Managing Across Cultures

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Executive summary presentation from the book "Managing Across Cultures" from Susan Schneider and Jean-Louis Barsoux. How to manage international corporation, communicate across cultures etc.

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Managing Across Cultures

  1. 1. Hangzhou, February 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra, Xu Meiling & Zhao Dan, Zhejiang University Managing  across  Cultures Professionalism in International Management Lewis, R. (2002). Managing across Cultures (2nd Ed.). Prentice Hall.
  2. 2. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide About Authors Susan C. Schneider (Swiss  ) Susan  C.  Schneider,  is  professor  of  human  resources  at  HEC  Geneva,  (Hautes   Etudes  Commerciales  Geneve),  part  of  the  Faculty  of  Economics  and  Social   Sciences  at  the  University  of  Geneva.  Professor  Schneider's  main  research   topics  are  intercultural  management,  cogniBve  sciences  and  their  impact  on   firms'  strategies. Jean-Louis Barsoux (French) Jean-­‐Louis  Barsoux  is  a  Senior  Research  Fellow  at   INSEAD  and  a  co-­‐authour  of  The  Set-­‐Up-­‐To-­‐Fail   Syndrome:  How  good  managers  cause  great  people  to   fail,  Harvard  Business  School  Press,  Boston,  2002. 2
  3. 3. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change
  4. 4. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change Professional activities: • Academic Teaching and Research,as well as Consulting, Coaching,Training and Assessment in the area of: - Cross-Cultural Awareness and Communication - Cross-Cultural Issues in HR Management - Corporate Learning and Development - Executive Coaching and Assessment - Global Leadership Development Program - Facilitation of Strategic Conference - Large Strategic Change Projects International and National project references: • BASF,Siemens,Dupont,Commerzbank,Hugo Boss,SAP, Barco,GTZ,Telkom Indonesia,etc.
  5. 5. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Map and Brief Introduction 4
  6. 6. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Part I Contents Converging  cultures Culture  as  a  source  of  compe33ve  advantage/disadvantage Recognizing  culture Discovering  cultural  advantage The  search  for  meaning Ar3facts  and  behavior Beliefs  and  value Basic  assump3ons Interpre3ng  pa?erns  of  culture Cultural  spheres  of  influence Crea3ng  compe33ve  advantage:  interac3ng  spheres The  undertow  of  culture Exploring  culture InteracBng  spheres  of  culture 5
  7. 7. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Surface Deep Inside The world is getting smaller? Cultural Identity and Integrity! • Switzerland’s  refusal  to   join  in  European • AdvocaBng  learning   ancient  language • Global  Village • Informa(on  sharing,  ea(ng   habits,    dress • MelBng  Pot • People  from  many  different   origins  living  in  big  ci(es,  e.g.,   Landon. • DisBnct  Cultural  fragments • Chinatown,  Italy  Town • CompeBBve  language  and   culture • Restaurant  menu 6 Converging Cultures?
  8. 8. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Universal of Management practice • A set of principles and techniques • Scientifically engineered Cultural influence • Different road systems • Different medical needs and prescriptions 7 Converging Cultures - Management is Management?
  9. 9. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide The  presence   and  power  of   Culture 8 Forces For and Against convergence
  10. 10. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Country-­‐level  Factors Availability  of  resources The  size  and  sophis3ca3on  of  the  market The  nature  of  government  interven3on The  type  of  strategic  networks InsBtuBonal   Arrangements Cultural   ConfiguraBons France EducaBon  System  places  high  value  on   engineering  and  administraBon  and  the   close  relaBonship  between  state  and   industry 9 Culture as a source of competitive advantage/disadvantage
  11. 11. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Culture  to  one  as  water  to  fish: A  fish  doesn't  think  about  what  water  it  is   in  Bll  it’s  stranded! Open for discussion My blind spot Their blind spot Shared blind spot What  I  see                          What  I  do  not  see What  they   see What  they   do  not  see Johari  window Source:  adapted  from  S.Jourard(1964)  The  Transparent  Self,  Van  Nostrand   Reinhold,  Princeton,  NJ. Recognizing  cultural   differences Insights 10 Recognizing culture
  12. 12. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide The  point  is  not  the  existence  but  the  way  they  are  used! EffecBve  way  of  using  Stereotypes 11 Stereotypes
  13. 13. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide The  Swiss… Consider  themselves  to  be:   Are  perceived  by  foreigners  as  being:   Expect  foreigners  to  be: Step  1 Step  2 Step  3 Step 4: Find the potential cultural aspects to achieve competitive advantages 12 Discovering cultural advantage
