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Prevalence of different salmonella serovars in india up to 2005
 

Prevalence of different salmonella serovars in india up to 2005

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This short presentations reveals the prevalence of different Salmonella serovars in India in Animals based on the serotyping of >4000 isolates of Salmonella submitted to National Salmonella Centre up ...

This short presentations reveals the prevalence of different Salmonella serovars in India in Animals based on the serotyping of >4000 isolates of Salmonella submitted to National Salmonella Centre up to 2005. It may be helpful in understanding salmonellosis in India to some extent.

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    Prevalence of different salmonella serovars in india up to 2005 Prevalence of different salmonella serovars in india up to 2005 Presentation Transcript

    • Prevalence of Salmonella serovars in Animals in India Presentation is based on Serotyping of >4000 Salmonella strains submitted between 1978 to 2005 to National Salmonella Centre (Vet.) Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122 INDIA Analysis and compilation By Dr. Bhoj R Singh, Principal Scientist (VM) I/C Epidemiology; Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly, UP, India. TeleFax +91-581-2302188
    • SALMONELLA IN INDIA Salmonella and salmonellosis are prevalent all over the world including the most developed as well as the poorest countries. Salmonellosis is a hyperendemic disease in India in humans and probably in animals too. There are >2500 serovars of Salmonella distributed all over the globe. Of these about 231 serovars have been reported in India, 25 exclusively in human and equal number in animals rest have been isolated from varied sources. To start any disease control programme a country need to understand the epidemiology of the disease and for salmonellosis serotyping is of utmost significance.
    • Outbreaks of Salmonellosis in India in Animals 2003 Mizoram Japanese Quails 30% in adults S. Enteritidis 2000 Assam Pygmy hogs (Sus salvanius) 7 of the 42 S. Enteritidis 1999 Ranchi Pigs (Sus Domesticus) 15 piglets S.Ohio, S. Chester, S. London 1999 Assam Ducks 58.37% Ducklings died S. Enteritidis PT 13a/7 1997 Assam Broilers 70-100% S. Indiana and S.Gallinarum 1996 Himanchal pradesh Chicks 92.8% S. Typhimurium 1992 Punjab Pigs - S. Typhimurium with FMD virus 1989 Tripura Chicks - S. Virchow 1987 Nagaland Poultry birds High S. Virchow 1987 Punjab Layer stock 20% S. Gallinarum 1987 Tamilnadu Broiler stock In 4 hatcheries 5 to 15% mortality S. Gallinarum 1986 Bareilly (U.P.) Pigs 43 piglets and 24 adults died S. Cholearaesuis 1986 Hydrabad Japanese quails 100% S. Gallinarum 1986 Pantnagar (U.A.) Chicken 212 of 400 chicks died. S. Indiana 1986 Tirpur Broiler parent stock 9% mortality S. Weltevreden 1985 Guwahati (Assam) Chicks High S. Gallinarum 1984 Nagaland Pigs 34% mortality in piglets S. Choleraesuis 1984 Kasauli, (H.P.) Guinea pigs High S. Dublin and S. Typhimurium 1983 Gujrat Chicks High S. Gallinarum 1983 Tamilnadu Pigs High S. Vrichow 1980 Ranchi Pigs 67.5% piglets died S. Cholearaesuis 1980 Madras city Chicks and layers 75% Broiler and 25% layer chicks died S. Gallinarum 1980 Bombay Guinea pigs and Rabbits Heavy S. Typhimurium 1977 Punjab Chicks High S. Ohio 1976 Punjab Chicks High S. Newport
    • Salmonellosis outbreaks and causative serovars in animals in India Animals affected No. of Outbreaks Salmonella serovars Pigs 6 Choleraesuis (3), Ohio, Chester, London, Typhimurium, Virchow Chicks/Poultry birds 14 Gallinarum (6), Indiana (4), Virchow (3), Typhimurium (2), Newport, Ohio, Bareilly, Weltevreden Rabbits 1 Typhimurium Guinea pigs 2 Typhimurium, Dublin Ducks 1 Enteritidis Pygmy hogs 1 Enteritidis Japanese quails 1 Gallinarum
    • Salmonella serovars in animals in India • >128 serovars has been reported and every year 2 to 5 new serovars are add to the evergrowing list. • Different serovars vary in prevalence in different animals.
