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A Dissertation Report onBehaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer (Customer)            towards Cosmetic Products. Submitted...
Behaviour and Attitude  of Male Consumer (Customer) towards  Cosmetic Product.
Certificate of CompletionThis is to certify that dissertation report on" Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer(Customer)...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis project is the outcome of sincere efforts, hard work and constant guidance of not onlyme but a number ...
ContentsCertificate of Completion ...........................................................................................
3.6 Advantages:-.............................................................................................................
6.4.2 The social class.......................................................................................................
1.Introduction:-Everyone wants to be beautiful. And same is the case with the Indian Men.Like the rest of the post-colonia...
From 2000 to 2005, worldwide spending on personal care products for men rose by 13% to$29.7 billion, according to Dublin-b...
laser treatments to look more youthful.” In fact, seeing the demand and potential forspecialized male skin care, Pevonia B...
Men’s grooming and skin care first included the use of fragrant oils. As early as 10,000 BC,men were grooming themselves u...
Men’s grooming and the use of men’s makeup also became common in the Middle East. Iraqimen’s makeup included the practice ...
Although men’s grooming remained popular, men’s skin care and the use of makeup againfaded in prominence in the late 1800’...
Indian Cosmetic Industry in General:- The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growthover the past few years and emer...
the consumer and society." Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it bringsup some useful points.Behavi...
As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. Commonsense suggests, for example, that if...
London range of cosmetics. According to a source at L’Oréal India, women in the age groupof 30 and above are getting very ...
In skin care, the most popular are anti-wrinkle, anti-blemish and skin-whitening productsfollowed by sun care and bathing ...
2.7. Vaseline Debuts Skin-Whitening Facebook App In India                          WhiteningThe image below is the landing...
himself, based on experiences or on the internalization of others’ judgments16. After havingdefined those theories, the ne...
3. Methodology:3.1 Method3.1.1Deductive and inductive approaches:- A research can be deductive or inductive. The inductive...
3.3 Population and samplePopulation: Obviously, as the survey is about understanding the relationship between menand the c...
Secondary data were used in the first and second part, concerning the global market of men’scosmetics, and also when devel...
3. Some research projects, while potentially offering information that could prove quitevaluable, may not be within the re...
Here is the table showing the category of information and the specific information asked inthe questionnaire:-Information ...
4. The MarketThe cosmetic market for men- The market of men’s cosmetic is relatively a new market. So,it is interesting to...
4.1The global market of men’s cosmetics26Over the last 15 years, the cosmetics market has grown on average by +4.5% a year...
need for beauty, enabling all individuals to express their personalities to the full, gain self-confidence open up to othe...
of 6.6% and 1.3% respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $1.5billion and $4.6 billion in 2014.29...
4.6. The Actor, Leader, Challenger and their Strategist:-4.6.1Beauty Industrial’s stakesIn a market which is developing fa...
need for an industry event to showcase the opportunities in the beauty and wellness business,and present a business platfo...
ages differently from the women’s one: the wrinkles appear later, but will be deeper31.Besides, they shave. The razor’s bl...
32     Garnier case Study:-Garnier has been very active and upfront in adopting new promotional techniques to marketits pr...
Boutique:- VLCC and Body shop- Marketing the beauty products as prestige items bylimiting sales to boutiques or limited re...
launching products more and more specific as anti-shining gel or anti-wrinkles to            reach all the targets via sup...
experiences and ideas”36 is relevant for the understanding of the research. The study of theconsumer behaviour must thus c...
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour
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Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour

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  • Why is 'your research' paper very similar to what was written in 2007 in the following link http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:238020/FULLTEXT01.pdf ??
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  • Hi Lalit, You have done a great analysis and it will require bit more time to go through this. Can you pl e mail this report me. Raj
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  • Hi Lalit, You have done a great analysis and it will require bit more time to go through this. Can you pl e mail this report me. Bk kaushal
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  • Dear sir Lalit Singh, could you please share your report with my by sending it to M10241015@yuntech.edu.tw I am a graduate student in Taiwan and is currently looking for materials for conducting a research on male cosmetics. I believe that your report surely benefit me and my audience as well. I definitely will show the reference to them.
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  • Pls mail this report on manish_kamdar@hotmail.com
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Transcript of "Indian mens Cosmetic behaviour"

  1. 1. A Dissertation Report onBehaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer (Customer) towards Cosmetic Products. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Session: 2009-2011) Faculty Guide Mr. Arun Kumar Submitted By Lalit Singh Roll No.29047 PGDM (2009-2011) NIILM Centre for Management Studies Plot No- 53, Knowledge Park 5, Greater Noida, UP
  2. 2. Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer (Customer) towards Cosmetic Product.
  3. 3. Certificate of CompletionThis is to certify that dissertation report on" Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer(Customer) towards Cosmetic Product" prepared by "Lalit Singh" Roll No. "29047" ofPGDM 2009-11 Batch has been completed under my guidance and supervision.__________________Arun KumarFaculty Production and OperationsNIILM Centre For Management Studies.
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis project is the outcome of sincere efforts, hard work and constant guidance of not onlyme but a number of individuals. First and foremost, I would like to thank NIILM-CMS, NewDelhi for nurturing me. I am thankful to my faculty guide Mr Arun Kumar , NIILM-CMSfor providing me help and support throughout the project.I would also take the opportunity to thank the entire staff of NIILM Centre for Managementstudies who helped and shared their knowledge about each and every principle ofmanagement, for which I am highly grateful.Last but not the least I would like to thank all my Faculty members, friends and familymembers who have helped me directly or indirectly in the completion of the project. Lalit Singh PGDM 2009-2011 NIILM-CMS, New Delhi
  5. 5. ContentsCertificate of Completion ........................................................................................................................4ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ......................................................................................................................51.Introduction:-......................................................................................................................................10 THE INDIAN COSMETIC INDUSTRY MARKET:- .....................................................................112. Literature Review;- ...........................................................................................................................12 2.1 A History of Men’s Grooming : Mens makeup and skin care ....................................................12 2.2 Indian Cosmetic Story: CII..........................................................................................................15 Indian Cosmetic Industry in General:- ..............................................................................................16 Defining Cosmetics:-.........................................................................................................................16 Consumer Behaviour and Attitude:-..................................................................................................16 There are four main applications of consumer behavior:-.................................................................17 The most obvious is for marketing strategy— ..............................................................................17 A second application is public policy............................................................................................17 Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something........17 As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. .....................18 2.3 Customer Segments:- ..................................................................................................................18 2.4 Brand Positioning: .......................................................................................................................19 2.5 Product Preference:- ....................................................................................................................19 2.6. Recent Updates :- .......................................................................................................................20 2.7. Vaseline Debuts Skin-Whitening Facebook App In India .........................................................21 2.7 Purpose of study;-........................................................................................................................21 2.8 Delimitations: ..............................................................................................................................22 2.9. Plan: - .........................................................................................................................................223. Methodology: ....................................................................................................................................23 3.1 Method ........................................................................................................................................23 3.1.1Deductive and inductive approaches:-...................................................................................23 3.1.2Qualitative and quantitative approaches:- .............................................................................23 3.2 Type of Research .........................................................................................................................23 3.3 Population and sample ................................................................................................................24 3.4 What sampling method is used? ..................................................................................................24 3.5 Instrument/technique to collect data............................................................................................24 3.5.1 Secondary data collection:.................................................................................................... 24 3.5.2 Primary data collection:- ......................................................................................................25
