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Cross-Cultural Training
Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs




                                               ...
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):

                     10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from
       ...
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):

                     10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from
       ...
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):

                     10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from
       ...
Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):

                      10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from
      ...
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations




                      CCT
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations




Expatriates’ failure
adjustment and
organizational financial   CCT
loss
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations




Expatriates’ failure
adjustment and                    Increasing diver...
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations


Lost opportunities and damaged
    relations


Delayed productivity


Exp...
The increasing demand for CCT in organizations


Lost opportunities and damaged             Use of multicultural teams
   ...
Definition and Purpose of CCT


    Cross-Cultural
       Training
Definition and Purpose of CCT


      Cross-Cultural
         Training


 An educative process
 focused on promoting
 inter...
Definition and Purpose of CCT


      Cross-Cultural
         Training


 An educative process
 focused on promoting
 inter...
Definition and Purpose of CCT


      Cross-Cultural
         Training


 An educative process
 focused on promoting
 inter...
Definition and Purpose of CCT




                                                             al
                         ...
Definition and Purpose of CCT




                                                                    al
                  ...
Components of typical CCT programs
Components of typical CCT programs



                                     Attribution training
Components of typical CCT programs




                                     Culture awareness
                            ...
Components of typical CCT programs




                                     Cognitive-behavior
                           ...
Components of typical CCT programs




                                     Interaction training
Components of typical CCT programs




                                     Language training
Components of typical CCT programs




                                     Didactic training
Components of typical CCT programs




                                     Experimental training
Components of typical CCT programs
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates




  CCL
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates



        Work adjustment and general
           adjustmen...
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates



        Work adjustment and general
           adjustmen...
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates



        Work adjustment and general
           adjustmen...
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates



        Work adjustment and general
           adjustmen...
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates



        Work adjustment and general
           adjustmen...
Benefits of traditional CCT practices
in supporting expatriates



        Work adjustment and general
           adjustmen...
The current CCT “Best Practices”


 Design



 Delivery



Evaluation
The current CCT “Best Practices”


 Design



 Delivery



Evaluation
The current CCT “Best Practices”


 Design



 Delivery



Evaluation
The current CCT “Best Practices”


 Design



 Delivery



Evaluation
What Are Organizations Not Doing
that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
What Are Organizations Not Doing
that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
      Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Cus...
What Are Organizations Not Doing
that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
      Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Cus...
What Are Organizations Not Doing
that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
      Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Cus...
What Are Organizations Not Doing
that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
      Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Cus...
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Best Practices in Cross-Cultural Training

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A summary from a review article about "Cross-Cultural Training:
Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs" by Littrell & Sallas.

Expatriate Management, International Assignment, Culture Shock, Working and Living abroad

Published in: Business, Education
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  • Transcript of "Best Practices in Cross-Cultural Training "

