Calibration Of Instruments Using LabVIEW

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Calibration Of FLUKE 5500A Calibrator with HP 3458A multimeter using LabVIEW software. Fully automatic.

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Calibration Of Instruments Using LabVIEW

  1. 1. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 1 1 PROJECT REPORT (Project Semester January to June, 2014) Automation of Instruments Calibration using LabVIEW Software Submitted by: Aman Singhla Roll No: 101005004 Under the Guidance of Sheo Prasad (Scientist ‘E’) Manjula Bhati (Scientist ‘E’) Laboratory Incharge Training Incharge Department of Electronics (Instrumentation & Control) Engineering THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA (Deemed University)
  2. 2. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 2 2 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “Automation of Instruments Calibration using LabVIEW Software” is an authentic record of my own work carried out at ERTL (N), Okhla, Delhi as requirements of six months project semester for the award of degree of B.E. (Electronics (Instrumentation & Control) Engineering), Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology (Deemed University), Patiala under the guidance of Mr. Sheo Prasad (Scientist ‘E’) & Mr. Ram Sanehi (Scientist ‘D’), during January to June, 2014. Signature of student AMAN SINGHLA 101005004 Date: __________________________ Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief. Mr. Sheo Prasad Mrs. Manjula Bhati Scientist ‘E’ Scientist ‘E’ Lab coordinator Training Incharge
  3. 3. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 3 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “…..The beauty of the destination is half veiled and the fragrance of success half dull, until the traces of all those enlightening the path are left to fly with wind spreading word of thankfulness…..” Keeping the above in mind I take this opportunity to thank everyone, from the staff members to the workers from the Calibration Laboratory of Electronics Regional Test Laboratory (North) who welcomed me with open arms and have helped me in one way or another during the course of my stay. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Sheo Prasad (Scientist ‘E’), Mr. Ram Sanehi (Scientist ‘D’), and Mr. Jitender Mittal (Scientist ‘B’) for their guidance, patience and constant support without which I would never had managed to complete the training within the assigned period. The help and support of my friends and colleagues during the tenure of the training was enormous and is acknowledged from the core of my heart. Last but not the least, I express my gratitude to my institute, Thapar University, Patiala, for giving me an opportunity to grow and develop my thoughts for my future life. The teaching staff has been the path providers and the non-teaching staff the supporters.
  4. 4. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 4 4 CONTENTS TITLE PAGE NO. DECLARATION 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3 ABOUT THE PROJECT 5 COMPANY PROFILE 6 1.AN INTRODUCTION TO LABVIEW AND VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION 10 2.FLUKE 5500A CALIBRATOR 14 3.HP 3458A MULTIMETER 23 4.OVERVIEW OF THE LABVIEW SOFTWARE 28 5.ALL SUB-VI’S USED IN THE LABVIEW PROGRAM 36 6.FINAL REPORTS 51 CONCLUSION 54
  5. 5. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 5 5 ABOUT THE PROJECT PROBLEM: All the work done in Calibration Laboratories is manually. It is very big task to bring automation in the field. Various benefits of Automation in the Laboratories are: ● It reduces the work time from several hours to very few hours. ● It doesn’t require constantly working on instrument as it provides flexibility to start the program and then it can finish automatically. ● It improves the accuracy of result. ● It reduces human error. TASK: The main task is to calibrate FLUKE 5500A CALIBRATOR with HP 3458A DIGITAL MULTIMETER using LabVIEW 12 software. OVERVIEW: There are number of parameters which are calibrated in the FLUKE 5500A i.e, DC Voltage (Normal and Aux), AC Voltage (Normal and Aux), Resistance, DC Current, AC Current, Frequency, Power Factor, DC Power, AC Power and Scope Functions. And various instruments such as Amplifiers, Counters, Resistors and Digital Multimeters are used to calibrate all of these parameters. In this project, I have done only DC Voltage and AC Voltage using HP 3458A multimeter.
  6. 6. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 6 6 COMPANY PROFILE Standardization Testing and Quality Certification (STQC) Directorate is an attached office of the Department of Electronics And Information Technology(DEITY), Government of India, provides quality assurance services in the area of Electronics and IT through countrywide network of laboratories and centers. The services include Testing, Calibration, IT & e- Governance, Training and Certification to public and private organizations. STQC laboratories are having national/International accreditation and recognitions in the area of testing and calibration. Besides testing and calibration STQC has specialized institutions such as Indian Institute of Quality Management (IIQM) for quality related training programs. Centre for Reliability (CFR) for reliability related services and Centre for Electronics Test Engineering (CETEs) for skill based trainings. In the area of IT & e-Governance, STQC provides assurance services through its IT Centres for Software Quality testing, Information Security and IT Service Management by conducting testing, training, audit and certifications. STQC is responsible for maintaining eGov standards. Based on this concept a Conformity Assessment Framework (CAF) for e-Governance project has also been developed and is in operation. Two IT test laboratories, at Bangalore and Kolkata, have received accreditation from American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) being the first outside the USA.
