Best Practices in Cross-Cultural Training

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A summary from a review article about "Cross-Cultural Training:
Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs" by Littrell & Sallas. …

A summary from a review article about "Cross-Cultural Training:
Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs" by Littrell & Sallas.

Expatriate Management, International Assignment, Culture Shock, Working and Living abroad

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  • 1. Cross-Cultural Training Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun www.SinauOnline.com Based on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS: A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334
  • 2. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):
  • 3. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)
  • 4. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)
  • 5. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000)
  • 6. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000) Have your company faced the same situations as above? Or have you met any difficulties as an expatriate?
  • 7. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations CCT
  • 8. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial CCT loss
  • 9. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Expatriates’ failure adjustment and Increasing diversity of organizational financial CCT workplace loss
  • 10. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged relations Delayed productivity Expatriates’ failure adjustment and Increasing diversity of organizational financial CCT workplace loss Expatriate’s early return from the assignment Many expatriates leave their organization within one year after returning.
  • 11. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged Use of multicultural teams relations Increased organizational Delayed productivity diversity Expatriates’ failure adjustment and Increasing diversity of organizational financial CCT workplace loss Expatriate’s early return Internationalization of the from the assignment economy Many expatriates leave their Culture’s role from corner organization within one year after shop to world conflict returning.
  • 12. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training
  • 13. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  • 14. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  • 15. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition - Develop self of behavioral, cognitive, maintenance and affective skills competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  • 16. Definition and Purpose of CCT al elop son s rper Cross-Cultural Dev skill Training inte An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition - Develop self of behavioral, cognitive, maintenance and affective skills competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  • 17. Definition and Purpose of CCT al elop son s rper Cross-Cultural Dev skill Training inte An educative process Improve an focused on promoting expatriate’s intercultural learning probability of through the acquisition - Develop self success on of behavioral, cognitive, the foreign maintenance and affective assignment skills competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
  • 18. Components of typical CCT programs
  • 19. Components of typical CCT programs Attribution training
  • 20. Components of typical CCT programs Culture awareness training
  • 21. Components of typical CCT programs Cognitive-behavior modification training
  • 22. Components of typical CCT programs Interaction training
  • 23. Components of typical CCT programs Language training
  • 24. Components of typical CCT programs Didactic training
  • 25. Components of typical CCT programs Experimental training
  • 26. Components of typical CCT programs
  • 27. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates
  • 28. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL
  • 29. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture CCL
  • 30. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Cognitive skill CCL development
  • 31. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Cognitive skill CCL development Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  • 32. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Increased performance Cognitive skill CCL development Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  • 33. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Increased performance Cognitive skill CCL development Decreased early return rates Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
  • 34. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Increased performance Cognitive skill CCL development Decreased early Success return rates Self-confidence and overall foreign feelings of wellbeing assignment!
  • 35. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 36. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 37. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 38. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
  • 39. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
  • 40. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs
  • 41. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone
  • 42. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country
  • 43. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset
  • 44. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT
  • 45. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science Designing CCT Programs
  • 46. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science Designing CCT Programs Guideline 7: Scenario-Based Training Should Be Implemented
  • 47. Guideline (B) : Delivery
  • 48. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process
  • 49. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed
  • 50. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed Guideline 10: Multiple Media Strategies Should Be Used to Deliver CCT
  • 51. Guideline (C) : Evaluation
  • 52. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs
  • 53. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from CCT has Transferred to the Job
  • 54. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from CCT has Transferred to the Job Guideline 13: Organizations Must Assess Whether the Investment in CCT Yields Positive Organizational Outcomes
  • 55. Current and Further Research of CCT
  • 56. Current and Further Research of CCT Current Status ✓ There is a surge in the amount of research devoted to cross- cultural training within these years. ✓ However: ➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of CCT research. ➡ Recommendations are often limited because of addressing only one facet of CCT. ➡ Empirical researches are not ➡ abundant.
  • 57. Current and Further Research of CCT Current Status Implications for Future ✓ There is a surge in the amount Research of research devoted to cross- cultural training within these years. ➡ Multicultural Team Training ✓ However: ➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of ➡ Adaptability CCT research. ➡ Recommendations are often limited ➡ Culture and Personality: because of addressing only one individual differences facet of CCT. ➡ Empirical researches are not ➡ abundant.
  • 58. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@sianuonline.com www.SinauOnline.com @ Tjitra, 2010 12