  6. 6. 3.6 Advantages:-................................................................................................................................25 3.7 Disadvantages: ............................................................................................................................25 3.7 The questionnaires (cf. annexure) ...............................................................................................26 3.8 The administration of the questionnaires ...................................................................................27 3.8.1The questionnaires were administrated by one method;-......................................................27 3.9 Instrument used to analyze the empirical data ............................................................................274. The Market ........................................................................................................................................28 4.1The global market of men’s cosmetics .........................................................................................29 4.2 The men’s cosmetic market in India ;- ........................................................................................30 4.3 MARKET VALUE:- ...................................................................................................................31 4.4 MARKET SEGMENTATION for overall cosmetic product:- ...................................................31 4.5 MARKET DISTRIBUTION:-..................................................................................................... 31 4.6. The Actor, Leader, Challenger and their Strategist:- .................................................................32 4.6.1Beauty Industrial’s stakes ..........................................................................................................32 4.6.2 The market actors- ....................................................................................................................32 4.7. Strategies & targets ....................................................................................................................32 •Sales in specialized selling points (pharmacies, institutes, spas…) .............................................33 •Sales in super stores (Shoppers Stop, Big bazaar, Lifestyle) .......................................................335. MARKETING MIX:- ........................................................................................................................33 5.1 The Product:- ...............................................................................................................................33 5.2 The Promotion:- ..........................................................................................................................34 5.2.1 Communication Strategies :- .................................................................................................... 35 Print Advertising:- .........................................................................................................................35 Boutique:- VLCC and Body shop- ................................................................................................36 Wide Distribution;- HUL and P&G ..............................................................................................36 Private Label .................................................................................................................................36 5.3 THE PRICE , Different startegies and theories- .........................................................................36 5.3 The Place .....................................................................................................................................366. The Consumer Behaviour..................................................................................................................37 6.1 The Consumer behaviour: The facts ...........................................................................................37 6.2 Main tendencies...........................................................................................................................38 6.3 Man behaviour towards aestheticism:- ........................................................................................39 6.4 The social factors’ influence on men ..........................................................................................40 6.4.1•The environmental factors: Culture .........................................................................................40
  7. 7. 6.4.2 The social class.....................................................................................................................40 6.4.3 The group and family ...............................................................................................................40 6.4.4 •The socio-demographic factors ...............................................................................................40 The location:- ....................................................................................................................................41 6.6 Taboos link to masculinity and virility: The gay fear .................................................................43 6.7 The homosexuality and its purchasing power .............................................................................43 6.8 The femininity and masculinity evolution...................................................................................44 6.9 The Market segmentation: ...........................................................................................................457. The SELF-CONCEPT theories .........................................................................................................46 7.1 The Variables that shape the Consumer behaviour .....................................................................47 7.2 The individual differences:..........................................................................................................48 7.3 The Environmental factors: .........................................................................................................48 7.4 The purchasing advisor: ..............................................................................................................48 7.6 •The self-concept .........................................................................................................................49 • Different types of self concepts: ............................................................................................49 7.7 Self concept and body image.......................................................................................................50 Reflected appraisal (Feedback from others) ..................................................................................50 Own observation by Social comparison: .......................................................................................50 7.8 The Self Esteem ..........................................................................................................................50 7.9 The Self Image:- ..........................................................................................................................51 7.10 Link with Men’s Cosmetic market: ...........................................................................................52 7.11 Mechanism between market and theory ....................................................................................52 7.12 Improving the self-esteem through the self-image ....................................................................53 7.13 Cosmetics and health .................................................................................................................548. SURVEY ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................559. CONCLUSION:- ...............................................................................................................................6410. Limitations: .....................................................................................................................................6611. Bibliography:- .................................................................................................................................67 11.1 Printed sources (Books, articles and surveys) ...........................................................................67 11.2 Internet source:-.........................................................................................................................6712. Annexure .........................................................................................................................................68 1. Questionnaire:- ..............................................................................................................................68
  8. 8. 1.Introduction:-Everyone wants to be beautiful. And same is the case with the Indian Men.Like the rest of the post-colonial world, India has a strange cultural preference for fairer skin.Unlike the rest of the world, however, in India, advertising and sales of highly produced skinlightening cream flies. Why?“The Aryans, who came from central Asia, in addition to the Portuguese, the French and theBritish colonisers ruled over the country and probably contributed to this negative perceptionof dark-skin,” sociology professor T. K. Oommen at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in NewDelhi. “Indian cosmetics giant Emami launched the first skin-whitening cream for men in 2005,called “Fair and Handsome” and advertised by Bollywood superstar Shahrukh Khan. Itcame 27 years after the first cream for women.Since then a half dozen foreign brands have piled into the male market, including Garnier,L’Oreal and Nivea, which promote the seemingly magical lightening qualities of theirproducts in ubiquitous advertising.”1In recent years, men have become more conscious about their image than ever before,resulting in sales on male grooming products are expected to increase by 18 per cent globallybetween 2006 and 2011, when the market is forecast to be valued at $25 billion (Mermelstein& Fielding 2007). This change in male grooming is becoming a new trend and is expected toblossom in regions where consumers are increasingly adapting to Western lifestyles. Indianmen’s spending on specialized skin care is increasing as their drive for youthful looks andgrasp of changing beauty standards grow.Finally, the Indian male is ready for creams and potions. Male consumers are now demandingproducts that are made specifically for them. Previously, they were satisfied with usingcreams and lotions that their mothers, wives or sisters used. They didn’t really feel the needfor a separate set of products. But habits are changing rapidly, and male consumers in Indiaare becoming increasingly conscious of the need to look groomed in order to matchinternational trends, and the market for male grooming products, including skin care, isexpected to achieve significant growth over its current $185 million size2.The beauty market in India has been monopolized by women’s beauty products. From thestudy conducted by Euromonitor it is found that one third of Fair & Lovely hidden customersare males. This tempted Emami to create a new category in the cosmetic market with itslaunch ‘Fair & Handsome’. Later on many players joined the bandwagon. Spending onmen’s grooming products is expected to rise by 24% to Rs. 14.5 Billion, or $320 million , inthe next five years (Euromonitor International forecasts). The growing attention to malegrooming in India mirrors a trend in North America and Europe that was pioneered by DavidBeckham, the English soccer player (International Herald Tribune, November 16, 2006).1 http://www.styleite.com/beauty/vaseline-skin-whitening-cream visited on 17th feb 20112 Article by Priyanka Bhattacharya, Journalist Covering the Issues like Men’s Grooming and Health Care.