  7. 7. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 7 7 ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) NEW DELHI ERTL Delhi Electronics Regional Test Laboratory (North), New Delhi, popularly known as ERTL (N), is one of the flagship laboratory of STQC Directorate, Department of Electronics And Information Technology(DeitY), Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India engaged primarily in providing Accredited Calibration and Testing facilities. It is one of the ERTL set up to serve small and medium scale electronic industries located in India. ERTL (North) serves the industries located in northern India with an aim of upgrading the overall quality of electronics products manufactured in India. Electronics Regional Test Laboratory (North), ERTL (N) was formerly functioning as Test, Evaluation & Calibration Centre at the National Physical Laboratory, and New Delhi before being shifted to its present location at Okhla Industrial Area in the year 1982. Electronics Regional Test Laboratory, ERTL (North), New Delhi has specialization in High Precision Calibration facilities, Environmental testing, Power / Energy Testing, and EMI/EMC testing, Safety Testing, System Testing, Durability Testing etc. RECOGNITIONS/ ACCREDICTIONS NATIONAL By NABL for Testing and Calibration in the field of Electronics and Electro-technical disciplines, by STQC for "S" Mark and EMC Certification, BIS recognition for AC static Energy Meters, Capacitors, Electronic Ballast, Voltage Stabilizers, CFL, Inverter, Automatic Voltage Corrector and Electronic fan regulators etc. INTERNATIONAL NSI Laboratory under IECQ System, CB Test Laboratory under IECEE-CB Scheme, EMI/EMC Testing by FCC (USA), testing for EMI/EMC under telecommunication. Certification Body Program, Testing for Safety of Electronics/Electrical products by SASO,
  8. 8. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 8 8 SONCAP, Membership of NCSL. Testing of equipment for CE marking under self- declaration for manufacturers interested in export to Europe. CALIBRATION LABORATORY OVERVIEW: Calibration is a comparison between measurements – one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device. The device with the known or assigned correctness is called the standard. The second device is the unit under test, test instrument, or any of several other names for the device being calibrated. The accuracy of electronic components used in all instruments naturally drifts over time. Therefore, it is necessary to calibrate instruments at regular intervals as defined by the manufacturer. Calibration quantifies and improves the measurement performance of an instrument. Benefits of maintaining properly calibrated equipment include reduced measurement errors, consistency between measurements, increased production yields, and the assurance of accurate measurements. Accurate measurements play a vital role at each stage in development and production of quality product. The effectiveness of quality control steps depends directly on the accuracy and confidence with which the test & measuring instruments (TMI) can yield test results. Thus systematic and periodic checking of Test & measuring Instruments is very essential for reliable measurements. The process of periodic checking of TMI by comparison with another instrument of better accuracy is termed as Calibration. Further for worldwide exchange of goods, products & technology and interchangeability of components & parts, it is essential that measurement represent the same quantity everywhere. This is possible only when the measurements have a common reference base, which is internationally accepted. This common reference base is the SI unit of measurement. Standard is the physical realization of the unit of measurement. The process of making sure that our measurement stem from a common reference base is termed as Traceability. Periodic calibration of TMI provides the most vital link between international standards of measurement and the day-to-day test & measurement data through the medium of National measurement standards held by the National standards laboratory. Since it is impracticable to cater the calibration requirements of the entire TMI population by a single laboratory, the support hierarchy for establishing traceability is provided by echelons of calibration laboratories. The laboratories complying with the requirement of ISO/IEC 17025 standard are competent to produce reliable and valid results. Accreditation of laboratory ensures compliance to ISO/IEC 17025 standard and competence of laboratories. STQC offers calibration services to industry and organizations in the following domains: ● Electro Technical Calibration ● Non Electrical Calibration
  9. 9. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 9 9 ● High Precision Calibration ● Onsite calibration ● Medical Equipment Calibration There are 4 regional laboratories, ten state level laboratories and 2 high precision calibration centers at Delhi and Bengaluru. The STQC laboratories are equipped with the state of the art calibrating facilities. These laboratories serve as support hierarchy in establishing traceability to the National Standards through their calibration services to electronic & allied industries for electro technical and non-electrical parameters. These calibration services are provided by STQC laboratories ERTL(North) Delhi, ERTL(East) Kolkata, ERTL(South) Thiruvananthapuram,ERTL(West) Mumbai, ETDC Bengaluru, ETDC Chennai, ETDC Hyderabad, ETDC Pune, ETDC Goa, ETDC Jaipur, ETDC Mohali, ETDC Solan,ETDC Guwahati and ETDC Agartala. All STQC laboratories have well-established quality system complying with ISO/IEC 17025 and are accredited by NABL (National Accreditation Board for Laboratories) Recognitions and Accreditation: The quality system implemented in the laboratory and the technical competence comply with the requirement of the international standard ISO / IEC17025.The laboratories are accredited/in the process of accreditation by the National Accreditation Board for Testing & Calibration Laboratories (NABL). The standards maintained are traceable to national standards. The laboratories also participate in the Proficiency Testing (PT) programs organized by both National and International accreditation bodies and have satisfactory performance. It is an important requirement of ISO/IEC 17025 Standard, It also serves as a nodal agency/reference laboratory for organizing the PT programs for NABL. In addition self- initiated PT programs, are also organized by the STQC High Precision Laboratories.
