Cross-Cultural Studies on Gender, Emotion and Personality


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Cross-Cultural Studies on Gender, Emotion and Personality. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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Cross-Cultural Studies on Gender, Emotion and Personality

  1. 1. David Matsumoto & Linda Juang Gender, Emotion and Personality: A Culture and Psychology Perspective Based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth. Daisy Zheng & Dr. Hora Tjitra
  2. 2. Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Gender Behaviors or patterns of activities that a society or Biological and physiological differences culture deems appropriate for men and women. between males and females. Gender Role Degree to which a person adopts the gender- CULTURE Sex Roles specific behaviors ascribed by his or her culture. Behaviors expected of Gender Identity Degree to which a person has awareness males and females in or recognition that he or she adopts a particular gender role. relation to their biological differences and reproduction. Gender Role Ideology Judgments about what gender roles in a particular culture ought to be. Sexual Identity Degree of awareness Gender Stereotype Psychological or behavioral and recognition of sex and sex roles an characteristics typically associated with men and women. individual may have. As different societies live in different environments, survival requires that they balance a number of factors. Thus, as different cultures must deal with different external factors, it is only natural that gender differences vary by culture. 2
  3. 3. Culture and Gender Stereotypes Pancultural Universality in Psychological Attribution to Gender (Williams & Best, 1982) Research Method Results   Adjective Check List (ACL) • Men are generally viewed as active, strong, critical, and adultlike, with psychological needs such as dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and  ACL is a list of 300 adjectives. endurance. While women are generally viewed as passive, weal, nurturing, and  Respondents are asked to decide adaptive, with psychological needs such as abasement, deference, succorance, whether each adjective is considered affiliation, and heterosexuality. more descriptive of a male or of a female in their culture. • Men are associated more with the personality traits of conscientiousness,  Whether the subjects agreed with the extroversion, and openness. While women are associated with higher scores on the assignment of an adjective to males or personality traits of agreeableness and neuroticism. females is irrelevant. Cross-Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotypes Research Results  The Japanese have more traditional gender role orientations than did the Germans. Japanese mothers are seen as more controlling than fathers, but German mothers are less.  Perceiving gender differences in a stereotype fashion is rather persistent because we tend to be more attuned to information that reinforce and supports our gender stereotypes.  Gender role stereotypes increase with age (children are more like to sex-type same-sex figures), cognitive development (children’s understanding of gender and sex role preferences appear to be related), and the contribution of socializing agents, such as media (the way the media have historically portrayed women parallels the way media have historically portrayed people of color). 3
  4. 4. Culture, Gender Role Ideology and Self- Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Traditional Egalitarian Culture and Self-Concept Women Men “Masculinity Japan, Austria, ” (MA) Venezuela, Italy Nigeria, Netherlands, Tend to endorse items The degree to and values thought to Pakistan, India Germany, Finland be associated with which a culture masculinity and male Traditional scores Egalitarian will foster, gender roles in the tend to describe scores reflect a encourage, or workplace. gender roles that tendency toward were consistent less maintain with the differentiation differences traditional or between males between males Denmark, Norway, universal norms and females on and females. Netherland, Sweden found in the the various Minimize differences earlier research. psychological between sexes and characteristics. genders. Society Changes Generation diversity Globalization Exposure to western culture 4
  5. 5. Psychological Gender Differences across Cultures Perceptual/Spatial/Cognitive Differences Males are better at mathematical and spatial reasoning tasks, whereas females are better at verbal comprehension tasks. What factor influence which type of differences, and why. Conformity and Obedience Females are more conforming and obedient than males. Links between cultural variables such as tightness and psychological constructs such as conformity, and the degree to which gender differences on such constructs are fostered. Aggressiveness Males are more aggressive than females. Exact mechanisms accounting for these differences, taking into account the complex interplay among biology, culture, and psychology. Other differences Career plans, self-presentations, dress, suicidal behavior, dream content, personal relationships, self-esteem, conflict resolution, response styles, nonverbal behaviors, attitudes toward marriage and sexual behaviors, religious involvement, personal entitlements, etc. 5
