2. Evolution of Computers
Idea of computing is as old as the civilisation itself.
1450 B.C. Abacus
• The first known calculating device.
• Made by the Chinese.
• A wooden frame with a number of wires with beads
strung through them.
• Beads were used for counting and calculations.
•To show a number, beads were pulled down so that
each rod represented a digit.
3. Evolution of Computers
1600 Napier Bones
• Counting device for multiplication
• Invented by John Napier, a Scottish
• Strips with numbers written on them.
• Stripes were arranged properly to read the
numbers in adjacent columns to get the
answer of multiplication operation.
4. Evolution of Computers
1642 A.D. Adding Machine
• Invented by the French scientist &
mathematician Blaise Pascal.
• The machine used to perform
addition and subtraction operations.
• Also known as Pascaline.
5. Evolution of Computers
1692 A.D. Multiplying Machine
• The German scientist Gottfried
Leibnitz improved Pascal’s machine.
• It was a calculator, used to perform
addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division operations accurately.
6. Evolution of Computers
1813 A.D. Difference Engine
• Invented by Charles Babbage, an
• Used to perform complex calculations
and print them out.
7. Evolution of Computers
Early 1800’s Jacquard Loom
• Developed by a French weaver Joseph
• A programmable loom having large cards
and holes punched in them.
• Output was a geometric pattern on a
8. Evolution of Computers
• Developed by a Frenchman Charles
• Used to perform addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division and square root
9. Evolution of Computers
1863 A.D. Analytic Engine
• Made by Charles Babbage, the “Father of
• Used to perform long complex
• Used to store 1000, 50-digit numbers per
• Used to multiply 20-digit numbers/ 3
10. Evolution of Computers
1943 A.D. ENIAC
• Electronic Numerical Integrator And
Calculator made by the Harvard University.
•The first electronic computer.
• It was of 5 tons, used to occupy 2 big rooms.
• Used to perform all the calculation like a
11. Evolution of Computers
1947 A.D. EDSAC
• Electronic Delayed Storage And
Calculations made by Cambridge
• The first Electronic Computer which
used to calculate and store the data.
12. Evolution of Computers
1951 A.D. UNIVAC - I
•The first Commercial Computer
introduced by Sperry Rand Corporation,
13. Early Electronic Computers
14. Early Electronic Computers
1930- Turing Machine:
• Made by an English Mathematician, Alan.
• A hypothetical general purpose Computing
Machine which could test Artificial Intelligence.
1939-ABC(Atanastoff Berry Computer):
• Made by Prof. John Atanasoff.
• The first special purpose computer and was
basically an electronic calculating machine to
15. Early Electronic Computers
1944- Mark I
• Made by Dr Howard Aiken
• An electro-mechanical computer, could
perform a multipication in 3-5 secs.
• 8 feet high and 55 feet long.
• Used to perform single multiplication
16. Early Electronic Computers
• Made by Dr. John Mauchy, University of
• An electro-mechanical machine to mainly
calculate missile trajectories.
• But machine was not able to complete the
calculations, two months after the war ended.
17. Characteristics of a Computer
18. Characteristics of a Computer
• Able to process data & give output in fractions
• A Powerful computer is capable of executing
about 3 millions calculations/second.
• In spite of its high speed, error hardly occurs as
its accuracy is consistently high enough.
19. Characteristics of a Computer
• The output generated by the computer is very
• But for reliable output, input should also be
4. Large Storage Capacity
It can store huge data in small storage devices.
It can work upon numbers, graphics, audio, video etc.
making it really versatile.
20. Characteristics of a Computer
6. Works Automatically
Once the instructions in the form of program are fed,
it works automatically without any human help
until the completion of that task.
It never feels tired & distracted. Its performance is
8. No Emotions
Computers do not have emotional, ego &
psychological problems which are destructive in
21. Characteristics of a Computer
9. No IQ
Computer works as a very good assistant as
it has no IQ. It 100% obeys the user.