • Around 74% respondents buying these products from Departmental/Super market and 15% from kirana store. Means organize retailing is very important in Cosmetic product.Question 9 How much do you spend in average in each month? Most of the polled spend in average between Rs 100 to 500 (59% respondents are spending between 100-500 Rs). This is again because the sample is composed by students, as a consequence price is important for them but only because they do not want to spend too much in cosmetics. 29% of respondents spend more than Rs 500. Nevertheless, some of them spend very important budget, it is another market segment: men who like to take care of themselves not only for medical reasons but also for beauty reasons. Those consumers can be metrosexual or ubersexuals.Question 10 Who is your purchasing advisor? 87 % of respondents are their own purchasing advisor, 19% respondents purchasing advisor are male friend. One important point to note here is that only 3% respondents purchase advisor are dermatologist or doctor.
  • Question 11 What do you look first when you buy a cosmetic product? Features are the most important things which are looked after by buyer. For 50% respondent features are most important, The first characteristic important for the respondents is the features( 50%). Again, the sample is mainly composed by students, who are more educated and knows what they require, and for 12% respondent price is important that is why they are so concerned by the price: they are not ready to spend an important budget in cosmetics. Secondly, what is important in the purchasing behaviour is the brand (4%) and then the packaging (1%) and reference group is nowhere. The less important characteristic is the packaging and brand. And finally, the product’s features are the characteristics which are the most important in the product’s choice. Question 12 Why do you use cosmetics? Among all the respondent 49% of the polled use cosmetics in order to take care of their skin, 13 % to be more attractive, 31% to feel better, and finally 3% for medical reasons, and other reasons includes 5%. What can be said is that men use cosmetics firstly for hygiene and health reasons. Still, they feel concerned by the image they give to others and they are aware of the cosmetics’ power to improve their physical appearance. In this case, the relationship to others is the most important; the physical appearance allows to be placed toward a group norm. For those who have answered “for you”, this means that it is the relationship to the self which is the most important. Beauty is personal and what is important is the harmony body/spirit. Using cosmetics to feel better is about the physical condition.
  • Question 13 Does it make you feel guilty to buy and use cosmetic product? Almost 91% of the respondents do not feel at all guilty to use cosmetics. About 8% feel a little guilty, only 1% feel much, and no-one feel very much guilty. Here it can be seen again the evolution of mentalities and of the market because there are not more many taboos about using cosmetics. Nowadays it is normal for a man to take care of him and to use adapted products. Question 14 Do you look more self confident, thanks to the use of Cosmetics? 28% respondent admitted that they look more self confident due to use of cosmetics. 44% respondents were in favour of “its depends on the circumstances”. 15% of the respondents have answered “not at all” is quite surprising because, according to the researches, it has been seen that by improving the self-image through cosmetics, an individual can develop better his/her self-confidence. Thus, the conclusion is that maybe people respond without taking care or not sincerely, maybe because they are ashamed to admit that superficial things like cosmetics can help them to feel better in their body. Nevertheless, if the answers “rather yes” and “yes” are brought together, one third of the respondents agree with the statement that by using cosmetics they feel more self confident and it confirm the theory.
  • Question 15 By using cosmetics, do you think you improve yourself image, you improvethe image the others have of you, neither one nor the other, or both?This question aimed to determine rather if people use cosmetic for them or for the others.27% of respondents using cosmetics to improve their self image. Basically, it can be said thatalmost 12% of the respondents use cosmetic both to improve their self-image and to improvethe image seen by the others. This statement can be easily linked to the theory since thisquestion directly joins it: the use of cosmetics deals with the self esteem – since improvinghis self image improve the self-esteem in a short term – and the self image – depending onthe others point of view.Another figure is important in this question: 50% of the respondents said they were usingcosmetics neither to improve their self image or nor the image seen by the other people.Therefore, the following question can be raised: “why are they using them?” It appears thatthose people seem to be using those products only for their well-being because they do notcare about their image or what people think about them. They are completely out of thepublic sphere and they think about them first. Question 16 Do you think the Cosmetic Industry is more a women than a men area?A large majority (44%)of the polled thinks that the cosmetic industry is still more a womenthan a men area. Also 33% respondents says no, whereas 23% says its belongs to both theworld. It is interesting here to underline one thing: women were the pioneer in this market, itis logical that they are first assimilated to the word cosmetic. So far, it can be saying that theword cosmetic belongs to the women lexical field; it is not a masculine one.
