2.
Evolution of Computers
Idea of computing is as old as the civilisation itself.
1450 B.C. Abacus
• The first known calculating device.
• Made by the Chinese.
• A wooden frame with a number of wires with beads
strung through them.
• Beads were used for counting and calculations.
•To show a number, beads were pulled down so that
each rod represented a digit.
3.
Evolution of Computers
1600 Napier Bones
• Counting device for multiplication
• Invented by John Napier, a Scottish
Mathematician.
• Strips with numbers written on them.
• Stripes were arranged properly to read the
numbers in adjacent columns to get the
answer of multiplication operation.
4.
Evolution of Computers
1642 A.D. Adding Machine
• Invented by the French scientist &
mathematician Blaise Pascal.
• The machine used to perform
addition and subtraction operations.
• Also known as Pascaline.
5.
Evolution of Computers
1692 A.D. Multiplying Machine
• The German scientist Gottfried
Leibnitz improved Pascal’s machine.
• It was a calculator, used to perform
addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division operations accurately.
6.
Evolution of Computers
1813 A.D. Difference Engine
• Invented by Charles Babbage, an
English man.
• Used to perform complex calculations
and print them out.
7.
Evolution of Computers
Early 1800’s Jacquard Loom
• Developed by a French weaver Joseph
Marie Jacquard.
• A programmable loom having large cards
and holes punched in them.
• Output was a geometric pattern on a
thick cloth.
8.
Evolution of Computers
1862 Arithrometer
• Developed by a Frenchman Charles
Xavier Thomas.
• Used to perform addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division and square root
functions accurately.
9.
Evolution of Computers
1863 A.D. Analytic Engine
• Made by Charles Babbage, the “Father of
Computers”.
• Used to perform long complex
calculations.
• Used to store 1000, 50-digit numbers per
second.
• Used to multiply 20-digit numbers/ 3
minutes
10.
Evolution of Computers
1943 A.D. ENIAC
• Electronic Numerical Integrator And
Calculator made by the Harvard University.
•The first electronic computer.
• It was of 5 tons, used to occupy 2 big rooms.
• Used to perform all the calculation like a
calculator.
11.
Evolution of Computers
1947 A.D. EDSAC
• Electronic Delayed Storage And
Calculations made by Cambridge
University, England.
• The first Electronic Computer which
used to calculate and store the data.
12.
Evolution of Computers
1951 A.D. UNIVAC - I
•The first Commercial Computer
introduced by Sperry Rand Corporation,
USA.
14.
Early Electronic Computers
1930- Turing Machine:
• Made by an English Mathematician, Alan.
• A hypothetical general purpose Computing
Machine which could test Artificial Intelligence.
1939-ABC(Atanastoff Berry Computer):
• Made by Prof. John Atanasoff.
• The first special purpose computer and was
basically an electronic calculating machine to
solve equations.
15.
Early Electronic Computers
1944- Mark I
• Made by Dr Howard Aiken
• An electro-mechanical computer, could
perform a multipication in 3-5 secs.
• 8 feet high and 55 feet long.
• Used to perform single multiplication
operations.
16.
Early Electronic Computers
1940’s Mark-I
• Made by Dr. John Mauchy, University of
Pennsylvania, USA.
• An electro-mechanical machine to mainly
calculate missile trajectories.
• But machine was not able to complete the
calculations, two months after the war ended.
18.
Characteristics of a Computer
1. Fast
• Able to process data & give output in fractions
of second.
• A Powerful computer is capable of executing
about 3 millions calculations/second.
2. Accurate
• In spite of its high speed, error hardly occurs as
its accuracy is consistently high enough.
19.
Characteristics of a Computer
3. Reliable
• The output generated by the computer is very
reliable.
• But for reliable output, input should also be
reliable.
4. Large Storage Capacity
It can store huge data in small storage devices.
5. Versatile
It can work upon numbers, graphics, audio, video etc.
making it really versatile.
20.
Characteristics of a Computer
6. Works Automatically
Once the instructions in the form of program are fed,
it works automatically without any human help
until the completion of that task.
7. Diligent
It never feels tired & distracted. Its performance is
constant.
8. No Emotions
Computers do not have emotional, ego &
psychological problems which are destructive in
nature.
21.
Characteristics of a Computer
9. No IQ
Computer works as a very good assistant as
it has no IQ. It 100% obeys the user.