  9. 9. From 2000 to 2005, worldwide spending on personal care products for men rose by 13% to$29.7 billion, according to Dublin-based Research and markets. Indian men are taking theircue from actors like Shah Rukh Khan, who is “delicately handsome”, according to AbrahamKoshy, a marketing professor at the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmadabad.“Feminine beauty is being accepted as a concept of male beauty,” he said. Beautyconsciousness is found more in urban fraternity than in rural population. Society perceivesthat ‘grooming’ is a characteristic feature of females but not males.3THE INDIAN COSMETIC INDUSTRY MARKET:-The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growth over the past few years and emerged asone of the industries holding huge potential for further growth. In 2009, the cosmeticsindustry registered impressive sales of INR 356.6 Billion (US$ 7.1 Billion) despite the globaleconomic recession. The sector has mainly been driven by improving purchasing power andrising fashion consciousness of the Indian population. Moreover, the industry players havebeen spending readily on the promotional activities to increase consumer awareness.According to our new research report “Indian Cosmetic Sector Analysis (2009-2012)”, theIndian cosmetics sector is expected to witness noteworthy growth rate in the near futureowing to rising beauty concern of both men and women. The industry holds promisinggrowth prospects for both existing and new players. To support this evidence, we have doneextensive analysis of various segments of the cosmetics industry keeping in view of both theservices and products sector.The baseline for the optimistic future outlook of the Indian cosmetics industry is that thethere has been a rise in variety of products offered by the industry players. The companieshave started going for rural expansion and are offering specialized products to generaterevenues from all the corners. Improvement and strengthening of the Indian economy from2010 will also pave the way for the Indian cosmetics market over the forecast period.4This created an impulse to conduct a study on “Behaviour and Attitude of Male Consumer(Customer) towards Cosmetic Product”. The research was carried on the Men’s with primaryresearch. Data collected through Online Survey.Males respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire online prepared on GoogleDocuments. Respondents participated in the exercise were members of Different SocialNetworking sites and professionals sites like, Linked In and Facebook.According to an independent study by the National Hairdressers and Beauty Association(NHBA) in India, the demand for in-salon skin care treatments by men is increasing by40% year on year. “Earlier grooming for men meant shaving and a hair cut at a salon, andmaybe the [occasional] massage,” says Blossom Kochhar, president of NHBA. “But nowthey demand much more. They want a facial, manicure, pedicure, hair removal and even3 Research Paper by Jyothsna Priyadarsini, Read on 15th February 2011.4 http://www.reportlinker.com/p0119505/Indian-Cosmetic-Sector-Analysis.html#ixzz1F2n8SGEv visted on 17th February 2011
  10. 10. laser treatments to look more youthful.” In fact, seeing the demand and potential forspecialized male skin care, Pevonia Botanica’s Indian Tamaya Spa has launched specificfacials targeted at men. “We have special caviar facials and treat ments that have been madefor our male customers. This is very different from what we offer our female customers,”says Nirvaan Shroff, education manager, Pevonia Botanica India.It’s not just facials and pedicures. Indian men are also seeking laser treatments and Botox tolook young and fresh. According to a spokesperson at Clinic Dermatech, one of Delhi’sleading cosmetology centers, body hair removal, face contouring and skin smoothingtreatments via laser are the most requested treatments by men, and that four of every 10customers are men.5Nowadays, men are more conscious of their body and the need to conform to the injunctionsof youthfulness, healthiness, and thinness which make them go from “sanitarians to bodyaesthetics”. The development of fashion magazines for men reinforces this new concern ofthe men for their appearance. The explosion of the male press in general goes hand in handwith the one of consumption of beauty products for men. Thus, the men conform more andmore to certain patterns of beauty and are more sensitive to the cosmetics, like productsenable them to improve their appearance, to put it in scene, to dramatize it.62. Literature Review;-2.1 A History of Men’s Grooming : Mens makeup and skin careMen’s grooming and makeup has its origins in evolution. Mother Nature chose to endow themale species with more color and splendor. The more a male stood out from his competition,the greater his chance of attracting a mate. It is for this reason men have had, and always willhave a predisposition towards their personal grooming and use of makeup to be prominent ina competitive society.Cosmetics have been used for as long as there have been men to use them. The associationbetween men and makeup was mentioned in the Old Testament (Ezekiel 23:40), and eyeshadow was used in Egyptian burials dating back to 10,000 BC. Men’s grooming and skincare has its origins in the word "cosmetae" which was first used to describe Roman slaveswhose function it was to bathe men in perfume. Since the Egyptians, each subsequentcivilization invented unique words that referred to cosmetics and fragrance as one science.The Greeks used the word kosmein which conveys the thought - to decorate, to make-up, tocare for and to produce harmony between body and mind. Grooming and to make-up theexternal appearance to enhance ones beauty in harmony with the mind was regarded by manyin pre-Christian Greece as being the basic requirement for a deep inner feeling of happiness.5 India Skin Care, GCI September 2008 Read on 15TH February 2011.6 4Maffesoli, Au creux des apparences, pour une éthique de l’esthétique – Plomb – 16/02/2011
  11. 11. Men’s grooming and skin care first included the use of fragrant oils. As early as 10,000 BC,men were grooming themselves using scented oils and ointments to clean and soften theirskin and mask body odor. Mans use of makeup began with dyes and paints that were used tomake-up and color the skin, body and hair. At this time men’s makeup not only includedrouge for their lips and cheeks, but makeup for the nails using henna as a stain. Men’smakeup also included the use of Kohl to heavily line the eyes and eyebrows. Kohl was adark-colored powder made of crushed antimony, burnt almonds, lead, oxidized copper, ochre,ash, malachite and chrysocolla. When used by men as makeup, Kohl was applied using asmall stick as a makeup applicator. The makeup was applied to the upper and lower eyelids,painted in a line that extended to the sides of the face for an almond effect. In addition to itspurpose as men’s makeup, Kohl also reduced the suns glare, and it was believed that kohleyeliner could restore poor eyesight and reduce eye infection. Men who used Kohl as makeupkept it in a small, flat-bottomed pot with a wide, tiny rim and a flat, disk-shaped lid.From 7,000 to 4,000 BC, the fatty oils of olive and sesame were combined with fragrantplants to create the original Neolithic ointments for use in men’s grooming and men’s skincare. When the Egyptians were learning to write and make bricks in 3,000 BC, they were alsoimporting large quantities of myrrh. The earliest recorded items of Egyptian commerceincluded spices, gums, and other fragrant plants that were used in men’s make-up, grooming,and skin care products.Men’s grooming became an inherent part of Egyptian hygiene and health. Oils and creamswere used for skin care protection against the hot Egyptian sun and dry winds. Myrrh, thyme,marjoram, chamomile, lavender, lily, peppermint, rosemary, cedar, rose, aloe, olive oil,sesame oil and almond oil provided the basic ingredients of most men’s grooming ointmentsand perfumes. Man and makeup took a step forward with the use of a clay called red ochre,which men used to make-up their lips, cheeks and nails. Grinding ochre and mixing it withwater made this men’s makeup. Men’s makeup was stored in special jars that were kept inspecial makeup boxes. Women would carry their makeup boxes to parties and keep themunder their chairs, but men did not carry their makeup kits with them.History did document the jealousy one man had over another man makeup, skin care andgrooming collection. When Alexander the Great entered the tent of defeated King Dariusafter the battle of Issos, Alexander threw out the kings makeup box of priceless groomingointments and perfumes. Ironically, after Alexander had traveled extensively in Asia, he toobecame addicted to men’s grooming, makeup and aromatics. He sent plant cuttings to hisAthenian classmate in Athens from everywhere he traveled. His classmate then used thecuttings to establish a botanical garden in Athens to create skin care, makeup and groomingproducts.Men’s grooming habits including the use of men’s makeup did not fade. By about 300 BC,myrrh and frankincense from Yemen reached the Mediterranean by way of Persian traders.The trade routes swelled as the demand for roses, sweet flag, orris root, narcissus, saffron,mastic, oak moss, cinnamon, cardamom, pepper, nutmeg, ginger, aloe wood, grasses and gumresins used to make men’s grooming, skin care and makeup increased.
  12. 12. Men’s grooming and the use of men’s makeup also became common in the Middle East. Iraqimen’s makeup included the practice of painting their faces with kohl just like the Egyptianshad. Some historians believe this use of men’s makeup was to protect them from the evil eye:however, it is also believed that Iraqi men using makeup was a natural predisposition basedon the prominence of the male species in society.The original Egyptian intention of men’s skin care, men’s grooming, and men’s makeupsuffered a bastardization beyond any reasonable recovery with the Romans, who wereunabashedly hedonistic. Egyptian oils intended to be used for men’s skin care and men’sgrooming became nothing more than sexual accoutrements in Rome.Around 100 AD, the Romans took men’s grooming and men’s makeup to a higher level.Men’s makeup included the use of barley flour and butter on pimples, and sheep’s fat andblood on fingernails for polish. The Romans crowning contribution to men’s skin care wasthe practice of taking mud baths laced with crocodile excrement. Men’s grooming practicesexpanded to the frequent dying of their hair. Blond was the preferred color of the times, andthis men’s grooming habit was intended to make-up men to look young; however, thepractice was curtailed, as dyes were so caustic they had the affect of causing ones hair to fallout. By the middle of the 1st century AD, mans use of makeup was common practice. TheRomans were known to make-up their eyes with kohl, use chalk for whitening theircomplexion, and rouge for their cheeks. Men’s grooming consisted of depilatories for hairremoval and pumice for cleaning teeth. Men’s grooming practices included the use of oil-based perfumes in baths and fountains, and the application of these oils to their weapons…take that as you may!There is evidence that the Vikings also liked to wear make-up as the Arab traveler IbrahimAl-Tartushi who visited the Viking trading hub of Hedeby in 950AD wrote: "there is also anartificial make-up for the eyes, when they use it beauty never fades, on the contrary itincreases in men and women as well". What he was observing was probably the use of kohlas men’s makeupMen’s grooming and makeup was at times controversial throughout history. It was oftencriticized on religious and moral grounds. In fact, in Victorian times, men’s makeup wasconsidered the devils making, and as a result, men’s grooming and their use of makeupfaded. During the reign of Elizabeth I of England, men’s grooming and men’s makeup madea popular come back. Man’s use of makeup was prevalent and everyone was enthusiasticallyjoining in the fun. Popular men’s grooming treatments included rosemary water for the hairand sage to whiten teeth. Men’s skin care included elderflower ointment for the skin, bathingin wine, and an egg and honey mask to smooth away wrinkles. Men’s makeup includedgeranium petal rouge and lipstick to suggest health, wealth and gaiety. Pale skin became amake-up trend de jour. Unknowingly, the makeup used to whiten the skin was made withlead and arsenic, which resulted in many early deaths…some premeditated. Men’s groomingalso included the bleaching of their hair with lye, which understandably caused it to fall out.So men’s grooming began to include wigs, and men’s makeup included the use of powder.