  6. 6. Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion BUT 6
  7. 7. Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules e.g. Expression of Personal Emotions in Self-Ingroup and Self-Outgroup Relationships in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures Seven response alternatives: •Express the feeling with no modification •Deamplify or reduce the expression •Amplify or exaggerate the expression •Mask or control your feelings bu showing something else •Qualify your expression with a smile •Neutralize your expression •Something else 7
  8. 8. Universal, Pancultural and Culturally Specific Aspects of Perception of Emotion Cross-Cultural Similarities • Facial expressions recognition • Relative intensity ratings Cross-Cultural Differences • Association between perceived • Emotion recognition rates expression intensity and influences about subjective • Sociocultural dimensions account experience for differences in the perception of emotion • Second mode of response in emotion recognition • Attributions of expression intensity • Influences about emotional experiences underlying facial experiences of emotion • Attributions of personality based on smiles 8
  9. 9. Cultural Similarities and Differences in Emotion Experiences, Appraisal and Concept Emotion Experiences Emotion Appraisal Emotion Concept People share the same  Happiness Most cultures have a basic emotion concept for emotion. experiences.  Fear All cultures categorize Similarity Anger their world of emotion. Cultural influence is not as large as the Sadness Every culture has the seemingly innate location of emotion. differences among the Disgust Emotion has a role or emotions themselves. meaning in people’s life.  Shame and guilt “Culture Construction of Culture differ in Different definition. Emotion” Model: appraisal dimensions Different realities and that require judgments  Different categorization or Difference ideals of different cultures relative to cultural of labeling. produce different social norms such as Different locations. psychological needs and goals, which produce fairness, morality and other more “complex” Different meaning of differences in habitual emotional tendencies. appraisal dimensions. emotions to people and to behavior. 9
  10. 10. An Example of Culture Influences on Self-Perception Independent construal of self Interdependent construal of self Individuals focus on Individuals focus on their Achievement Motivation interdependent status with personal, internal attributes – individual Self-Enhancement other people and strive to meet ability, intelligence, or even create duties, Social Explanation personality traits, goals, or obligations, and social Happiness responsibilities. The most salient preferences – expressing them in public and verifying Indigenous Emotion aspect of conscious experience and confirming them in is intersubjective, rooted in Social Connotation of private social comparison. Emotion finely tuned interpersonal relationships. 10
  11. 11. Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated in the first half of the 20th century. • Dominated in the second half of the 20th century. • Interested in human psychology within the • Two or more cultures are treated as independent anthropological discipline. variables, and are compared on some personality traits or dimensions. • Most important contribution: View of personality as • Most important contribution: See culture and culturally specific, formed by the unique forces each personality as a mutually constituted system in which culture deals with in its milieu. each creates and maintains the other. Locus of Control How much control people believe they have over their behavior and their relationship with their environment and with others. Americans Non-Americans Higher Internal Locus of Control Higher External Locus of Control European Americans Asians (Chinese & particularly Japanese) Higher Self-Enhancing Level Lower Self-Enhancing Level Self-Esteem Construct of self-esteem and the related construct of self-worth. 11
  12. 12. Culture and Five Factor Model of Personality ✦ Cultures may differ in mean levels of personality, however, more recent research suggest that the Five Factor Model – a constellation of personality traits comprising Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness -- may be universal to all humans. ✦ Research on indigenous approaches to personality, however, have demonstrated culturally specific aspects of personality that cannot be accounted for by the FFM. We have suggested that these two seemingly opposing viewpoints need not be seen as mutually exclusive; rather, it may be more beneficial to view them as different, coexisting aspects of personality. The challenge for future research is to capture this coexistence, examining the relative degree of contribution of biological and cultural factors in the development and organization of personality. 12
  13. 13. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at @ Tjitra, 2010 13