Facilitating Group Discussions Melissa S. Medina, Ed.M., ABD Clinical Assistant Professor Director of Instructional Scienc...
Objectives <ul><li>Reflect on and discuss group discussion experiences </li></ul><ul><li>List problem solving requirements...
Group Discussion Concerns <ul><li>For 1 minute……. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on experiences and challenges you faced facili...
Group Discussion Concerns <ul><li>Students who do not care </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with silent students </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Group Discussion <ul><li>Clarify content </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal le...
Problem Solving <ul><li>Well-defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul></ul><...
Problem Solving Requirements (Schoenfield, 1983) Category Knowledge and Behavior 1 <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ind...
Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Declarative  (factual) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedur...
Metacognition <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management, strategy utilization, process implications </li></ul...
Metacognition Evidence <ul><li>Unrelated to aptitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Pressley & Ghatala, 1988)  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Epistemology <ul><li>Beliefs about   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes of kno...
Epistemology <ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-wrong thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge handed...
Epistemology Research <ul><li>Lower level negatively affects problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Schommer, Crouse, Rhod...
Problem Solving Requirements (Schoenfield, 1983) Category Knowledge and Behavior 1 <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ind...
Group discussion <ul><li>Professor’s group case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Delaware, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
Barriers to Group Discussion <ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion    learning </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in student...
Addressing Your Concerns <ul><li>Students who do not care </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with silent students </li></ul><ul><li...
Metacognitive Questions <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How much time do you need?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...
Epistemology Questions <ul><li>“ How do you  know  that is the best evidence or is true?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Are there  a...
General Question Types <ul><li>Interpretative questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does __ apply to ____? </li></ul></ul><u...
Questions?
Contact Information <ul><li>Email:  [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Office:  College of Pharmacy  </li></ul><ul><li>  ro...
References <ul><li>Hofer, B.K., & Pintrich, P.R. (1997).  The development of epistemological theories:  Beliefs about know...
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  1. 1. Facilitating Group Discussions Melissa S. Medina, Ed.M., ABD Clinical Assistant Professor Director of Instructional Sciences & Assessment University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy OUHSC Educational Grand Rounds July 18, 2003
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Reflect on and discuss group discussion experiences </li></ul><ul><li>List problem solving requirements and analyze role in facilitating group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Explore group facilitating strategies through the lens of problem-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate group discussions according to problem solving requirements </li></ul>
  3. 3. Group Discussion Concerns <ul><li>For 1 minute……. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on experiences and challenges you faced facilitating group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Write down 1 concern about facilitating group discussions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Group Discussion Concerns <ul><li>Students who do not care </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with silent students </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping students on right path </li></ul><ul><li>How not to lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Getting students to identify issues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benefits of Group Discussion <ul><li>Clarify content </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal learner thought process </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal learner misperceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal learner beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance learner critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Promote self-directed learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problem Solving <ul><li>Well-defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find correct answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ill-defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex issues, multiple perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions, evidence, opinions can lead to different solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kitchener, 1983) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Problem Solving Requirements (Schoenfield, 1983) Category Knowledge and Behavior 1 <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s knowledge base </li></ul>2 <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul>3 <ul><li>Belief Systems </li></ul><ul><li>About self, environment, topic </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Declarative (factual) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing what to do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing how to use the facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing when and why to use the procedures and strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Woolfolk, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Metacognition <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management, strategy utilization, process implications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How am I doing?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging process and outcomes of thinking and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Woolfolk, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Metacognition Evidence <ul><li>Unrelated to aptitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Pressley & Ghatala, 1988) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness compensates for lower-level ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Swanson, 1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct instruction and modeling improve skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Palincsar & Brown, 1984) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhances reasoning in the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kramarski & Mevarech, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Epistemology <ul><li>Beliefs about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes of knowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Hofer and Pintrich, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Epistemology <ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-wrong thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge handed down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple possibilities for knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge evaluated on personal basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Perry, 1970) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Epistemology Research <ul><li>Lower level negatively affects problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Schommer, Crouse, Rhodes, 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differs across disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Jehng, Johnson, Anderson, 1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences ability to argue persuasively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kuhn, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreases persistence at difficult tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Schoenfeld, 1983) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Problem Solving Requirements (Schoenfield, 1983) Category Knowledge and Behavior 1 <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s knowledge base </li></ul>2 <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul>3 <ul><li>Belief Systems </li></ul><ul><li>About self, environment, topic </li></ul>
  15. 15. Group discussion <ul><li>Professor’s group case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(University of Delaware, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Barriers to Group Discussion <ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion  learning </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in student and faculty roles </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to read teacher’s mind </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Answers offered too quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Premature push toward solution </li></ul>(McKeachie, 2002)
  17. 17. Addressing Your Concerns <ul><li>Students who do not care </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with silent students </li></ul><ul><li>Getting students to identify issues </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping students on right path </li></ul><ul><li>How not to lecture </li></ul>
  18. 18. Metacognitive Questions <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How much time do you need?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where will you find your resources?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How are you progressing on the review?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Am I going too fast?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is this finished?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is my solution defensible?” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Epistemology Questions <ul><li>“ How do you know that is the best evidence or is true?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Are there alternative explanations that exist?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ How would you judge the evidence you are using to support the claim?” </li></ul>
  20. 20. General Question Types <ul><li>Interpretative questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does __ apply to ____? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparative questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare one theory to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluative questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge value of points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___ states ___. Under what conditions may that not be true? </li></ul></ul>(McKeachie, 2002)
  21. 21. Questions?
  22. 22. Contact Information <ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Office: College of Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li> room 125 </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Hofer, B.K., & Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88-140. </li></ul><ul><li>Jehng, J.J., Johnson, S.D., & Anderson, R.C. (1993). Schooling and students’ epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 23-35. </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, K.S. (1983). Cognition, metacognition, and epistemic cognition. Human Development, 26, 222-232. </li></ul><ul><li>Kramarski, B., & Mevarech, Z.R. (2003). Enhancing mathematical reasoning in the classroom: The effects of cooperative learning and metacognition. American Educational Research Journal, 40, 281-310. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. (pp. 172-263). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowman, J. 1995. Mastering the techniques of teaching-2nd edition. (p. 159-191). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>McKeachie, W.J. (2002). Teaching Tips-11 th edition. (p. 30-51). NY: Houghton Mifflin. </li></ul><ul><li>Palincsar, A.S., & Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1, 117-175. </li></ul><ul><li>Perry, W.G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. (pp. 4-15). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressley, M., & Ghatala, E.S. (1988). Delusions about performance on multiple-choice comprehension tests. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 454-464. </li></ul><ul><li>Schoenfeld, A.H. (1983). Beyond the purely cognitive: belief systems, social cognition, and metacognitions as driving forces in intellectual performance. Cognitive Science, 7, 329-363. </li></ul><ul><li>Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 , 498-504. </li></ul><ul><li>Schommer, M., Crouse, A., & Rhodes, N. (1992). Epistemological beliefs and mathematical text comprehension: Believing it is simple does not make it so. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 435-443. </li></ul><ul><li>Swanson, H.L. (1990). The influence of metacognitive knowledge and aptitude on problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 306-314. </li></ul><ul><li>Woolfolk, A. (2001). Educational Psychology-8th edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul>
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