  13. 13. Although men’s grooming remained popular, men’s skin care and the use of makeup againfaded in prominence in the late 1800’s. In 1865, Anthony Overton created a face powdercalled "High Brown" to be marketed to African Americans in the United States, but men’smakeup and fragrances could not be sold. Overton had to practice law and serve as a judge tomake ends meet.In the late 1900’s men’s grooming, men’s skin care and men’s makeup began to pick up inpopularity. With the introduction of the Metrosexual phenomenon in 2000, men beganfocusing on their grooming and the use of skin care and makeup. Mans use of makeup tomake-up their appearance is again becoming common practice in society… as it was with theEgyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans before them. The next decade will truly be a colorfulone. Men’s grooming, skin care and the use of makeup to standout has always been a part ofour history, and we look forward to documenting its continued use for the record.72.2 Indian Cosmetic Story: CIIThe Indian cosmetics and toiletries market has seen major changes both in terms of userperception and product availability over the past five years. There have been market shiftsduring this period and the past two years have seen the market take further momentum.According to figures given by the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), the total Indianbeauty and cosmetic market size currently stands at US$950 million and showing growthbetween 15–20% per annum. The overall beauty and wellness market that includes beautyservices stands at about US$2,680 million, according to CII estimates.The steady growth rate in the Indian cosmetic and beauty service market has made the Indiangovernment see it as a source of potential revenue for the country. In fact CII organized itsfirst beauty B2B event—Beauwell India 2005—in Chennai in March, which attracted foreignparticipation especially from Europe. In presenting the event, TT Ashok, chairman, CII(Southern Region), said, “As the cosmetic industry is growing so rapidly, we at CII felt theneed for an industry event to showcase the opportunities in the beauty and wellness business,and present a business platform for suppliers as well as players in the beauty servicebusiness.”8The increasing market size is the direct result of the changing socio-economic status of theIndian consumers, especially women. Higher paying jobs and increasing awareness of theWestern world and beauty trends there have served to change the tastes and customs of themiddle class and higher strata of the society, with the result that a woman from such socialstrata now is more conscious of her appearance and is willing to spend extra cash onenhancing it further. Today increasing numbers of women, especially from the middle-classpopulation, have more disposable income leading to a change in cosmetic and skin careproduct consumption. This actually has fuelled a growth in certain product categories in themarket that hardly were experiencing it earlier. Two such categories are color cosmetics andsun care products that have shown growth rates of 46% and 13% respectively over the pasttwo years, according to Euromonitor International.7 http://www.4voo.com/education/ed_history.htm visited on 17th February 20118 India’s Cosmetic Market Ready for Big Leap By: Priyanka Bhattacharya
  14. 14. Indian Cosmetic Industry in General:- The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growthover the past few years and emerged as one of the industries holding huge potential forfurther growth. In 2009, the cosmetics industry registered impressive sales of INR 356.6Billion (US$ 7.1 Billion) despite the global economic recession. The sector has mainly beendriven by improving purchasing power and rising fashion consciousness of the Indianpopulation. Moreover, the industry players have been spending readily on the promotionalactivities to increase consumer awareness.According to new research report Indian Cosmetic Sector Analysis (2009-2012), the Indiancosmetics sector is expected to witness noteworthy growth rate in the near future owing torising beauty concern of both men and women. The industry holds promising growthprospects for both existing and new players. To support this evidence, we have doneextensive analysis of various segments of the cosmetics industry keeping in view of both theservices and products sector.9Defining Cosmetics:- But how to define cosmetics? Cosmetics are substances used to enhancethe beauty of the human body. It implies psychologically that you are compensating forsomething you do not have. Cosmetics include products such as shampoos and soaps as wellas make-up, hair cares and perfumes.Men’s cosmetics are comprised of skin care, shaving, hair care, and general groomingproducts. We do not, of course, mean lipstick and eyeliner, but beauty products specificallydesigned for men. Everything, in a sense, to keep you clean, healthy and looking your bestaround the clock. Once upon a time, men subtly bought these items at the women’s makeupcounter in the local department store or pharmacy and looked for unscented versions of theproducts made for women. Manufacturers now offer specifically designed men’s cosmetics --marketed to them -- but offering transformative results. A man’s skin is often much tougherand thicker than a woman’s due to his testosterone and pH level. As a result, he needsstronger lotions and cleansers to reach deeper into his pores. It is true that hair skin tonics, asthey were called, have always been made with "manly" men in mind, but most of these hadalcohol as a main ingredient, which was very harsh. Today, we know better -- and look bettertoo.10Consumer Behaviour and Attitude:-The term “customer” refers to someone who regularly purchases from a particular store ofcompany. Thus a person who shops at Big Bazaar is viewed as customer for these firms. Theterm “consumer” more generally refers to anyone engaging in any of the activities used in ourdefinition of consumer behaviour. Therefore a customer is defined in terms of specific firmwhile a consumer is not.11One "official" definition of consumer behavior is "The study of individuals, groups, ororganizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products,services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on9 http://www.reportlinker.com/p0119505/Indian-Cosmetic-Sector-Analysis.pdf Read on 16th Feb at 1500hr10 http://www.askmen.com/fashion/keywords/mens-cosmetics.html visited on 16th Feb 2011 at 1400hr.11 Consumer Behaviour Manual
  15. 15. the consumer and society." Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it bringsup some useful points.Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g., friends influencewhat kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions asto which products the firm should use).Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how theyare purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this mayinfluence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption.Since many environmental problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sentinto sewage systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills) this is also anarea of interest. Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible products.The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressivemarketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have seriousrepercussions for the national health and economy.There are four main applications of consumer behavior:-The most obvious is for marketing strategy—i.e., for making better marketing campaigns. Forexample, by understanding that consumers are more receptive to food advertising when theyare hungry, we learn to schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. Byunderstanding that new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and onlyspread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn that (1)companies that introduce new products must be well financed so that they can stay afloatuntil their products become a commercial success and (2) it is important to please initialcustomers, since they will in turn influence many subsequent customers’ brand choices.A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Accutane, a near miracle cure for acne,was introduced. Unfortunately, Accutane resulted in severe birth defects if taken by pregnantwomen. Although physicians were instructed to warn their female patients of this, a numberstill became pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers’ attention, the Federal DrugAdministration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic pictures of deformedbabies be shown on the medicine containers.Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something.Marty Fishbein, a marketing professor, went on sabbatical to work for the Centers for DiseaseControl trying to reduce the incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use.The best solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop. This,however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the practice of sharingneedles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be stopped. As a result, using knowledge ofconsumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbein created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needlesin bleach before sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.
  16. 16. As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. Commonsense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64 liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, youshould pay less per ounce than if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, youoften pay a size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case, knowingthis fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels to determine if you arereally getting a bargain.12Attitude:- Social Psychologist unfortunately, do not agree on the precise definition of anattitude. In fact, there are more than 100 different definition of the concept. However fourdefinitions are more commonly accepted than others. One conception is that an attitude ishow positive or negative, favorable or unfavorable, or pro or con a person feels towards anobject. A second definition represents the thoughts of Allport, who views attitudes as“learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorableor unfavorable way”. A third definition of attitude popularized by cognitively oriented socialpsychologist is: “an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, andcognitive process with respect to some aspect of Individual world. Fourth definition, this lastdefinition has considerable appeal, because it has been shown that consumer perceives aproduct (object) as having many attributes and they form beliefs about each of theseattributes. An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals degree of like or dislikefor an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, orevent—this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted orambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive andnegative attitudes toward the item in question.Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behavior, and cognition){van den Berg et al., 2006; Eagly & Chaiken, 1998}. The affective response is an emotionalresponse that expresses an individuals degree of preference for an entity. The behavioralintention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitiveresponse is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individuals beliefs aboutthe object.2.3 Customer Segments:-According to a CII report, US$0.68 per capita is spent for cosmetics, which might be lowerthan some other countries, but this indicates a growing awareness among consumers. “Thereare two major factors that are swaying the buying decision among women here. Firstobviously is the television and media exposure they have today. The other not so obvious oneis the corporate dressing culture, which slowly is evolving in the Indian market. Due to setdress code in MNCs, a female employee is conscious about picking the right makeup colorsfor the office. Today she has the money and the inclination to spend it on separate sets ofproducts, especially color cosmetics,” said Abdul Rahim, managing director of the Chennai-based cosmetic distribution company GR Fragrances Pvt Ltd, which markets the Diana of12 th http://www.consumerpsychologist.com visited on 19 February 2011 at 1600hrs
  17. 17. London range of cosmetics. According to a source at L’Oréal India, women in the age groupof 30 and above are getting very selective about the type of products they choose. “As olderwomen have more cash and are more conscious of their appearance, especially skin, they arewilling to spend more on separate sets of creams and lotions that target problem areas. Thesewomen also are more open to buying higher-priced products,” he says. In addition, men aswell as the beauty professionals and beauty services segment are emerging as big buyers ofcosmetics and skin care here. Pradeep Verma, managing director of Derma Color, which sellsKryolan in India, said “The market is ready for professional makeup products since theIndian professional makeup artists are very well-trained and are aware of the products andprefer to use international brands. Earlier they were sourcing their products from internationalmarkets such as Dubai or Bangkok or Singapore. But now players such as Kryolan and MAChave direct presence, so the professional makeup artists are picking up from us.”2.4 Brand Positioning:With increasing awareness among customers, it has become very important for the cosmeticand skin care companies here to develop the right brand positioning and create the rightproduct and brand awareness.Pricing of the product and the nature of product usage are the two criteria that define brandpositioning. For instance products falling under the price range of Rs 45 to Rs 200 are in themass-market category. The middle market price can range from Rs 200 up to Rs 800. In thehigh-end market, pricing can range from Rs 800 to about Rs 5000. Finally there is thepremium range of products where the pricing can touch up to Rs 35,000.“Today it is important for big brands like us to define different brand positioning to retain theright market share. For instance, at L’Oréal we push Maybelline and Synergie ranges to theyounger generation and also in the lower income group mass market. While L’Oréal range ofcosmetic and skin care products are for the middle and higher-middle class women and Vichyis for high-end users,” explains the source at L’Oréal India. Brands such as Lakme and ColorBar are being pushed as mass market products and focus on younger women and women withlower buying power. Then there is Revlon, Chambor, Diana of London, Bourjois and Pupathat make the mid-range while Clarins, Shiseido, MAC, Christian Dior, Nina Ricci, YSL andLancôme make the high end. La Prairie touches the premium end of the market. BesidesL’Oréal, Unilever, through its Indian arm Hindustan Lever, Procter & Gamble, and mostpremium and high-end brands prefer to come to the country through distributors such asBaccarose, Euro Traditions, Cosmos Brands, MKP and GR Fragrance.2.5 Product Preference:- India presents a big opportunity for global cosmetic vendors selling color cosmetics andspecialized skin care products in the market. Today these product segments are showingimpressive growth rates.