  10. 10. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 10 10 Chapter 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO LABVIEW AND VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION
  11. 11. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 11 11 1.1 AUTOMATION Automation is basically the delegation of human control functions to machines aimed towards achieving ● Higher productivity ● Greater efficiency ● Less assembly or production time ● Reduced errors 1.2 HISTORY OF AUTOMATION ● Manual control: In this all the actions related to process control and automation are taken by operators. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the likely human errors and in consequence its effect on the quality of the final project. ● Hard wired logic control: This was considered to be the first step towards automation. Here the contactors and relay together with timers and counters were used in achieving the desired level of automation. Limitations: It is bulky and involves complex wiring and lot of rework to implement changes in control logic. ● Dedicated electronic control: With the advent of electronics, the logic gates and further microprocessors started replacing the relay and auxiliary contactors in control circuits. The bimetallic and motorized timers were replaced by electronic timers. Advantages: It involves reduced wiring and space requirements, energy saving, less maintenance and greater reliability. Limitations: In case of any change requirement in the control a lot of rework had to be done which was time consuming and the technology up gradation is costly. ● Virtual Instrumentation: Virtual Instrumentation is the use of customizable software and modular measurement hardware to create user-defined measurement systems, called virtual instruments. The concept of a synthetic instrument is a subset of the virtual instrument concept. A synthetic instrument is a kind of virtual instrument that is purely software defined. A synthetic instrument performs a specific
  12. 12. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 12 12 synthesis, analysis, or measurement function on completely generic, measurement agnostic hardware. Virtual instruments can still have measurement specific hardware, and tend to emphasize modular hardware approaches that facilitate this specificity. Hardware supporting synthetic instruments is by definition not specific to the measurement, nor is it necessarily (or usually) modular. Leveraging commercially available technologies, such as the PC and the analog to digital converter, virtual instrumentation has grown significantly since its inception in the late 1970s. Additionally, software packages like National Instruments' LabVIEW and other graphical programming languages helped grow adoption by making it easier for non- programmers to develop systems. ● LabVIEW (short for Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) Is a platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments? Originally released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986, LabVIEW is commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation on a variety of platforms including Microsoft Windows, various flavors of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS. The programming language used in LabVIEW, is a dataflow language. Execution is determined by the structure of a graphical block diagram. 1.3 VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION LabVIEW (short for Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) is a platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. The graphical language is named "G". Originally released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986, LabVIEW is commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation on a variety of platforms including Microsoft Windows, various flavors of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X. The latest version of LabVIEW is version LabVIEW 2013. 1.3.1 DATA FLOW PROGRAMING The programming language used in LabVIEW, also referred to as G, is a dataflow programming language. Execution is determined by the structure of a graphical block diagram (the LV-source code) on which the programmer connects different function-nodes
  13. 13. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 13 13 by drawing wires. These wires propagate variables and any node can execute as soon as all its input data become available. Since this might be the case for multiple nodes simultaneously, G is inherently capable of parallel execution. Multi-processing and multi- threading hardware is automatically exploited by the built-in scheduler, which multiplexes multiple OS threads over the nodes ready for execution. 1.3.2 GRAPHICAL PROGRAMMING LabVIEW ties the creation of user interfaces (called front panels) into the development cycle. LabVIEW programs/subroutines are called virtual instruments (VIs). Each VI has three components: a block diagram, a front panel, and a connector panel. The last is used to represent the VI in the block diagrams of other, calling VIs. Controls and indicators on the front panel allow an operator to input data into or extract data from a running virtual instrument. However, the front panel can also serve as a programmatic interface. Thus a virtual instrument can either be run as a program, with the front panel serving as a user interface, or, when dropped as a node onto the block diagram, the front panel defines the inputs and outputs for the given node through the connector pane. This implies each VI can be easily tested before being embedded as a subroutine into a larger program. The graphical approach also allows non-programmers to build programs simply by dragging and dropping virtual representations of lab equipment with which they are already familiar. The LabVIEW programming environment, with the included examples and the documentation, makes it simple to create small applications. This is a benefit on one side, but there is also a certain danger of underestimating the expertise needed for good quality "G" programming. For complex algorithms or large-scale code, it is important that the programmer possess an extensive knowledge of the special LabVIEW syntax and the topology of its memory management. The most advanced LabVIEW development systems offer the possibility of building stand-alone applications. Furthermore, it is possible to create distributed applications, which communicate by a client/server scheme, and are therefore easier to implement due to the inherently parallel nature of G-code.
  14. 14. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 14 14 Chapter 2 FLUKE 5500A CALIBRATOR
  15. 15. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 15 15 2.1 INTRODUCTION: 5500A Multi-Product Calibrator The Fluke Model 5500A Multi-Product Calibrator (Figure 1-1) is a precise instrument that calibrates a wide variety of electrical measuring instruments. With the 5500A Calibrator, you can calibrate precision Multimeters that measure ac or dc voltage, ac or dc Current, ac or dc power, resistance, capacitance, and temperature. With the Oscilloscope Calibration option, you can use the 5500A Calibrator to calibrate analog and digital Oscilloscopes. The 5500A Calibrator is a fully programmable precision source of the following: • DC voltage from 0 V to ±1020 V. • AC voltage from 1 mV to 1020 V, with output from 10 Hz to 500 kHz. • AC current from 0.01 μA to 11.0 A, with output from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. • DC current from 0 to ±11.0 A. • Resistance values from a short circuit to 330 MΩ. • Capacitance values from 330 pF to 1100 μF. • Simulated output for three types of Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs). • Simulated output for nine types of thermocouples.
