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Language & Communication across Cultures


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Language & Communication across Cultures in Cross-cultural Perspective. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

Language & Communication across Cultures in Cross-cultural Perspective. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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  • 1. David Matsumoto & Linda Juang Language, & Communication: Culture and Psychology Based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth. Ran Shan & Dr. Hora Tjitra
  • 2. What is “communication”?  What is communication?  Why communication is one of the most important aspects of our lives?  What is important in the cross-culture communication? 2
  • 3. Language Differences across Culture Thoughts Culture Feelings Motives Language I=“watashi”? ”boku”? Lexicon/ ”ore”? Vocabulary You=“anata”? ”kimi”? Syntax and ”omae”? ...? Grammar Phonology Semantics Pragmatics 3
  • 4. Culture, Language and Cognition: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis  Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, 1950s.  Speaker of different languages think differently. Fishman’s Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Schema Data of Language Data of Cognitive Behavior Characteristics Linguistic Data Nonlinguistic Data Lexical/Semantic Level 1* Level 2 Grammatical Level 3 Level 4** *Least sophisticated **Most sophisticated 4
  • 5. Bilingualism and Culture Language context Culture-affiliation would predict hypothesis differences in behavior, and also in Minority group- personality. affiliation hypothesis Bilingualism and Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Psychological Differences Foreign language processing difficulties Foreign language effect 5
  • 6. Monolingualism and Ethnocentrism For much of its history and even today, the United States has remained largely monolingual. -- Actually, knowledge of more than one language may improve cognitive flexibility. 6
  • 7. The Components of Communication -- Two major modes 1.Verbal Communication Nonverbal 2.Nonverbal behaviors Communication Non- behaviors Facial expressions The use of time Movements and gestures Posture, body orientation The type of clothing we wear Tone and vocal characteristics The architectural structures Interpersonal space we live and work Touching behaviors The cosmetic changes we Gaze and visual attention make to our appearance 7
  • 8. The Components of Communication -- Two major processes Encoder or Sender Decoding The process by which a Encoding person receives signals from an encoder and translates those signals The process by which people into meaningful messages. select, consciously or unconsciously, a particular modality and method by which to create and send a message to someone. Decoder or receiver 8
  • 9. The Components of Communication – other components The specific words and Specific verbal language Signals behaviors that are sent during communication. Nonverbal behaviors The meanings that are Knowledge, ideas, Messages intended or received with the concepts, thoughts, or signals. emotions The specific sensory modalities by which signals Channels are sent and messages are Sight or sound retrieved. 9
  • 10. The Role of Culture in the Communication Process Culture influences on: Encoding Decoding Stereotypes Culture filters, ethnocentrism, Social cognition emotions, and value judgments 10
  • 11. Intracultural versus Intercultural Communication Intracultural Intercultural Within one culture Cross-culture Code and rules of Same Different encoding & decoding Uncertainty and Negative effects Stereotypes ambiguity Even conflict 11
  • 12. Intracultural versus Intercultural Communication 1 3 2 4 12
  • 13. Improving Intercultural Communication Assumptions of Language similarities differences Barriers to Effective High anxiety or Communication Nonverbal tension (Barna,1996) misinterpretations Tendency to Preconceptions evaluate and stereotypes 13
  • 14. Improving Intercultural Communication Mindfulness (allows people to be conscious of their own habits, mental scripts, and cultural expectations concerning communication) Concepts to improve Uncertainty Reduction (one of the major goals of initial Communication intercultural encounters) “Face” (in collectivistic culture) Emotional Regulation, Openness, Flexibility Keys to confronting cultural differences Critical Thinking 14
  • 15. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at @ Tjitra, 2010 15