  18. 18. In skin care, the most popular are anti-wrinkle, anti-blemish and skin-whitening productsfollowed by sun care and bathing products. However, while presenting a market potential,other specialized products such as anticellulite lotions or nail creams and nail care products,while presenting a market potential, need more customer education before they can grow.Meanwhile, hair color and styling products also have logged in impressive revenue forplayers such as L’Oréal and Schwarzkopf in the market. In fact, HLL recently launched haircare products through its brand Lakme for the mass market in India.In color cosmetics, lipsticks and nail colors still account for nearly 65% of the marketfollowed by eye makeup, especially eyeliners and Kohl pencils. In the fragrance market,while most popular brands are available here, the deodorant versions are showing betteracceptance than the EDPs or the EDTs mainly due to the pricing factor.2.6. Recent Updates :-Article Heading “Now, a store for mens luxury cosmetics, grooming needs”To cash in on the $44 million cosmetics, skin and hair care market in India, Men and boyS, adivision of Arus Retail, founded by Amit Bagaria of Asipac Group, has recently opened anexclusive store catering to men’s grooming needs. The first store, opened at the MantriSquare mall in Bangalore in May this year, offers a wide range of men’s shaving products,regular and special cosmetics, skin care products, hair care and styling products, deodorants,colognes, fragrances and the world’s first range of cosmetics specially made for teenageskin.13 The range of products sold at Men and boys includes face washes, cleansers andscrubs, facial clay, lava and mineral mud masks, purifying and energizing masks, facialmoisturisers, exfoliation scrubs, detoxifying exfoliating masks, anti-breakout gels, pore-reducing serums, pre-shave oils and guards, hot towel pre-shave treatment, electric pre-shaveoptimisers, shaving creams, foams and lathers, after-shave creams, soothers and moisturisersand after-shave balm, among others.13 India Retailing Bureau- http://www.indiaretailing.com/news.aspx?topic=1&Id=4834
  19. 19. 2.7. Vaseline Debuts Skin-Whitening Facebook App In India WhiteningThe image below is the landing page for the new Vaseline Facebook app that allows users to lightentheir skin in profile pictures. What’s worse is that it was launched to advertise a product that does thesame thing in real life. Aimed at Indian men, Vaseline’s new skin whitening cream Be Prepared skin-whiteningmakes it possible for users to achieve “can get the perfection we vouched for.” It gets rid of fivedifferent types of dark spots. It has B3 and triple sunscreens to prevent light from activating one’smelanin. In under one minute a day, you can transform your real face the way only Photoshop can —and the guy in the ad, Bollywood star Shahid Kapur, seems to love it.2.7 Purpose of study;-The behaviour of the men is not easy to understand and is actually the core of this work. The actuallyfocus will be on the relationship that men have with self self-appearance and cosmetics or beauty arancecare product. Some said that men were not ready to use cosmetic products whereas others productsconsidered the mentalities ready to face a boom in this market. Is it relevant to talk about one Ismentality? Or is it rather better to define different targets with different needs an wants? andAnd therefore different marketing strategies? ifferentTo answer those questions, this study will focus on the customer behaviour and more theprecisely, on developing the self self-concept theories: self-esteem and self-image. Self concept is image.the totality of the individual thoughts and feelings having reference to himself14. The self ndividual referenceesteem is part of self-concept: It is in connexion with the need for an individual to be concept: therecognized by himself and by the others. It is an element about the ability for a person toassert himself, to look at him, to assume his mistakes and his regrets, to love himself and thus rtto be self-confident15. And finally, the self self-image is the mental picture someone has about ntal14 Morris Rosenberg, Conceiving the Self, New York, Basic Books, 1979 nceiving15 Christopher J. Mruk, Self-esteem Research, Theory, and Practice, third edition, 2006, p 8 esteem
  20. 20. himself, based on experiences or on the internalization of others’ judgments16. After havingdefined those theories, the next part will wonder about the mechanisms that link the customerand the self-esteem. As a matter of fact, the self esteem is directly influenced by the use ofcosmetics: the purpose will be to identify in which extent self esteem influence the menbehaviour.2.8 Delimitations:The project’s limitations are firstly that the product’s offer will not be analyzed, because thestudy will rather focus on the demand since the topic is more in connexion with the customerbehaviour. The market share of different cosmetic companies will not be discussed. Then, allthe different kinds of products will not be studied. Indeed, it is considered that perfume is notrepresentative enough; those products are already common in the male gender. Therefore thefocus will be on the cosmetics that have had a late development such as the moisturizingcreams the scrubs etc. The inquiry is mainly concerning the Indian market. The culturaldimension is quite obvious in the inquiry; the consumption of cosmetics products is probablynot the same in every age category, according to cultural dimensions. However it has beendecided to consider this dimension, firstly because it would help us know the age group ofcosmetic user and behaviour. This can help the Cosmetic Companies in developing theproduct catering to this age category/group.2.9. Plan: -The first part of this study is a market and product analysis: the history of this market, thedifferent actors and the main trends in the marketing mix. Then, the second part is about themale customer’s behaviour by considering the evolution of the mentalities, the taboos stillpresent in the today’s society. This part will be finished by presenting the different types ofcosmetics’ customers. This customer behaviour will be then analyzed through the self-esteemtheory and finally, the theoretical data will be compared with the empirical ones: the survey.Those parts are considered to be the most interesting since so far, no studies have treated thelink between the self concept’s theories and the use of cosmetics for the male gender.16 Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A., Kirker, W.S. (1977) Self-Reference and the Encoding of Personal Information, Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, 35, 677-688
  21. 21. 3. Methodology:3.1 Method3.1.1Deductive and inductive approaches:- A research can be deductive or inductive. The inductive inquiry means that theories aredeveloped from specific observations. A deductive inquiry is a model in which theories aredeveloped on the basis of general principles.As general principles were used to develop the first part of the study and for the theory, theadopted approach was a deductive one. Nevertheless, specific observations were also usedthanks to the questionnaire: as a consequence, both of the approaches have been adopted.3.1.2Qualitative and quantitative approaches:-A quantitative research is a method based on statistic data’s gathering via questionnaires orsurveys, in order to know the general public tendency.17A qualitative research is the second research method, which evaluates information aboutopinions and values, at the contrary of statistic data.18To answer to the problem, the choice was to collect information about the global market in afirst part, concerning the market’s history and its facts and its actors, and about the marketingmix. The second part is about the consumer behaviour and then the theory about the self-concept is developed. To check the theory, a questionnaire has been made, to see what theglobal tendencies are.As these statistic data have been used, the approach was quantitative. It was relevant to use aconcrete survey to illustrate and to compare with the theory. Also, it is interesting to haveproper and unique results, rather than use only already done surveys.3.2 Type of ResearchExploratory research allows determining the best research design, data collection method andselection of subjects. It is often in connexion with secondary data collection or qualitativeapproaches. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making bythemselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation.19Descriptive research describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenonbeing studied. It is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations.20 Theadopted approach for this survey is a descriptive one, because it is concerning thephenomenon of the men’s cosmetics consumption. Data and characteristics have been used,from secondary and primary data collection method. The aim of this study is to describe andanalyse them in order to better understand this phenomenon.17 http://www.google.fr/search?hl=fr&rlz=1T4SKPB_frSE213SE213&defl=fr&q=define:Recherche+quantitative&sa=X&oi=glossary_definition&ct=title, Visited on 16th February 201118 http://www.google.fr/search?hl=fr&rlz=1T4SKPB_frSE213SE213&q=define%3ARecherche+qualitative&meta, Visited on 16th February201119 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploratory_research, visited on 17th February 201120 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descriptive_research, visited on 17th February 2011
  22. 22. 3.3 Population and samplePopulation: Obviously, as the survey is about understanding the relationship between menand the cosmetics world, the choice of focusing the questionnaires on men, and moreespecially on young ones was relevant.At the beginning of the research, it has been decided to interview Indian men: 2 targets werechosen for these questionnaires: People aged between below 20, 20-30, 30-45 and above45years old were targeted. Generally Students were the major respondent. They would havebeen picked up at different social networking site like Linked In and Facebook. for example.It was quite sure that they used cosmetics whatever they were. But, then, it seemed that thebrakes to the consumption of cosmetics for men more concerned the former generation, thatis to say men aged more than 45 years old. It had been chosen to question persons of eachgroup (100 in total) in the city of Noida, NIILM Centre For Management Studies Campus.However, as the research was going on, it has been discovered that this market is developingsince few years and is a quite Indian tendency. So, it could be interesting and quite relevant tofocus the survey on a mixed population of men from different states. Moreover, young menbetween 20 and 35 years old tend to be the most receptive to the market. So, the chosenpopulation was young men between 20 and 30years old.3.4 What sampling method is used?To sample is to use a subset of the population in order to represent the whole population.Probability sampling or random sampling is a technique in which the probability of gettingany particular sample may be calculated. But, for the work, it has been decided to choose anon profitability sampling. Performing non profitability sampling is considerably lessexpensive than doing probability sampling, and the result have a limited value. Thegeneralizations obtained from a non probability sample must be filtered through one’sknowledge of the topic being studied. The convenience sampling is one of non probabilitysampling, and is the one that was chosen for the survey. The members of the population arechosen based on their relative ease of access. Here, the sample was Facebok.com friends andLinkedIn friends. So, by combining both trends (men from different age category like below20, 20-30, 30-45 and above 45years old. Being in NIILM Centre For Management Studies fora PGDM program was very useful. Thus, students form NIILM, from different batch and, Ithas been decided to take 100 respondent in total in order to have a good representation.3.5 Instrument/technique to collect data3.5.1 Secondary data collection: This concerns all data that have already been found bysomeone else, for a different purpose from you.2121 http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1u3/hm1u3fra.htm, visited on 19th February 2011