  16. 16. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 16 16 2.1 SPECIFICATIONS: The following paragraphs detail specifications for the 5500A Calibrator. The Specifications are valid after allowing a warm-up period of 30 minutes, or twice the time the 5500A has been turned off. For example, if the 5500A has been turned off for 5 minutes, the warm-up period is 10 minutes. All specifications apply for the temperature and time period indicated. For temperatures outside of tcal + 5 °C (tcal is the ambient temperature when the 5500A was calibrated), the temperature coefficient is less than 0.1 times the 90-day specifications per °C (limited to 0 °C to 50 °C). These specifications also assume the 5500A Calibrator is zeroed every seven days or when the ambient temperature changes more than 5 °C. (See “Zeroing the Calibrator” in Chapter 4 of the 5500A Operator Manual.) Warmup Time: Twice the time since last warmed up, to a maximum of 30 minutes. Settling Time: Less than 5 seconds for all functions and ranges except as noted. Standard Interfaces: IEEE-488 (GPIB), RS-232, 5725ª Amplifier Temperature Performance: • Operating: 0 °C to 50 °C • Calibration (tcal): 15 °C to 35 °C • Storage: -20 °C to 70 °C Temperature Coefficient: Temperature Coefficient for temperatures outside tcal +5 °C is 0.1X/ °C of the 90-day specification (or 1-year, as applicable) per °C. Relative Humidity: • Operating: <80 % to 30 °C, <70 % to 40 °C, <40 % to 50 °C • Storage: <95 %, non-condensing Altitude • Operating: 3,050 m (10,000 ft) maximum • Non-operating: 12,200 m (40,000 ft) maximum Line Power: • Line Voltage (selectable): 100 V, 120 V, 220 V, 240 V • Line Frequency: 47 Hz to 63 Hz • Line Voltage Variation: ±10 % about line voltage setting. Power Consumption: 5500A Calibrator, 300 VA; 5725A Amplifier, 750 VA 2.2 DC VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS:
  17. 17. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 17 17 2.3 AC VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS:
  18. 18. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 18 18 2.4 Calibration: The standard 5500A has no internal hardware adjustments. The Oscilloscope Option has hardware adjustments; see Chapter 7. All calibration is done with the covers on, using software calibration constants. A calibration routine that prompts you through the entire procedure is built into the 5500A. Calibration occurs in the following major steps: 1. The 5500A sources specific output values and you measure the outputs using traceable measuring instruments of higher accuracy. 2. You enter the measured results either manually through the front panel keyboard or remotely with an external terminal or computer. 3. The 5500A computes a software correction factor and stores it in volatile memory. 4. When the calibration process is complete, you are prompted to either store all the correction factors in nonvolatile memory or discard them and start over. For routine calibration, all steps except frequency and phase are necessary. All the routine calibration steps are available from the front panel interface as well as the remote interface (IEEE-488 or serial). Frequency and phase calibration are recommended after instrument repair, and are available only by way of the remote interface (IEEE-488 or serial).
  19. 19. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 19 19 List of Equipments which are used to do full Calibration of FLUKE 5500A are listed in the table on the next page. 2.5 STARTING CALIBRATION: From the front panel, you start calibration by pressing the S key, followed by the CAL softkey twice, then 5500A CAL. The CALIBRATION SWITCH on the 5500A rear panel can be in either position when you begin calibration. It must be set for ENABLE to store the correction factors into nonvolatile memory.
  20. 20. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 20 20 2.6 CALIBRATING DC VOLTS: Measure the 5500A output using a precision DMM, and enter into the 5500A each of the measured values listed in Table when prompted to do so. 2.7 CALIBRATING AC VOLTS: Measure the 5500A output using a precision DMM, and enter into the 5500A each of the measured values listed in Table when prompted to do so.
  21. 21. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 21 21 2.8 REMOTE COMMANDS FOR 5500A CALIBRATION: Calibration of the 5500A using remote commands is simple. To access calibration steps described in the table, simply send the command: CAL_START MAIN To jump to specific calibration steps, these two commands can be modified by specifying an entry point. The allowable entry points are as shown in the next Table: For example, to jump directly to AC Volts calibration, send the command: CAL_START MAIN,AV To go directly to Resistance calibration, send the command: CAL_START MAIN,R 2.9 PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION TESTS: The following tests are used to verify the performance of the 5500A Calibrator. If an outof- tolerance condition is found, the instrument can be re-calibrated using the front panel or the remote interface as described previously in this chapter. Use the same test equipment and connection methods as used in the preceding calibration procedures. Zero the 5500A Calibrator before testing by completing “Zeroing the Calibrator” as described next.The performance tests have reserved columns for recording the Measured Value and Deviation (%).