    1. 1. Cross-Cultural Training Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs Dr. Hora Tjitra & Liu Jun www.SinauOnline.com Based on: LISA N. LITTRELL, EDUARDO SALAS: A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 2005. p305-334
    2. 2. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):
    3. 3. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)
    4. 4. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)
    5. 5. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000)
    6. 6. Data from multinational corporations (MNCs):  10% to 50% of expatriates returning early from their assignments.(Eschbach et al., 2001)  Expatriates’ difficulties are costly for MNCs, rangi-ng from $250,000 to $1 million. (Eschbach et al., 2001; Mervosh & McCleniahan, 1997)  The percentage of companies offering CCT incre- ased from 30% to 60% within 10 years. (Black & Mendenhall, 1990; R. Bennett et al.,2000) Have your company faced the same situations as above? Or have you met any difficulties as an expatriate?
    7. 7. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations CCT
    8. 8. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Expatriates’ failure adjustment and organizational financial CCT loss
    9. 9. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Expatriates’ failure adjustment and Increasing diversity of organizational financial CCT workplace loss
    10. 10. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged relations Delayed productivity Expatriates’ failure adjustment and Increasing diversity of organizational financial CCT workplace loss Expatriate’s early return from the assignment Many expatriates leave their organization within one year after returning.
    11. 11. The increasing demand for CCT in organizations Lost opportunities and damaged Use of multicultural teams relations Increased organizational Delayed productivity diversity Expatriates’ failure adjustment and Increasing diversity of organizational financial CCT workplace loss Expatriate’s early return Internationalization of the from the assignment economy Many expatriates leave their Culture’s role from corner organization within one year after shop to world conflict returning.
    12. 12. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training
    13. 13. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required for effective interactions across diverse cultures. (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
    14. 14. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition of behavioral, cognitive, and affective competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
    15. 15. Definition and Purpose of CCT Cross-Cultural Training An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition - Develop self of behavioral, cognitive, maintenance and affective skills competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
    16. 16. Definition and Purpose of CCT al elop son s rper Cross-Cultural Dev skill Training inte An educative process focused on promoting intercultural learning through the acquisition - Develop self of behavioral, cognitive, maintenance and affective skills competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
    17. 17. Definition and Purpose of CCT al elop son s rper Cross-Cultural Dev skill Training inte An educative process Improve an focused on promoting expatriate’s intercultural learning probability of through the acquisition - Develop self success on of behavioral, cognitive, the foreign maintenance and affective assignment skills competencies required D me itiv ies ev ta e for effective interactions el - co rat across diverse cultures. op st gn eg (Landis & Brislin, 1996; Morris & Robie, 2001).
    18. 18. Components of typical CCT programs
    19. 19. Components of typical CCT programs Attribution training
    20. 20. Components of typical CCT programs Culture awareness training
    21. 21. Components of typical CCT programs Cognitive-behavior modification training
    22. 22. Components of typical CCT programs Interaction training
    23. 23. Components of typical CCT programs Language training
    24. 24. Components of typical CCT programs Didactic training
    25. 25. Components of typical CCT programs Experimental training
    26. 26. Components of typical CCT programs
    27. 27. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates
    28. 28. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates CCL
    29. 29. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture CCL
    30. 30. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Cognitive skill CCL development
    31. 31. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Cognitive skill CCL development Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
    32. 32. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Increased performance Cognitive skill CCL development Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
    33. 33. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Increased performance Cognitive skill CCL development Decreased early return rates Self-confidence and overall feelings of wellbeing
    34. 34. Benefits of traditional CCT practices in supporting expatriates Work adjustment and general adjustment to the culture Increased performance Cognitive skill CCL development Decreased early Success return rates Self-confidence and overall foreign feelings of wellbeing assignment!
    35. 35. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
    36. 36. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
    37. 37. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
    38. 38. The current CCT “Best Practices” Design Delivery Evaluation
    39. 39. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design
    40. 40. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs
    41. 41. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone
    42. 42. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country
    43. 43. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset
    44. 44. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT
    45. 45. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science Designing CCT Programs
    46. 46. What Are Organizations Not Doing that They Should Be Doing --- Guideline (A) : Design Guideline 1: CCT Should Be Customized to Match the Expatriate’s Needs Guideline 2: CCT Should Not Stand Alone Guideline 3: Training Rigor Should Be Tailored to the Cultural Toughness of the Destination Country Guideline 4: MNCs Should Develop a Global Mindset Guideline 5: Organizations Must Use a Skill-Based Approach When Designing CCT Guideline 6: MNCs Should Apply and Use Strategies Based on the Science Designing CCT Programs Guideline 7: Scenario-Based Training Should Be Implemented
    47. 47. Guideline (B) : Delivery
    48. 48. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process
    49. 49. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed
    50. 50. Guideline (B) : Delivery Guideline 8: Training Delivery Should Correspond to the Dynamic Adjustment Process Guideline 9: The Difficulties Surrounding Repatriation Should Be Addressed Guideline 10: Multiple Media Strategies Should Be Used to Deliver CCT
    51. 51. Guideline (C) : Evaluation
    52. 52. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs
    53. 53. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from CCT has Transferred to the Job
    54. 54. Guideline (C) : Evaluation Guideline 11: Organizations Must Establish Success Criteria for CCT Programs Guideline 12: Organizations Must Evaluate Whether the Learning from CCT has Transferred to the Job Guideline 13: Organizations Must Assess Whether the Investment in CCT Yields Positive Organizational Outcomes
    55. 55. Current and Further Research of CCT
    56. 56. Current and Further Research of CCT Current Status ✓ There is a surge in the amount of research devoted to cross- cultural training within these years. ✓ However: ➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of CCT research. ➡ Recommendations are often limited because of addressing only one facet of CCT. ➡ Empirical researches are not ➡ abundant.
    57. 57. Current and Further Research of CCT Current Status Implications for Future ✓ There is a surge in the amount Research of research devoted to cross- cultural training within these years. ➡ Multicultural Team Training ✓ However: ➡ Lack of synthesis in the area of ➡ Adaptability CCT research. ➡ Recommendations are often limited ➡ Culture and Personality: because of addressing only one individual differences facet of CCT. ➡ Empirical researches are not ➡ abundant.
    58. 58. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@sianuonline.com www.SinauOnline.com @ Tjitra, 2010 12

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