  23. 23. Secondary data were used in the first and second part, concerning the global market of men’scosmetics, and also when developing the theory about self-concept.To collect the secondary data, many sources were used. Firstly, some books of marketing andpsychology were taken at the library in order to talk about self-concept theory, self-esteemand about the consumer behaviour in General. Also, many really interesting articles from theInternet were found, about for instance the men’s cosmetics market in facts and figures, theoffer and the supply, the link between cosmetics and self-concept. Finally, the universitydatabase has been used to find some information about social construction of masculinity3.5.2 Primary data collection:- Primary research (also called field research) involves thecollection of data that does not already exist, which is research to collect original data.Primary Research is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into theissue by collecting secondary data. This can be through numerous forms, includingquestionnaires, direct observation and telephone interviews amongst others. This informationmay be collected in things like questionnaires and interviews.22 Here, you collect datayourself using methods as questionnaires or interviews. The advantage is that the collecteddata is unique, so it gives all its importance to the work.23Primary data is used in the third part. The technique chosen is a survey realized with the helpof questionnaires (instrument). The purpose of the survey is to check if the theory isconforming to the research’s results (reality).3.6 Advantages:-1. Addresses specific research issues as the researcher controls the search design to fit theirneeds Great control, not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specificsubjects, it also enables the researcher to have a higher control over how the information iscollected.2. Taking this into account, the researcher can decide on such requirements as size of project,time frame and location of research.3. Efficient spending for information, primary data collection focus on issues specific to theresearcher, improving the chances that the research funds are spent efficiently.4. Proprietary information, primary data collected by the researcher is their own.3.7 Disadvantages:1. Compared to secondary research, primary data may be very expensive in preparing andcarrying out the research.2. In order to be done properly, primary data collection requires the development andexecution of a research plan. It is longer to undertake primary research than to acquiresecondary data.22 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_research visited on 20th February 201123 http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1u3/hm1u3fra.htm, visited on 19th February 2011
  24. 24. 3. Some research projects, while potentially offering information that could prove quitevaluable, may not be within the reach of a researcher.4. May be very expensive because many people need to be confronted.5. By the time the research is complete it may be out of date.6. People may have to be employed or avoid their primary duties for the duration of theresearch.7. People may not reply if emails or letters are used. 243.7 The questionnaires (cf. annexure)First of all, it should be précised that the questionnaire could have been more relevant if focusonly on the “new men’s cosmetic product” rather than including the basics one. Indeed, weincluded products such as shaving foam, shower gel, deodorant that should not have beenincluded for a consistent concern. Moreover, when talking about shower gel or deodorant, weare obviously convinced that most of men use it, but we were more thinking about productsspecifically made for men.A questionnaire about a score (twenty two) questions was built. It is a funnel-shapedquestionnaire that is to say that it begins from the more general information such as the ageand the nationality and then, asks questions about the consumptions habits of the respondentssuch as what kind of products they bought, the brand that they like, the budget, the placewhere they bought them…. And finally, it finishes by questions about consumer behaviour:Why do they use or not cosmetic? Do they feel more self-confident or guilty by buying andusing cosmetics? If they fear to be consider as a homosexual by using cosmetics? At thebeginning, the questionnaires had much more questions like: What cosmetics means for you?Or, questions about the purchase frequency… But, it was chosen to put them away because itseemed that it was necessary to ask direct questions, easy to answer… And moreover, theimportant purpose was to link it with the theory which is much more about the consumerbehaviour and the self-esteem. Another problem happened when building the questionnaireconcerned the people who would use cosmetics and the one who would not. In fact, they hadto be separated, but at the same time, some questions were relevant for both. And after somediscussions, it was finally found how to organize the questionnaire for both targets.The types of questions used were for the most “closed” questions but with a multiple choicewhich enable to guide the respondents to answers relevant for the link with the theory. All ofthe information found in the secondary data enables to build the question and the possibleanswers. Just a few opened questions were used for the age, the nationality and the budget.24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_research visited On 19th February 2011
  25. 25. Here is the table showing the category of information and the specific information asked inthe questionnaire:-Information Category General information, Consumptions habits, Consumer behaviourDemographics AgeConsumption Habit Use or not cosmetics, Mens or womens products, Kind of products, Products typical for men, How long the use, The brands, The place to buy them, The budget, The purchasing advisor, The decision-making process through the product’s characteristicsConsumer Behaviour (Psychographic) The reason for using or not cosmetics, Guiltiness by buying cosmetics Self- confidence, Self-image, Men or women area, Virility, Homosexuality3.8 The administration of the questionnairesBefore everything, it was important to pre-test the questionnaire with ten or so persons inorder to see if the analysis was relevant or not, and in this case, if it will be important tomodify some questions. The pre-test was relevant. Often, people were surprised by the absentof perfumes in the answers. But, it was a thinking choice because perfumes for men, even ifthey are cosmetics, exist since a long time. And the survey is more about cosmetics such asskin cares…that appear few years ago.3.8.1The questionnaires were administrated by one method;- By Using e-mail and by uploadingthe questionnaire on social networking site like Facebook, LinkedIn, And respondents fromsocial networking sites were asked to participate in the survey. The questionnaires wereuploaded on the Google, and Google doc link have been sent to the friends through mail andlink was uploaded on the Facebook.com and Linked In websites. With all of these means,more than one hundred in total questionnaires were easily collected.3.9 Instrument used to analyze the empirical dataTo analyze data, the Google document features were used. This software is specialized indata’s treatment and analysis and realizes automatically graphs and results. But the analysisof the results of the questionnaires will be developing in the last part of the work.
  26. 26. 4. The MarketThe cosmetic market for men- The market of men’s cosmetic is relatively a new market. So,it is interesting to study the beginning, when this market was considered as a niche market,until the rapid development nowadays. It seems to be also interesting to try to forecast in amid-term the evolution of this market and understand why the growth will probably continuethese following years.Previously men cosmetic product was for Niche market- what is niche market? The definitionof a niche market is that the product interests just a few people. The target is represented by alimited segment and, in order for the market to be profitable, only one or two companies canbe positioned on this specialized segment25In the market of hygiene and beauty for men, and especially in the cosmetics, the offer hasbeen ignored by the cosmetics brand for a long time. In fact, until the end of the 1990s,beauty products for men were almost non-existent on the market. They did not have a specialspace the stores and the men strictly used products in a utilitarian aspect. This market hasinterested just a few brands because it was considered as a niche. Only the group L’Oréal hadthe courage to launch itself in this segment in 1985 with Biotherm Homme. This brand isconsidered like a pioneer in the men’s’ cosmetics. In fact, Biotherm was almost alone formore than 15 years, and it is the first one which dares to proclaim that men also need to takecare of themselves, to clean their skin, combining the pleasure and the wellness by usingcreams, lotions, even anti-wrinkle creams. In the 90s, Nickel, an exclusive brand for men,launched an offensive by creating masculine beauty institutes. Then, in 1996, it launched itsown line for men only. In fact, thanks to the succeed of its institutes, the brand noticed an realcapacity and opportunity in this market. This new brand bound to men only knew how toenter in this market, thanks to its concept composed by different offers: one on the products,and the other one on the performance of services. But, the real revolution occurred in 2001with the arrival of Vichy for men and Clarins in 2002. A lot of brands begin to be seriouslyinterested in this growing segment and real competition appears. A new potential is detectedby the big cosmetologist firms. The Indian cosmetics industry has seen strong growth overthe past few years and emerged as one of the industries holding huge potential for furthergrowth. In 2009, the cosmetics industry registered impressive sales of INR 356.6 Billion(US$ 7.1 Billion) despite the global economic recession.Images showing how cosmetics products are positioned themselves in their marketingcommunication;-25 Kotler et Dubois (2004), Marketing Management, p.304