  22. 22. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 22 22 2.10 ZEROING THE CALIBRATOR: Zeroing recalibrates internal circuitry, most notably dc offsets in all ranges of operation. To meet the specifications in Chapter 1, zeroing is required every 7 days, or when the 5500A Calibrator ambient temperature changes by more than 5°C. Zeroing is particularly important when your calibration workload has 1 mΩ and 1 mV resolution, and when there are significant temperature changes in the 5500A Calibrator work environment. There are two zeroing functions: total instrument zero (ZERO) and ohms-only zero (OHMS ZERO). Complete the following procedure to zero the calibrator. (Note: The 5500A Calibrator rear panel CALIBRATION switch does not have to be enabled for this procedure.) 1. Turn on the Calibrator and allow a warmup period of at least 30 minutes. 2. Press the R key. 3. Install a copper short circuit in the front panel TC connector (total instrument zero only). 4. Press the S key, opening the setup menu. 5. Press the CAL softkey, opening the calibration information menu. 6. Press the CAL softkey. 7. Press the ZERO softkey to totally zero the 5500A Calibrator; press the OHMS ZERO softkey to zero only the ohms function. After the zeroing routine is complete (several minutes), press the R key to reset the calibrator.
  23. 23. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 23 23 Chapter 3 HP 3458A DIGITAL MULTIMETER
  24. 24. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 24 24 3.1 INTRODUCTION: HP 3458A DIGITAL MULTIMETER The Agilent 3458A Multimeter, recognized the world over as the standard in high performance DMMs, offers very high accuracy and high-speed digitizing for calibration laboratory precision measurements and fast test system throughput. Measurement Capability: ● 8-ppm 1 year dcV accuracy, optional 4-ppm ● 0.05 ppm dcV transfer accuracy ● Superior AC voltage measurements System Capability: ● 100,000 readings per second at 4 1/2 digits. 3.1.1 FASTER SYSTEM START-UP: The value of a fast system multimeter in production test is clear. But it is also important that the Digital Multimeter programs easily to reduce the learning time for new system applications. The Agilent Multimeter Language (ML) offers a standard set of commands for the multimeter user that consists of easily understood readable commands. Easier programming and clearer documentation reduce system development time.
  25. 25. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 25 25 3.1.2 FASTER MEASUREMENTS AND SETUPS: This system dmm is characterised with both fast and accurate measurements. The 3458A optimizes the measurements for the right combination of accuracy, resolution, and speed. The 3458A Multimeter fits the needs from 4.5 digit dc volts measurements at 100,000/second, to 8.5 digit dc volts measurements at 6/second, or anywhere in between in 100 ns steps. Even the traditionally slower measurement functions, such as ac volts, are quicker with the 3458A. For example, we can measure true rms acV at up to 50 readings/second with full accuracy for input frequencies greater than 10 kHz. Besides high reading rates, the 3458A’s design was tuned for the many function and level changes required in testing your device. The 3458A can change function and range, take a measurement, and output the result at 340/second. This is at least 5 times faster than other dmms. In addition, the 3458A transfers high speed measurement data over GPIB or into and out of its 75,000 reading memory at 100,000 readings /second. You can reduce your data transfer overhead by using the unique non-volatile program memory of the 3458A to store complete measurement sequences. These test sequences can be programmed and initiated from the front panel for stand-alone operation without a controller. Finally, the 3458A Multimeter makes fast and accurate measurements. Consider the 3458A’s 0.6 ppm 24 hour dc volts accuracy, 100 ppm ac volts accuracy and its standard functions of dcV, acV, dcI, acI, ohms, frequency and period. Greater measurement accuracy from the dmm means higher confidence and higher test yields. More functions mean greater versatility and lower-cost test systems. 3.1.3 CALIBRATION LAB PRECISION: • 8.5 digits resolution • 0.1 ppm dcV linearity • 100 ppm acV absolute accuracy • 4 ppm/year optional stability dcV stability: The long term accuracy of the 3458A is a remarkable 8 ppm per year— more accurate than many system dmms are after only a day. Option 002 gives you a higher stability voltage reference specified to 4 ppm/year for the ultimate performance.
  26. 26. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 26 26 Easy calibration: The 3458A gives you low cost of ownership with a simple, two-source electronic calibration. With its superior linearity, the 3458A is fully calibrated, including ac, from a precision 10 Vdc source and a precision 10 kΩ resistor. All ranges and functions are automatically calibrated using precise internal ratio transfer measurements relative to these external standards. In addition, the 3458A’s internal voltage standard and resistance standard are calibrated. Now we can perform a self-verifying, self- or auto-calibration relative to the 3458A’s low drift internal standards at any time with the ACAL command. So, if your dmm’s environment changes, auto-calibration optimizes your measurement accuracy. 3.1.4 FOR HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITIZING: • 16 bits at 100,000 samples/sec • Effective rates to 100 Msamples/sec • Signal bandwidth of 12 MHz • 10 ns timing with < 100 ps jitter Direct sampling function: The 3458A has two sampling functions for digitizing wave- forms: direct sampling and sequential or sub-sampling. With direct sampling, the 3458A samples through the 12 MHz path followed by the 2 ns track-and-hold providing 16 bits of resolution. The maximum sample rate is 50,000 samples/second or 20 μs between samples. Samples can be internally paced by a 0.01% accurate time base with time increments in 100 ns steps. Data transfers directly to your computer at full speed or into the dmm’s internal reading memory. Waveform reconstruction consists of simply plotting the digitized voltage readings versus the sampling interval of the time base. Sequential sampling function: Sequential or sub-sampling uses the same measurement path as direct sampling; however sequential sampling requires a periodic input signal. The 3458A will synchronize to a trigger point on the waveform set by a level threshold or external trigger. Once synchronized, the dmm automatically acquires the waveform through digitizing successive periods with time increment steps as small as 10 ns, effectively digitizing at rates up to 100 M samples/second. All you specify is the effective time base and the number of samples desired, the 3458A automatically optimizes its sampling to acquire the waveform in
  27. 27. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 27 27 the least amount of time. Then, for your ease of use, the 3458A automatically re-orders the data in internal memory to reconstruct the waveform. 3.2 DC VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS:
  28. 28. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 28 28 3.2 AC VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS: All the other tables for subtypes of AC Voltage Specifications are given in the respective manual for HP 3458A.