  • Question 17 “Virility is affected by the use of cosmetics products” . This question can be linked with question nineteen about homosexuality because it was relevant to determine here rather or not men were afraid of using cosmetics. It can be said here that the majority of the people disagree this statement but it is also quite visible that virility is call into question by the use of cosmetics. 72% respondent said No, virility is not affected by use of cosmetic product, where as 28% says Yes. Question 18 Is it important for you to take care of yourself? According to more than 80% of the polled, it is either rather or very important to take care of them. That can be easily understood since it was said before that the gap between masculinity and femininity is going down. Thus, men are no longer ashamed to say that they do take care of their skin and appearance. It is also interesting to underline that although 1% of the respondents do not use cosmetics. Question 19 Men are often afraid of being considered as homosexual because of using Cosmetics. Do you agree? 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Agree 4 Strongly Agree With this question, what was important to know if the “gay fear” people referred to formerly was justified. Actually, a large majority of the respondent said that they disagreed with the
  • link cosmetics - homosexual. Nevertheless, only 16% of the polled agreed to say that the useof cosmetics is often assimilated to homosexuality; although this thought, they buy cosmetics.Thus, it can be said that there are still some stereotypes but also that those stereotypes willnot last forever and that among the target, this is not the principal brake at all.Question number 20, 21 and 22 were for those respondents who were not using Cosmetics.Since only one respondent was there who was not using cosmetics.Question20 What are the reasons for why you are not using cosmetics?Question21 Could you change your Mind?Question22 And If yes, what could make you change your mind?The last three questions are reserved for people who are not using cosmetics. It was importantto know first the reasons why they were not using cosmetics. It can be said the main reason isbecause they estimate they do not need them. The second one is because they think thecosmetic products are too expensive and useless.There was only one respondent who was not using Cosmetics. His reason of not usingcosmetics was he does not need them. It cannot be said much about this question since halfthe respondent can change their mind and the other half say they could not change their mind.To sum up, the market is still submit to certain brakes and some customer will apparentlynever buy cosmetics. Among the people who can change their mind, the main factors are theprice and advertising. Therefore, it can be said that a change in the advertising campaign canbring new customer on the market. Nevertheless, concerning the price, the problem is a bitmore complicated since the range is already wide and contains all kind of prices.
  • 9. CONCLUSION:-This part aim to sum up the main ideas revealed by the questionnaires analysis and to betterunderstand the customer behaviour.Above all, the sample is composed by students aged 18 to 45+ year of age.. In this boomingmarket, it as been observed that almost 99% of the target use cosmetics and among thosecosmetics users, 81% use mostly men’s ones. Men cosmetics are seen as health and hygieneproducts and not as beauty tools. Indeed, most of the beauty product such as scrubs, toner,anti wrinkle cream, and astringent are under used as compared to shaving cream, lotion, foamfor instance. The emergence of the men’s cosmetics is a fact but it should be precise that thekind of product they use -for a great majority – is still product with a strong men image.Another very important aspect of the consumption is that the connexion between the priceand the quality is crucial. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that the most important factors formen are features and price and other reasons (Quality) mentioned by many respondent. Thus,it helps to understand the reasons why the most popular distribution channel is the superstores/departmental store where famous brand – synonym of quality in the people’s mind –are represented with accessible prices. The expensive brands such as L’Oreal and Nivea areunderrepresented in the sample since they do not respond to a price orientation and they aresold in perfumery. The emergence of this full market gave men a real autonomy when theybuy cosmetics. It has been said before that woman had still a great influence on the way menpurchased cosmetics, in our research only 8% respondent admitted that the purchase advisoris women friend. This tendency is certainly true nowadays but they are more independent thatthey used to be. Their principal purchasing advisor is themselves. Thus, it can be advancedthat thanks to advertisement, men are more aware of what is happening on the market, therole of women decrease slowly: advertising can now play a full role in the purchasingprocess.Apart from hygiene reasons, men are mostly using cosmetics not “for them” and as well asnot to “improve the image people see of them”. Only 12 % of respondent admitted that theyuse cosmetics “for them” and “improve the image people see of them”.Their self confidence is also improved: that lead to the idea that the individualism is a coreconcept when talking about cosmetics. “Improving myself image and the image I show”means being focus on the self. This statement sum up the 2 main streams of the theory:improving the self image (his own self image is dependent on the image a person sees and theimage he gives) and therefore the self esteem through cosmetics. Cosmetics are a full marketthat is moreover no longer a taboo, it is part of the customs: 91% of the respondents admitthat they do not feel guilty by using cosmetics and virility is no longer affected either. Thisstatement is nevertheless call into question because a large majority of the polled consideredthe cosmetic industry as a women area first. Apparently, the individualism and theappearance power overtake the feminine connotation.The non user are rare – only 1respondent out of 78 respondent admitted that he is not usingany cosmetics. Besides, those men are not using cosmetics because they do not need them or