  27. 27. 4.1The global market of men’s cosmetics26Over the last 15 years, the cosmetics market has grown on average by +4.5% a yearexcluding currency fluctuations, with annual growth rates ranging from around +3% to+5.5%. It is a market which has demonstrated both its ability to achieve sustainable growthand its capacity for resilience in unfavourable economic conditions. In 2008, the worldwidecosmetics market totaled €110.3 billion. The cosmetics market is divided into five mainbusiness segments: skincare, haircare, make-up, fragrances and toiletries. These segments arecomplementary and thus able to meet consumers’ needs in all their diversity. In the differentcategories, a good many of the products are intended for everyday hygiene, comfort andbeauty purposes. Shampoos, cleansing lotions and moisturizing creams are products whichmeet everyday needs: 92% of French people, for example, use a shampoo three times a weekon average. Other products, such as hair colorants, anti-dandruff shampoos, sun protectionproducts and anti-ageing skincare lines are also features of everyday life. At the meetingpoint between body and mind, cosmetic products furthermore play a part in the fundamental26 http://www.reveal-thegame.com/docs/The_cosmetics_market.pdf Visited on 20 february 2011 at 1800 Hrs
  28. 28. need for beauty, enabling all individuals to express their personalities to the full, gain self-confidence open up to others and achieve self-fulfillment.Worldwide Cosmetics Market top ten (2008) includes United States, Japan, Brazil, China,Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Russia and Spain.In the space of 10 years, the worldwide cosmetics market Top 10 has been substantiallychanged by the growth of the emerging markets, and particularly the BRIMC27 countries.China, eighth in 1998, became the fourth largest market in 2008. Brazil is now in third place.Lastly, Russia is now one of the world’s top ten markets.4.2 The men’s cosmetic market in India ;-The Indian make-up market generated total revenues of $141.6 million in 2009, representinga compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.9% for the period spanning 2005-2009. Lipmake-up sales proved the most lucrative for the Indian make-up market in 2009,generating total revenues of $72.5 million, equivalent to 51.2% of the markets overall value.The performance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 7% forthe five-year period 2009-2014, which is expected to lead the market to a value of $198.7million by the end of 2014.28Market analysis : The Indian make-up market witnessed a double digit growth between 2005and 2009, as a result of strong sales growth in the eye make-up, face make-up, lip make-upand nail make-up categories. However, the growth rate in this market is expected todecelerate in the forthcoming five years.The Indian make-up market generated total revenues of $141.6 million in 2009, representinga compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.9% for the period spanning 2005-2009. Incomparison, the Chinese and Japanese markets grew with CAGRs of 9.1% and 1.7%respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $1.1 billion and $4.3billion in 2009. Market consumption volumes increased with a CAGR of 7.5% between2005-2009, to reach a total of 75.6 million units in 2009. The markets volume isexpected to rise to 92.9 million units by the end of 2014, representing a CAGR of 4.2%for the 2009-2014 period. Lip make-up sales proved the most lucrative for the Indianmake-up market in 2009, generating total revenues of $72.5 million, equivalent to 51.2%of the markets overall value. In comparison, sales of nail make-up generated revenues of$24.9 million in 2009, equating to 17.6% of the markets aggregate revenues. Theperformance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipated CAGR of 7% for thefive-year period 2009-2014, which is expected to lead the market to a value of $198.7 millionby the end of 2014. Comparatively, the Chinese and Japanese markets will grow with CAGRs27 BRIMC..ie..Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, China28 Data Monitor report 2011
  29. 29. of 6.6% and 1.3% respectively, over the same period, to reach respective values of $1.5billion and $4.6 billion in 2014.294.3 MARKET VALUE:-Table 1: India make-up market value: $ million, 2005–09YEAR $ million INR millions Euro millions % Growth2005 87 4,258.6 62.72006 100.5 4,909.0 72.3 15.32007 115.1 5,620.3 82.7 14.52008 129.3 6,316.2 93.0 12.42009 141.6 6,918.0 101.8 9.5CAGR for 2005-1009 12.9%Source: Data Monitor4.4 MARKET SEGMENTATION for overall cosmetic product:- Lip make-up is the largest segment of the make-up market in India, accounting for 51.2% ofthe markets total value. The nail make-up segment accounts for a further 17.6% of themarket.Table 2: India make-up market segmentation:% share, by value, 2009(e)Category % shareLip make-up 51.2Nail make-up 17.6Face make-up 17.3Eye make-up 13.9Total 100Source; Data Monitor4.5 MARKET DISTRIBUTION:-Specialist Retailers form the leading distribution channel in the Indian make-up market,accounting for a 63% share of the total markets value. Department Stores (incl. Duty-FreeShops) accounts for a further 21.8% of the market.Table 3: India make-up market distribution: % share, by value, 2009(e)Channel % ShareSpecialist Retailers 63Department Stores (incl. Duty-Free Shops) 21.8Independent Retailers 12.3Others 2.9Total 100Source : Data Monitor29 Data Monitor May 2010 report on Indian Makeup.
  30. 30. 4.6. The Actor, Leader, Challenger and their Strategist:-4.6.1Beauty Industrial’s stakesIn a market which is developing faster and faster, the actors are faced to the following stakes:- Making a specific cosmetic offer: Male skin has different characteristics from the ones offemale skin (thickness, rhythm of ageing, sebum secretion)- Investing in R&D to guarantee the product, because men are looking for simple careproducts, quick to use, with immediate efficiency and convincing results- Getting an image of men beauty’ specialist with a wide and deep offer, most often afterhaving initialized the market with shaving products- Organizing a proper distribution to the male target, knowing two major factors:• Men beauty is still under taboos, what means an anonymous and discreet distributionexcept for perfumes• Woman still has a strong prescription power and realize most of the purchases4.6.2 The market actors- Men cosmetics’ market is still in a structuring phase. Nevertheless,3 kinds of actors are appearing:Cosmetics industry leaders: These actors are the most powerful in the market. They all haveimportant financial and organisational ways to impose their products in the male market.They pursue a roll-over strategy close to the one used since a long time in the female market.The leaders in Indian market includes, HUL, P&G, Emami, Godrej, Loreal etcCare universe actors: Some brands benefit of a strong credibility thanks to the care market.This market has several advantages in the distribution network - pharmacies, institutes, spas -thanks to their support. Actually, these actors take advantage of the know-how and thecredibility which characterize care and pharmaceutical world, and could get a determinantrank in the market.Independent cosmetics’ makers;- They strongly stimulate the market by adapting theiroffer to men, but their diffusion stay confidential. To become strong, this group needsdistributors to give visibility to beauty for men through specific spaces or special concepts.4.7. Strategies & targetsThe steady growth rate in the Indian cosmetic and beauty service market has made the Indiangovernment it as a source of potential revenue for the country. In fact CII organized its firstbeauty B2B event—Beauwell India 2005—in Chennai in March, which attracted foreignparticipation especially from Europe. In presenting the event, TT Ashok, chairman, CII(Southern Region), said, “As the cosmetic industry is growing so rapidly, we at CII felt the
  31. 31. need for an industry event to showcase the opportunities in the beauty and wellness business,and present a business platform for suppliers as well as players in the beauty servicebusiness.”The increasing market size is the direct result of the changing socio-economic status of theIndian consumers, especially women. Higher paying jobs and increasing awareness of theWestern world and beauty trends there have served to change the tastes and customs of themiddle class and higher strata of the society, with the result that a woman from such socialstrata now is more conscious of her appearance and is willing to spend extra cash onenhancing it further. Today increasing numbers of women, especially from the middle-classpopulation, have more disposable income leading to a change in cosmetic and skin careproduct consumption. This actually has fuelled a growth in certain product categories in themarket that hardly were experiencing it earlier. Two such categories are color cosmetics andsun care products that have shown growth rates of 46% and 13% respectively over the pasttwo years, according to Euromonitor International.Differentiation by the distribution - The brand positioning depends on the chosen distributionway.•Sales in specialized selling points (pharmacies, institutes, spas…)Selling in pharmacies, institutes or spas means a selective market target. For example, VLCCand The Body Shop: the products’ prices are medium-high. The objective of this strategy is togive the consumer the message that these types of products are provided with medical care, toemphasize on quality and safety.•Sales in super stores (Shoppers Stop, Big bazaar, Lifestyle)When selling in a super store, the market target is the most wide as possible: it concerns thewhole clientele. The strategy becomes by the same way a mass-marketing strategy, withaligned prices. For instance, Cosmetic section in Shoppers Stop.5. MARKETING MIX:-5.1 The Product:-Definition of the product: “a product is anything that is offered to a market for attention,acquisition, use or consumption and that might satisfy a want or need. It includes physicalobject, services, persons, places, organization and ideas”30The men’s products cannot be the same as those offers to women. Everything should berather different: the packaging, the container, the product’s texture, smell and aspect and thevocabulary (lexical field) have to be reviewed. Indeed, their skins are different: men have athicker skin, tougher and so it is greasier. Thick skin and excesses of sebum are not good: thepores quickly will dilate, to clog itself: buttons and black spots appear. The skin of the males30 Kotler, Amstrong, Sounders and Wong, Principles of Marketing
  32. 32. ages differently from the women’s one: the wrinkles appear later, but will be deeper31.Besides, they shave. The razor’s blade attacks the skin and dries it that makes it moresensitive and wrinkled. The men prefer products less scented than the ranges traditionallyintended for the women. As they refuse to spend too much time in the bathroom the creamsmust have light textures with fast penetration.5.2 The Promotion:-Advertising and marketing specialists are aiming at young, urban Indian women, whoare earning their own money and are potential customers for a host of products,including name-brand clothes, cosmetics and new cars.Promotion campaigns of the cosmetic products marketer trying to match up with newtrends and technology.The Vaseline Cream for men deveolped a application on facebook and contineous marketingby HUL during the world cup through internet is a one of best examples. Cosmetic makerhave a big bunch of Celebrities who are doing endorsment for the cosmetic products. ShahRukh Khan for Fair and Handsome, Shahid Kapoor for Vasleine, Hrithik Roshan forChinthol are few examples of celebrity endorshment for mens cosmetic product.Promotion campaign by Loreal during the Aicha release, was a perfect exapmle of howmarketer are using Movies as a tool for marketing.Billbaords and OOH is widely use for the promotion of cosmetic products.31 Wikipedia