  29. 29. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 29 29 Chapter 4 OVER-VIEW OF THE LABVIEW SOFTWARE
  30. 30. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 30 30 4.1 FLOW DIAGRAM: DC Voltage: DC voltage window appears, User can choose the values for which he wants to take the reading and can save the DC Voltage Report to his location. DC Voltage AUX: DC voltage AUX window appears, User can choose the values for which he wants to take the reading and can save the DC Voltage AUX Report to his location. AC Voltage: AC voltage window appears, User can choose the values for which he wants to take the reading and can save the AC Voltage Report to his location. AC Voltage AUX: AC voltage AUX window appears, User can choose the values for which he wants to take the reading and can save the AC Voltage AUX Report to his location.
  31. 31. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 31 31 4.2 ACTUAL SCREEN: The Actual Screen which user see’s is appeared below. User can choose the priority numbers for all the parameters listed in the screen. And then following calibration is done using that priority index only. ACTUAL SCREEN WHICH USER SEE’S
  32. 32. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 32 32 4.3 MAIN SCREEN FOR DC VOLTAGE: Front Panel of DC Voltage is on the next page. This is the FRONT PANEL of the VI as seen by the user. In this VI, user can select the corresponding values, he or she wants or can add the additional values he or she wants and take the final report for the customer and for the laboratory. When user had selected all the input volts he or she wanted, he or she had to click on DONE button present in the right. Ranges are set by the programmer and user had to select the values according to these ranges only. User can add the additional values in the specific ranges only, specified by the programmer.
  33. 33. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 33 33 4.4 MAIN SCREEN FOR DC VOLTAGE AUX: Front Panel of DC Voltage AUX is on the next page. This is the FRONT PANEL of the VI as seen by the user. In this VI, user can select the corresponding values, he or she wants or can add the additional values he or she wants and take the final report for the customer and for the laboratory. When user had selected all the input volts he or she wanted, he or she had to click on DONE button present in the right. Ranges are set by the programmer and user had to select the values according to these ranges only. User can add the additional values in the specific ranges only, specified by the programmer.
  34. 34. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 34 34 4.5 MAIN SCREEN FOR AC VOLTAGE: Front Panel of AC Voltage is on the next page. This is the FRONT PANEL of the VI as seen by the user. In this VI, user can select the corresponding values, he or she wants or can add the additional values he or she wants and take the final report for the customer and for the laboratory. When user had selected all the input volts he or she wanted, he or she had to click on DONE button present in the right. Ranges are set by the programmer and user had to select the values according to these ranges only. User can add the additional values in the specific ranges only, specified by the programmer.
  35. 35. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 35 35 4.6 MAIN SCREEN FOR AC VOLTAGE AUX: Front Panel of AC Voltage AUX is on the next page. This is the FRONT PANEL of the VI as seen by the user. In this VI, user can select the corresponding values, he or she wants or can add the additional values he or she wants and take the final report for the customer and for the laboratory. When user had selected all the input volts he or she wanted, he or she had to click on DONE button present in the right. Ranges are set by the programmer and user had to select the values according to these ranges only. User can add the additional values in the specific ranges only, specified by the programmer.
  36. 36. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 36 36 Chapter 5 ALL SUB – VI’s USED IN THE LABVIEW PROGRAM
  37. 37. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 37 37 5.1 CONTROLLING HP 3458A WITH LABVIEW: Controlling HP 3458A with LabVIEW includes: ● Taking reading from HP 3458A with LabVIEW. ● Giving various commands to HP 3458A. ● Controlling HP 3458A fully remotely with LabVIEW. ● Changing the address of HP 3458A through LabVIEW. ● Calibrating HP 3458A with the help of LabVIEW. 5.1.1 READING FROM HP 3458A: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI – Read from HP 3458A FRONT PANEL OF VI – Read from HP 3458A In the Block Diagram of this VI, for loop is set to looping for 5 times. Reading is taken five times from HP 3458A and then average of them is taken to produce 1 final reading.