  14. 14. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Part I Contents Converging  cultures Culture  as  a  source  of  compe33ve  advantage/disadvantage Recognizing  culture Discovering  cultural  advantage The  search  for  meaning Ar3facts  and  behavior Beliefs  and  value Basic  assump3ons Interpre3ng  pa?erns  of  culture Cultural  spheres  of  influence Crea3ng  compe33ve  advantage:  interac3ng  spheres The  undertow  of  culture Exploring  culture InteracBng  spheres  of  culture 13
  15. 15. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Exploring culture 14
  16. 16. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Artifacts & Behaviors • Wri,en  vs.  verbal  contacts • Architecture  &  design • Gree=ng  rituals • Forms  of  address • Making  contact • Dress  codes 15
  17. 17. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Beliefs & values Criteria  for   success What  is   manage-­‐ ment? The  right  person   for  the  job •Shareholders •Customer •Employees Beliefs •  people-­‐oriented •  task-­‐oriented Hire  what  kind  of                people Values 16
  18. 18. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Basic assumptions External adaptation • Relationship with nature  Control  Uncertainty  avoidance • Nature of human activity  Doing/being  Achievement/ascripBon • Nature  of  reality  and  truth Internal integration • Human nature  Basically  good/  evil • Nature of human relationships  Social/task  orientaBon  ParBcularism/universalism  Hierarchical  Individualism/collecBvism Linking assumptions • Space  Personal/physical • Language  High/low  context • Time  Monochronic  and  polychronic  Past/present/future 17
  19. 19. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide External adaptation External adapta3on Internal integra3on      Rela1onship  with  nature –Control –Uncertainty  avoidance      Nature  of  human  ac1vity –Doing/being –Achievement/ascrip9on      Nature  of  reality  and  truth Linking assump3ons Don’t  just  stand  there,  do  something. VS Don’t  just  do  something,  stand  there. 18
  20. 20. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide • Human nature  Basically  good/  evil • Rela1onships  with  people ★ Social/task  orienta>on ★ Masculinity/femininity ★ Hierarchy ★ Individualism/collec>vism Internal integration External adapta3on Internal integra3on Linking assump3ons 19
  21. 21. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Linking assumptions External adapta3on Internal integra3on Linking assump3ons 20
  22. 22. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Part I Contents Converging  cultures Culture  as  a  source  of  compe33ve  advantage/disadvantage Recognizing  culture Discovering  cultural  advantage The  search  for  meaning Ar3facts  and  behavior Beliefs  and  value Basic  assump3ons Interpre3ng  pa?erns  of  culture Cultural  spheres  of  influence Crea3ng  compe33ve  advantage:  interac3ng  spheres        The  undertow  of  culture        Exploring  culture InteracBng  spheres  of  culture 21
  23. 23. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Interacting spheres of culture National/Regional Geography, history,   poliBcal  and  economic  forces, climate, religion, language Industry Resources, technology, product  market, regulaBon, compeBBve  advantage Company Founder,  leader, administraBve  heritage, nature  of  product/industry  stage  of  development Professional EducaBon, training, selecBon, socializaBon Functional External  environment, nature  of  task, Bme  horizon 22
  24. 24. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide National X Industry Industry Culture Walkman Movie Japanese American X = Japanese  invasion  into  the  soul  of  America 23
  25. 25. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Professional X National Doctors Engineers Accountant Germany USA UK 24
  26. 26. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Part II Culture & Managing Practice 25
  27. 27. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Culture & Organization 26
  28. 28. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Culture & Structure --- Five Value Dimensions   Hofstede 27
  29. 29. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Culture & Structure --- Cultural Profiles 28
  30. 30. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide The Meaning of Organization Task VS Social systems Survey  done  by  A.  Laurent What’s   an   organiza>on 29
  31. 31. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Culture & Process 30
  32. 32. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Culture & Strategy 31
  33. 33. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Interaction effects Strategic   process Controlling  vs.  Adap3ng Strategic  content Conserva3ve  vs.  innova3ve Cost-­‐cuLng Efficiency Ra3onaliza3on Seeking  new  markets/products Market  expansion Inves3ng  in  R&D Diversifica3on Forming  alliances Strategic profile Defender(control  &  efficiency)  vs.   Prospector (products  &market  opportuni3es) 32
  34. 34. Richard  Lewis:  When  Cultures  Collide Strategic implications of culture 33
  35. 35. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)

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