  33. 33. 32 Garnier case Study:-Garnier has been very active and upfront in adopting new promotional techniques to marketits products. The company follows a very popular technique to advertise and market itsproducts that is the Viral Marketing policy. Viral marketing is a term coined to define theproductive ways a marketing message is made available. And corporate are using the mediumto circulate brands and brand messages. The idea has caught on like a virus, as efficiently asInformation Technology has entered households and businesses. Firms are now structuringtheir businesses in a way that allows them to grow like a virus and lock out the existing brickand mortar competitors through innovative pricing and exploitation of competitors’distribution channels. The beauty of this marketing technique is that none of it requires anymarketing. Customers, who have caught the virus, do the selling. Viral marketing describesany strategy that encourages individuals to pass on a marketing message to others, creatingthe potential for exponential growth in the message’s exposure and influence. Like viruses,such strategies take advantage of rapid multiplication to explode the message to thousands, tomillions.Off the Internet, viral marketing has been referred to as “word-of-mouth”, “creating a buzz”,“leveraging the media” and even “network marketing.” It’s a deceptively simple concept:Create a message, send it via e-mail, and make it so compelling that recipients want to pass iton to everyone in their address book. Advertisers are hot on the tactic, and the idea of puttingconsumers to work spreading the word about a brand or service seems sound.5.2.1 Communication Strategies :-Communication for men is different following the market target. To attract the best thetarget, a communication campaign is necessary. Two kinds of communication can bedistinguished: The media communication and the non-media communication. The first one isconcerning all types of communication using one of the 6 medias which are the Internet,cinema, TV, press, billboards and radio. All the other types of communications, such aspublic relations, personal sellings, direct response marketing and sales promotion are non-media communication.Media promotion includes Press release, Television, Radio, and The Internet. Where as nonmedia promotions includes sponsoring, sales promotion.Some wide spred practice for marketing of cosmetic includes;-Print Advertising:-Where the marketer Increase the status of beauty products by having models and famousactresses using products. In magazines, they try to get products used on the cover model andin featured articles. Fashion magazines, teen magazines and magazines for women typicallydescribe the makeup and beauty supplies used to create the models appearance. Whencustomers want to replicate the look, they will look for your products.32 http://www.mbaknol.com/management-case-studies/case-study-loreals-promotional-strategies-in-indian-cosmetics-market-for-garnier read on 23 February 2011
  34. 34. Boutique:- VLCC and Body shop- Marketing the beauty products as prestige items bylimiting sales to boutiques or limited retailers. Train the sales associates in these locations onthe high-quality ingredients used in your products, special techniques and how to select thebest product to enhance a customers appearance. Offer demonstrations, makeovers andbeauty training sessions for customers. Making sure that the ambiance of the store enhancesthe prestige image of products through a clean, upbeat atmosphere. With a prestige, boutique-marketing strategy, you can command a premium price for many beauty products.Wide Distribution;- HUL and P&GBy going for high-volume sales through wide distribution of beauty products. They sell aroutine product that is not suitable for prestige pricing, by try to obtain as much market shareas possible. Placing the products in mass-market retailers, in convenience locations and instores where competition has not targeted.Its being stated that if you offer a quality beauty product at a highly competitive price and itis readily available, you will increase customer loyalty and repeat sales.Private LabelExpand your sales by offering private-label options to stores, salons, spas and other beautyretailers. These locations can increase their profile by offering your products with theirbranding on the label, and you can increase sales of your existing product. Consider makingsmall formula changes such as the fragrance to help sell your private-label services tomultiple beauty vendors.5.3 THE PRICE , Different startegies and theories-The selling price-fixing is defined after the study of various data about the market, thedemand and the offer. More precisely, the price which the firm chooses to impose depends onthe cost of the product, on the positioning choice, on the evaluation of the competition or ofthe vision of quality and the value perceived by the price. The price gives an element ofdifferentiation to the customer; moreover it influences its choice and the image which heguesses of the product. Indeed “the price-setting must be set in relation with the value offeredto the customer and perceived by him”33. Besides the relationship exiting between the priceand the customer, the price takes part in the decision of the volume of the sales, of the rate ofthe profit and its global volume.In the market of the cosmetic for the men, there are various price ranges. It often depends onthe channel of distribution.5.3 The PlaceDistribution channels can generally be divided into three parts in the men’s cosmeticmarket. • Super store: Men are looking for low price and discretion when they buy a product in a super store. Of course the line is not very wide and the products are not very specific but it is enough for a certain kind of product. Besides, brands such as l’Oréal are33 Kotler et Dubois (2004), Marketing Management, p.505
  35. 35. launching products more and more specific as anti-shining gel or anti-wrinkles to reach all the targets via super store. • Perfumery and drugstore: Those distribution channels point at a more specific target since crossing over a perfumery is a sign that you are seeking for skin cares, for something that you could not find in a superstore. It is still rather difficult for men to go in those specialized shops because they mean that they feel no shame about their consumption (the next part will talk about the consumer behaviour). • Kirana Store. Organise retailing is just a 4% percent of the retailing. Unorganised retailing is the major constituent of retailing which constitute 95% of the retailing industry. For success of any FMCG product in india is necessary that that product should be available at the kirana store.6. The Consumer BehaviourIt is often said that men often have apprehension about using cosmetics. But as regard to thefigures, men are not that shy and the market is booming. Still it is known there are manybrakes in the market, notably because of the mentalities and the mores. The core of this parton the theory will be to define and analyse the customer behaviour. Is it possible to talk aboutone behaviour? Should we rather talk about several behaviour considering the differentmentalities? What do a man feel when he uses cosmetics? What are the impacts on his imageand on the way he sees himself?First, the research will focus on the facts with a study of the consumer behaviour, then will bedeveloped the self image and the self esteem theories that is a great source of influence whentalking about men cosmetics. Then, the existing link between the market and the theories willbe developed.6.1 The Consumer behaviour: The factsChanges in the consumer behaviourThis first part is mainly oriented on the consumer and in particular his behaviour and itsenvironment. Since, it is necessary to begin this study by specifying the exact definition ofthe consuming term. The consumer can be defined as being “individual or household thatpurchase and use goods and services generated within the economy”34.Talking about the consumer without quoting the consumer behaviour is not possible. Thisdiscipline deals primarily with the process of decision-making of the individuals as regardsconsumption while holding account of the social and economic environment in itsinteractions with the psychological attributes of these one35.Defining the consumer behaviour as “the study of the buying units and theexchangeprocesses involved in acquiring, consuming and disposing of goods, services,34 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer -visited on 23th February 201135 http://ladwein.free.fr/index2.html - visited on 23 February 2011
  36. 36. experiences and ideas”36 is relevant for the understanding of the research. The study of theconsumer behaviour must thus call upon various multidisciplinaryapproaches, disciplinescoming from various horizons such as the economy or from fields concerned with socialsciences such as psychology or sociology. Understanding those mechanisms provide a largenumber of benefits for the managers in their decision making. Analysing the consumerbehaviour will help to understand more about the psychological and sociological factors thatinfluence the customer.The economy studies the rational behaviour of the individual, for instance how it manages hisfinances and how it maximizes his satisfaction and profits. While social sciences lean moreparticularly on the emotional aspect of the individual, by analyzing the consumer per se, andthe consumer in his social environment confronted with the internal and external forces.Since each one of these sciences brings important information on the behaviour of theindividuals, they will be studied jointly. The beauty care is before all an appearance universein which beauty is the keyword. Appearance plays a major part in the professional, personaland social universe. The imagereleased by the individual is the essential element retainedwithin the framework of its relations with the others. The beauty is a reference value and issynonymous with success, fortune and love. The social integration passes mainly by the selfimage: the care taken to its body takes part in the self-confidence.The evolutions of the ways of life influenced the male behaviours. The tendencies that themen had to cross though the time will help to understand why men use nowadays cosmeticproducts.6.2 Main tendenciesSince the end of the sixties appears the will of the Western society to integrate the modernsociety. A quality of life is then wished by a majority of people who are looking to newgoods which simplify the life. With the court of the following decades, this movementbecomes extensive: “refusal of the authority, social justice, major revision of the relationsbetween the sexes, sexual freedom and secularization of the company” are the many eventswhich marked the spirits of the time.These elements had an impact on the consumer society, amongst other things on theconsumption of the men and the women. Virility is well anchored in mentalities; the manknows his place within the society. The statute of the women starts to become extensive. Thefeminist movement of the years 1970 challenged the role of the woman within the modernsociety, and it also enable the male to think about its identity and virility.The years 1980 are characterized by a return to more individualistic concerns. Narcissism,power and excess are at the base of consumption. The man feels strong and wants to enjoy allthe pleasures of the life; beauty, power and force are some characteristic of the man values atthis time. The consumer of the years 1990 doubts; the confidence gains during the formeryears collapses. It begins what can be called an identity crisis. Homosexuality, androgyny,36 Consumer Behavior, Fourth Edition, John C. Mowen p.4 – 23th February 2011

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