  38. 38. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 38 38 Various Blocks and Commands used are: ● VISA RESOURCE NAME: The default VISA resource name for HP 3458A is GPIB0::22::INSTR. GPIB address of HP 3458A is set to default as 22. User can change it if, he/ she wants to do by doing it manually or with the help of MAX (Measurement And Automation Explorer). ● NPLC 70: NPLC means Number of Power Line Cycles. The multimeter multiplies the specified number of PLCs by the period of the A/D converter's reference frequency (LFREQ command) to determine the integration time. For example, the period of a 50 Hz power line is l/50 = 20 msec. If we specify 10 PLCs, the integration time is 200 msec. In the power-on state, integration time is set to 10 PLCs. In the PRESET NORM state, integration time is set to 1 PLC. In this program, we are specifying NPLC as 70 so it gives the time about 1.4 seconds to take one reading. And it is also specified that by giving NPLC as 70 multimeter takes reading after 20msec. up to 1.4 seconds and then takes average of all 7 readings and gives the final result. So, the reading taken by LabVIEW is very précised and more accurate by manual reading. On the whole, final reading is given by taking 7 X 5 = 35 readings for take one reading. ● VISA Write: VISA Write is used to write commands to any instrument connected to LabVIEW and control remotely. It writes the data from write buffer to the device or interface specified by VISA resource name. ● VISA Read: VISA Read is used to read commands or readings to any instrument connected to LabVIEW and control remotely. It reads the data from the device or interface to read buffer specified by VISA resource name.
  39. 39. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 39 39 5.1.2 RESET HP 3458A: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI – Reset HP 3458A FRONT PANEL OF VI – Reset HP 3458A In this Block Diagram, RESET command is given to Write VISA which is interfaced to HP 3458A. RESET command allows you to set the multimeter to the power-on state without cycling power. Various Blocks and Commands used are: ● RESET: RESET command allows you to set the multimeter to the power-on state without cycling power. ● VISA Write: VISA Write is used to write commands to any instrument connected to LabVIEW and control remotely. It writes the data from write buffer to the device or interface specified by VISA resource name.
  40. 40. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 40 40 5.2 CONTROLLING FLUKE 5500A WITH LABVIEW: Controlling FLUKE 5500A with LabVIEW includes: ● Taking reading from FLUKE 5500A with LabVIEW. ● Giving various commands to HP 3458A. ● Setting output volts of FLUKE 5500A and giving input to HP 3458A. ● Controlling FLUKE 5500A fully remotely with LabVIEW. ● Changing the address of FLUKE 5500A through LabVIEW. ● Calibrating FLUKE 5500A with the help of LabVIEW. 5.2.1 OPERATION COMPLETE COMMAND: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI – *OPC FRONT PANEL OF VI – *OPC
  41. 41. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 41 41 In this Block Diagram, *OPC command is given to Write VISA which is interfaced to FLUKE 5500A. Sets bit 0 (OPC) of the Event Status Register to 1 when all pending device operations are complete. Set bit 0 of the Event Status Register to 1 when all pending device operations are done. Various Blocks and Commands used are: ● VISA Write: VISA Write is used to write commands to any instrument connected to LabVIEW and control remotely. It writes the data from write buffer to the device or interface specified by VISA resource name. ● *OPC: Set bit 0 of the Event Status Register to 1 when all pending device operations are done. 5.2.2 CONTROLLING WITH FLUKE 5500A: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI – GENERATING AND READING FRONT PANEL OF VI – GENERATING AND READING
  42. 42. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 42 42 In these block diagram, Input is given to this VI as “element” (in Volts) which is being given to FLUKE 5500A and operated to HP 3458A and the value is then read through it. Value is being read through “READ HP 3458A” VI through special looping. And then finally, the value read is being given as output as “x/y”. Various Blocks and Commands used are: ● FLAT SEQUENCE STRUCTURE: Consists of one or more sub diagrams, or frames, that execute sequentially. Flat Sequence structure is used to ensure that a sub diagram executes before or after another sub diagram. Data flow for the Flat Sequence structure differs from data flow for other structures. Frames in a Flat Sequence structure execute from left to right and when all data values wired to a frame are available. The data leaves each frame as the frame finishes executing. This means the input of one frame can depend on the output of another frame. ● CONCATENATE STRINGS: Concatenates input strings and 1D arrays of strings into a single output string. For array inputs, this function concatenates each element of the array. Add inputs to the function by right-clicking an input and selecting Add Input from the shortcut menu or by resizing the function. Input to the FLUKE 5500A is given by this concatenating strings. ● VISA Write: VISA Write is used to write commands to any instrument connected to LabVIEW and control remotely. It writes the data from write buffer to the device or interface specified by VISA resource name. ● VISA Read: VISA Read is used to read commands or readings to any instrument connected to LabVIEW and control remotely. It reads the data from the device or interface to read buffer specified by VISA resource name.
  43. 43. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 43 43 Various Sub-VI’s used in this VI are:- 1. OPC QUERY 2. RESET HP 3458A 3. READ HP 3458A 5.3 EXPORTING THE DATA TO MS-EXCEL: Exporting Data to MS-Excel serves as many functions: ● It helps in Report Generation. ● It helps to analyse the data in more generalised form. ● It helps to perform various data manipulation functions such as Calculating Uncertainty, Taking Mean, Etc. ● User can take printouts of the report generated. 5.3.1 OPENING EXCEL FILE: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI – OPENING EXCEL FILE
  44. 44. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 44 44 FRONT PANEL OF VI – OPENING EXCEL FILE This VI is used to open MS-EXCEL file directly through LabVIEW. The name of the file is given by programmer or user which is being open by this VI. MS-Excel file which is opened by this VI already contains the Sample Report Format in it. And Subsequent Readings are being taken in this MS-Excel only. Input Variables to this VI: ● File Name or Path of MS-Excel File where stored in the computer. Output variables from this VI: ● Error Out. ● File Name or Path of MS-Excel File where stored in the computer represented as “data”.