  • because they are too expensive. They do not mention that they have a bad opinion about themarket or because they fear the people reactions. It is another way to say that the mentalitieshad evolved and that cosmetics are no longer a taboo.The survey aimed to check the theories about the customer behaviour and more precisely theself-concepts theories. The questionnaires lead to the following statement: the self image andthe self esteem are of course improved by using cosmetics and those concepts are in fact theheart of the matter when trying to analyse the customer behaviour in this market. .“Nothing is deeper than the skin”The purpose of this research was to study “Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer(Customer) towards Cosmetic Product” or “understand the consumer behaviour in the men’scosmetics market” and to explain in why it has such evolution. The work was focused on thedemand that is to say the customer and not the offer (products and companies). This researchtried to identify the relationship existing between those men and the cosmetic’s world.Firstly, with a market analysis, the evolution and the boom of this market since 2001 wasdescribed. The different actors that had influence on it and several points of the marketingmix were presented. The facts and figures found in this area demonstrate that this market isnot just a fashion phenomenon.In a second part, the research was focused on the consumer’s behaviour. What is pointing outis the fact that there is today an important evolution in mentalities, and by the same way, thatsocial standards are moving. Men and women, especially in developed countries, do not havethe same place in society than before. Many taboos which were considered as brakes are nolonger relevant and even if they do not disappear, they do not seem to affect the buyingbehaviour of men. Purchases of cosmetic products no longer call into question their virility,associating them to a female, effeminate or homosexual universe. Nowadays, men are moreconscious of their body and the need to conform to the injunctions of youthfulness,healthiness, and thinness.Then, the consumer behaviour was analyzed through the self-concept theories: self-esteemand self-image. Each of us has a "self-image," a perception of how we believe we look toothers. People who are happy with their self-image are more likely to be self-confident,effective in work and social situations, and comfortable in their relationships. Those who aredissatisfied tend to be self-conscious, inhibited, and less effective in activities. Cosmeticsencourage and promote a strong, positive self-image. Even a small change on the outside cancreate an extraordinary change on the inside, and enable an individual’s self-confidence toflourish. As looking better physically, self-image is improved. The fact is that by improvingour self-image, we improve our self-esteem. Indeed, most of advertisings are selling the ideato attract women, to increase sex appeal and sexual success, thanks to a beautiful skin, a nicesmell or a tanned face. All those concepts are important to develop a high self-esteem. Stepsby steps, men became aware of the fact that, by improving their self-image through cosmeticsproducts, they can help themselves to develop their self-esteem and in this way, it will beeasier for them to get a better social integration
  • At last, in a third part, the work was focused on empirical data: To what extent the theory thatwas found were relevant with the reality? For that, it was chosen to administrate 78questionnaires to Men using Online Medium, Google doc, and link was uploaded onFacebook.com and linkedIn.com. In matter of fact, the answers are in accordance with theresearch and the mentalities are ready to welcome the cosmetics.10. Limitations:The theory, about self-concept, is not the particular case of men. Self-concept theory is validfor both men and women because it is viable for all, there is no difference in psychicmechanisms between men and women. The self construction is the same and is applicable toall human. Then, the men’s cosmetics market is still too young to find some deep surveys onit. As a consequence, it has been difficult to find some theories viable only for men; aconnexion with surveys already done about women’s cosmetics was necessary.Respondent composition is quit similar, most of the respondent were Management students.Inclusion off both urban and rural respondents could have added more information.Sample size taken was 78. More respondent and mix composition of respondent would haveadded more information
  • 11. Bibliography:-11.1 Printed sources (Books, articles and surveys)1. Lipovetsky, Le crépuscule du devoir, l’éthique indolore des nouveaux temps démocratique,Gallimard ,Maffesoli, Au creux des apparences, pour une éthique de l’esthétique – Plomb2. Kotler et Dubois, Marketing Management, 20043. Kotler, Amstrong, Sounders and Wong, Principles of Marketing4. Grogan, Sarah. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women andChildren5. Elizabeth Jagger, Marketing the self, buying an other: dating in a post modern, consumer society,Department of Social Sciences, Caledonian University, Cowcaddens rd., Glasgow6. Jean-Marie Floch, unpublished survey about relationship between individuals and cosmetics, 1992,Engel, Blackwell, Miniard, Consumer behaviour, eighth edition, chapter 4 – Consumer decisionprocess7. John C. Mowen, Consumer Behavior, Fourth Edition8. Purkey, , An Overview of Self-Concept Theory for Counsellors, 19889. Morris Rosenberg, Conceiving the Self, New York: Basic Books, 197910. Christopher J. Mruk, Self-esteem Research, Theory, and Practice, third edition, 200611. R. Shavelson, J. Hubner and G. Stanton, Self-concept: Validation and construct interpretations,Review of Educational Research, 46, 198612. Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A., Kirker, W.S., Self-Reference and the Encoding of PersonalInformation, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 197713 Consumer Behaviour Manual Given by Najmal Huda Sir.11.2 Internet source:-Wikipedia.comGoogle.comBloggers.comDATA MONITOR report 2005,2006,2007,2008,and 2009 report.Websites of Loreal, Garnier, HUL, P&G, Emami, Calvin Care, Godrej etc.
  • 12. Annexure1. Questionnaire:-