    • Salmonella serovars in animals in India (128 serovrs) Rough 4% Other 97 s erovars 17% Abortusequi 3% Anatum 3% Bareilly 3% Bovis morbificans 1% Ches ter 2% Dublin 2% Weltevreden 5% Enteritidis 6% Virchow 9% Gallinarum 16% Typhimurium var copenhagan 1% Typhim urium 13% Goverdhan 2% Stanley 1% Senftenberg 1% Paratyphi B var java 2% Saintpaul Paratyphi Newport B 2% 2% 2% 3, 10 : r : 3% Indiana 1%
    • Salmonella serovars in poultry birds in India (53 serovars and 811 isolates) Virchow and Typhimurium are more common than Enteritidis. Bovismorbificans and Eastbourne are the new entrants in last three years. Amager, Galiena and S. salamae serovars have been reported just recently. Other 34 serovars 12% Rough 1% Bovismorbificans Chester 2% 1% Eastbourne 1% Enteritidis 8% Weltevreden 1% Virchow 14% Number of rough isolates is increasing India has no Pullorum biovar, variants of pullorum if any are reported from regions north to tropic of Cancer. Southern Indian states are the most affected states with S. Gallinarum. Typhimurium 11% Gallinarum 43% Stanley 2% Lille 2% Indiana 2%
    • Salmonella serovars in other birds in India (13 serovars, 61 isolates) Virchow and Typhimurium are more common than Gallinarum Weltevreden 2% Bareilly 10% Brunei 2% Enteritidis 5% Virchow 30% Gallinarum 17% Typhimurium var copenhagan 2% Typhimurium 22% Stockholm 2% Paratyphi B 2% Rested 2% Richmond 2% Stanley 2%
    • Common Salmonella serovars in some selected birds Quails Bareilly, Gallinarum, Stanley, Typhimurium, Virchow, Weltevredn Emu Weltevreden Guinea fowl Gallinarum, Typhimurium Pheasants Pigeons Typhimurium Typhimurium, Give
    • Salmonella serovars in buffaloes in India (11 serovars, 60 isolates) Rough 8% Weltevreden 20% Typhimurium 8% Stanley 2% Anatum 45% Saintpaul 5% Orion 3% Lagos 3% 4, 12:i:2% Dublin 2% Bareilly 2%
    • Salmonella serovars in cattle in India (68 strains of 19 serovars) Dublin and Typhimurium are the most common serovars, also reported frequently in milk and milk products Weltevreden 1% Typhimurium var copenhagan 1% Rough 9% Adelaide 1% Anatum 1% Berta 1% Typhimurium 25% Chester 6% Drogana 3% Saintpaul 1% Rostock 1% Paratyphi B 1% Muenchen 1% Mbandaka 4% Dublin 29% 3, 10 : r : 1% Heidelberg 1% Havana 3% Enteritidis 4%
    • Salmonella serovars in goats in India (39 serovars among 137 isolates) Rough strains dominates the scene Rough 22% Other 27 serovars 24% Bareilly 3% Dublin 4% Weltevreden 9% 28 : b : enx 5% Infantis 4% Virchow 7% Paratyphi B 5% Typhimurium 11% Stanley 3% Saintpaul 3%
    • Salmonella serovars in Donkeys Serovar Number of isolates Abortusequi 4 Dumfries 1 3, 10 : r : - 1 4, 12:-:- 1 Tshiongwe 2
    • Salmonella serovars in Horses (142 isolates of 19 serovars) Serovar Abortusequi Bovismorbificans Drogana Nos. Serovar 60 Lagos 4 Newington 10 Newport Nos. 10 2 13 Dumfries 3 Richmond 5 Gallinarum 1 Rough 2 4, 5, 12, : ri : 1, 5 10 Saintpaul 3 4, 5, 12, 27:r,i:1, 5 1 Tshiongwe 3 4, 12:i:- 2 Typhimurium 1 6, 7 : y : lz28: - 1 Virchow 1 Kottbus 10
    • Salmonella in dogs • Serological evidences show high prevalence (>60%) of Salmonella agglutinins in canines, however only three isolates one each belonging to Thompson, Typhimurium and Paratyphi B serovars are there in repository. • Besides, isolation of S. Anatum, S. Reading and S. Ohio are also on records but isolates are not available.