  45. 45. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 45 45 5.3.2 SETTING VALUE TO COLUMN OF PRE-REPORT: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI - SETTING VALUE TO COLUMN OF PRE-REPORT
  46. 46. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 46 46 FRONT PANEL OF VI - SETTING VALUE TO COLUMN OF PRE-REPORT This VI is used to enter the values which being read from HP 3458A to MS-Excel File on to specific column and row i.e., to a specific cell which is being specified by the programmer. In this VI, in the first Flat sequence window, it is being checked whether the corresponding cell is empty or not, and finds the address of that cell which is empty and returns the address to the next Flat sequence window. In the second Flat sequence window, the value coming from HP 3458A is being entered into the cell specified by the first Flat sequence window. This process is repeated for every value coming from HP 3458A.
  47. 47. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 47 47 5.3.3 SETTING VALUE TO COLUMN OF FINAL-REPORT: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI - SETTING VALUE TO COLUMN OF FINAL-REPORT
  48. 48. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 48 48 FRONT PANEL OF VI - SETTING VALUE TO COLUMN OF FINAL-REPORT This VI is used to enter the values which is being read from HP 3458A to MS-Excel File on to specific column and row i.e., to a specific cell which is being specified by the programmer. In this VI, in the first Flat sequence window, it is being checked whether the corresponding cell is empty or not, and finds the address of that cell which is empty and returns the address to the next Flat sequence window. In the second Flat sequence window, the value coming from HP 3458A is being entered into the cell specified by the first Flat sequence window. This process is repeated for every value coming from HP 3458A. 5.4 OTHER VI’s: Various VI’s are used other than controlling HP 3458A and FLUKE 5500A and exporting data to MS-Excel are used in this program. Some of these VI’s are: 5.4.1 GETTING PATH OF REPORT: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI - GETTING PATH OF REPORT
  49. 49. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 49 49 FRONT PANEL OF VI - GETTING PATH OF REPORT In this VI, “Path” is the path of the Sample Report created by the programmer in the software. “target path (use dialog)” is the path given by the user where the Sample Report has to be saved. The special purpose of this VI is that: if same VI is present already in that folder then it opens that VI and if the VI is not present than it creates one new MS-Excel file and opens it. Various tools used are: ● Strip Path: Used to strip the last part of path input to this tool. ● Build Path: Used to add the last part in the path input to this tool. ● Check if file or folder exists: It checks whether the input path file name exists in the folder specified by the user or not. ● Copy: It copies the file from one folder to another specified by the user. 5.4.2 ELEMENT INTO ARRAY: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI - ELEMENT INTO ARRAY
  50. 50. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 50 50 FRONT PANEL OF VI - ELEMENT INTO ARRAY This VI is the most simple VI in the whole software, it just convert the data type of “element” into “array” format. It uses the for loop for conversion. 5.4.3 VALUES SELECTED BY USER: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VI - VALUES SELECTED BY USER FRONT PANEL OF VI - VALUES SELECTED BY USER This VI is very useful as it make an order of all the reading input given by the user. It also compiles the readings in the increasing order so it can be given to FLUKE 5500A calibrator. Various tools used are: ● Sort 1D Array ● Reverse 1D Array ● Index Array ● Delete From Array
  51. 51. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 51 51 Chapter 6 FINAL REPORTS
  52. 52. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 52 52 6.1 REPORT FORMATS: Two types of Report Formats are there: ● For Laboratory ● For Customer 6.1.1 REPORT FORMAT FOR LABORATORY: This format is being created for Laboratory for keeping records and further verification. This Report contains all the parameters in the detailed format containing all the values taken by the HP 3458A in it. This is printed on the normal A4 paper and not on the letterhead. This Report Format is printed on the next page.
  53. 53. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 53 53 7.1.2 REPORT FORMAT FOR CUSTOMER: This is also known as “Calibration Certificate”. This certificate is being provided by the Laboratories to the various costumers of different industries. This Report contains only the final readings and final values from the previously created report. Customer calibrates their products only to receive this certificate only. A copy of this is also saved and kept by the Laboratory also. This Report Format is printed on the next page.
  54. 54. ELECTRONICS REGIONAL TEST LABORATORY (NORTH) CALIBRATION LABORATORY 54 54 CONCLUSION From 6 month of industrial training at ERTL (N), I have been exposed into different kind of working experiences, environments, people and situations which were of great value for future career development. Also we got to know our strengths and weakness. The management and supervising qualities are very essential and we learnt these skills which are important for an engineer during his training. In case the problems cannot be rectified, engineer should be ready for something for the backup. This can be anything for providing temporary hardware to be used in the time the faulty hardware is taken out for repair or simply an explanation why the problem cannot be solved. The most important in my view are the technical skills. During this period we learnt a lot from the practical experience. The training has exposed us about the real working environment, has improved our knowledge, technical and social skills. I have been practically able to work on various DMM’s, Calibrator’s and Lab VIEW and learn the most from what was being provided.

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