    • Salmonella serovars in sheep in India ( 9 serovars and 42 strains) (Common source of S. Bareilly) Adelaide 2% Anatum 5% Saintpaul 17% Rostock 7% Bareilly 40% Newington 10% Liverpool 2% Gallinarum 10% Dublin 5% Chester 2%
    • Salmonella serovars in swine in India (203 strains of 36 serovars) Virchow is dominating since decades Other 25 serovars 22.2% Anatum 8.4% Choleraesuis 4.9% Enteritidis 2.5% London 3.4% Weltevreden 4.4% Newport 11.3% Reading 2.5% Saintpaul 3.0% Senftenberg 3.9% Virchow 25.1% Typhimurium 8.4%
    • Salmonella serovars in fish and other sea foods in India (74 strains of 21 serovars) Gallinarum 1% Virchow 1% Bradford 1% Goverdhan 0% Gozo 1% Heidelberg 1% Javiana 3% Typhimurium 7% Senftenberg 3% 17 : d : 1, 2 3% Kentucky 1% Stanley 5% Morocco 3% Sarajane 1% Newport 5% Sandiego 1% Saintpaul 7% Reinckevdorf 1% Ohio 11% Reading 4% Paratyphi B var java 38% Most common source of S. Paratyphi B
    • Salmonella serovars in amphibians in India (63) Saintpaul 2% Richmond 3% Typhimurium Weltevreden 3% 5% Bareilly 16% Nchanga 2% Salmonella III. 2% Most of the work reported is almost 30 years old and needs reviewing Goverdhan 67%
    • Salmonella serovars in rodents and other small laboratory animals in India (231) Rough 3.9% Virchow 4.3% Weltevreden 5.2% Amsterdam 1.7% Agona 0.4% Anatum 1.7% Dahlem 0.4% Dublin 1.7% Typhimurium var copenhagan 8.7% Enteritidis 16.5% Typhimurium 26.0% 3, 10 : r : 21.2% Stanley 0.4% Senftenberg 1.7% Paratyphi B 1.7% 4, 12:i:2.2% Onderstepoort 1.7% London 0.4%
    • Salmonella serovars in sewage and slaughter house environment in India (47) Typhimurium 4.3% Schwarzegrund 2.1% Reading 4.3% Rough 4.3% Anatum 6.4% Bareilly 2.1% Paratyphi B 29.8% Chester 29.8% Newport 10.6% Liverpool 2.1% London 2.1% Lagos 2.1%
    • Sources of Salmonella serovars in foods of vegetable origin Mint 11.1% Pepper 3.7% Coriander 22.2% Vegetables 63.0%
    • Salmonella serovars in foods of vegetable origin in India (27) Weltevreden 7.4% Typhimurium 3.7% Anatum 3.7% Bsilla 3.7% Canada 3.7% Mons 7.4% Teko 14.8% New port 3.7% Rottnest 3.7% Saintpaul 48.1%
    • Six percent of 600 samples of beetle leaves (popular as Paan) screened in North India have Salmonella and Saintpaul dominates the seen Weltevreden 3% Paratyphi B 6% Saintpaul 80% Teko 3% Virchow 8%
    • Salmonella serovars in lizards and other reptiles in India (70) Old work needs reviewing Bareilly 5.7% Chester 20.0% Weltevreden 60.0% Enteritidis 1.4% Newport 2.9% Saintpaul 2.9% Typhimurium 7.1%
    • Salmonella serovars in wild life in India (139 strains of 13 serovars) Rough 5.0% Agona 2.2% Bareilly 2.9% Chester 10.1% Weltevreden 30.9% Choleraesuis 1.4% Dublin 0.7% Enteritidis 6.5% Gallinarum 7.9% Nesziona 0.7% Typhimurium 28.8% Saintpaul 1.4% Newport 1.4%
    • Anatum Common sources of Salmonella Anatum V eget ables and t heir product s, 1 Swine , 1 7 B uf f aloes, 27 Slaught er house art icles, wast es and envronment , 3 Rodent s and lagomorphs, 4 Cat t le, 1 M ilk and meat and t heir product s, 8 Goat s, 2 Sheep, 2
    • Sources of Salmonella Abortusequi Donkeys, 4 Horses, 60
    • Bareilly Common sources of Salmonella Bareilly Reptiles and lizards, 4 Poultry birds, 8 Swine , 3 Humans, 3 Other birds, 6 Buffaloes, 1 Sheep, 17 Amphibians, 10 Goats, 4
    • Bovismorbificans Common sources of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Horses, 4 Swine , 2 Poultry birds, 15
    • Common sources of Salmonella Enteritidis Swine , 5 Vegetables and their products, 6 Rodents and lagomorphs, 38 Reptiles and lizards, 1 Poultry birds, 60 Fish and other sea foods, 2 Feed and feed contents, 1 Cattle, 3 Other birds, 3
    • Milk and meat and their Sheep, 4 products, 2 Swine , 2 Fish and other Goats, 1 sea foods, 7 Horses, 1 Other birds, 11 Poultry birds, 325 Common sources of Salmonella Gallinarum isolates
    • Common sources of Salmonella Dublin isolates Wild and zoo animals, 1 Rodents and lagomorphs, 4 Milk and meat and their products, 6 Humans, 1 Sheep, 2 Goats, 5 Poultry birds, 1 Buffaloes, 1 Swine , 3 Cattle, 20
    • Poultry birds, 3 Horses, 13 Fish and other sea foods, 4 Slaughter house articles, wastes and envronment, 5 Reptiles and lizards, 2 Swine , 23 Vegetables and their products, 1 Common sources of Salmonella Newport isolates
    • Poultry birds, 6 Beetle leaves, 1 Swine , 4 Other birds, 1 Cattle, 1 Dogs, 1 Slaughter house articles, wastes and envronment, 14 Feed and feed contents, 3 Rodents and lagomorphs, 4 Milk and meat and their products, 3 Fish and other sea foods, 28 Goats, 7 Common sources of Salmonella Paratyphi B isolates
    • Horses, 3 Reptiles and lizards, 2 Beetle leaves, 22 Vegetables and their products, 13 Poultry birds, 8 Buffaloes, 3 Cattle, 1 Amphibians, 1 Fish and other sea foods, 5 Goats, 4 Sheep, 7 Swine , 6 Common sources of Salmonella Saintpaul isolates
    • Vegetables and their products, 1 Wild and zoo Reptiles and animals, 30 lizards, 5 Swine , 17 Horses, 1 Poultry birds, Slaughter 88 house articles, Other birds, 15 wastes and Buffaloes, 5 envronment, 2 Rodents and Cattle, 18 lagomorphs, 80 Feed and feed Milk and meat Goats, 16 contents, 5 and their Fish and other products, 12 Amphibians, 3sea foods, 5 Humans, 6 Common sources of Salmonella Typhimurium
    • Horses, 1 Beetle leaves, 3 Swine , 51 Rodents and lagomorphs, 10 Milk and meat and their products, 1 Goats, 10 Fish and other sea foods, 2 Feed and feed contents, 1 Other birds, 19 Poultry birds, 105 Common sources of Salmonella Virchow
    • Poultry birds, 11 Other birds, 1 Reptiles and lizards, 42 Buffaloes, 12 Cattle, 1 Amphibians, 2 Vegetables and their products, 2 Swine , 9 Goats, 12 Milk and meat and their products, 3 Rodents and lagomorphs, 12 Common sources of Salmonella Weltevreden
    • Slaughter house articles, wastes and envronment, 2 Wild and zoo animals, 7 Horses, 2 Poultry birds, 11 Rodents and lagomorphs, 9 Buffaloes, 5 Cattle, 6 Milk and meat and their products, 7 Goats, 30 Common sources of rough Salmonella strains
    • Zoonotic Salmonella serovars in animals S. Typhimurium 1 4% S. Virchow 1 0% S. Ent erit idis 5% Ot hers (75 Serovars) 56% S. Welt evreden 5% S. 3,1 0:r:4% S. B areilly 3% S. Anat um 3%
    • Conclusions • • >128 Salmonella serovars are there in animals in India and every year list expands by about 2-5 new serovars. Different serovars dominate in different kinds of animals. On the basis of overall prevalence, major Salmonella serovars of zoonotic significance are   S.Typhimurium, S. Bareilly, S. Newport, S. Weltevreden, S. Saintpaul and S. Enteritidis are the most prevalent wide host range Salmonella . S. Weltevreden, S. Senftenberg, S. Saintpaul, S. Havana and S. Chester are prominent emerging zoonotic Salmonella in last decade.  S. Typhimurium and S. Paratyphi A prevalence is on down-roads. S. Typhi, a strict host adapted Salmonella of human being has been isolated from sick as well as healthy Camel, Sheep, Cattle, Goats, Pigs, Birds and Rodents as well. S. Saintpaul is emerging as new zoonotic pathogen in foods of animals and vegetable origin. S. Typhimurium is still the leading serovar of zoonotic significance in India. Prevalence of S. Abortusequi is rapidly falling in equines and it is being replaced by other serovars, different in different parts of the country. After poultry and poultry product vegetable foods appeared to be the major emerging source of Salmonella. Host range of host restricted Salmonella serovars is widening. • S. Anatum has adapted to Indian buffaloes, however S. Weltevreden is the important • • • • • • • • • zoonotic serovar often isolated from buffen (Buffalo meat)