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Assignment 2 presentation


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Theoretical Foundations of Instructional Technology

Theoretical Foundations of Instructional Technology

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  • 1. Robert Sims
    February 14, 2011
    Assignment Two
    INST 5131
    Theoretical Foundations
    Instructional Technology
  • 2. Introduction
    Definitions of Learning:
    Driscoll (2007) defines learning as “ a persisting change in human performance of performance potential.” (p. 37)
    Cobb (2009) offers “Learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes.”
  • 3. Instructional Technology is based on
    three foundations:
    • Psychological Foundations
    • 4. Learning Environments
    • 5. Learning Motivation
  • Psychological Foundations
    Hannafin and Land (1997) define that “Psychological foundations are subsequently operationalized through various design frameworks, activities, and strategies, which reflect beliefs about how individuals think, learn, understand, and act.” ( p. 172)
  • 6. Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction
    Adapted from (Gagne, 1985)
  • 7. Behaviorism Theory
    Adapted from (Chen, N.D.)
  • 8. Constructivism
    Adapted from (Can, 2007)
  • 9. Cognitive Theory
    Primary Components:
    Two Channels for learning:
    Adapted from (Mayer, 1998)
  • 10. Personal foundational Epistemology
    In my teaching experience, I incorporate sections of each psychological arena presented here in order to provide a quality education for my students. My primary foundation is based on Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. Each part of my curriculum is built upon an objective previously learned. Tasks are broken down into as many smaller tasks in order to bring the learner to a level of achievement.
  • 11. Sims Hybrid Psychological Foundation
    Nine Events
    Constructivist Activities Included
  • 12. Learning Environments
  • Constructivism
    Ages 0 - 2
    Ages 8 - 11
    Ages 12 - 15
    Ages 3 - 7
    Development of Motor Skills
    Development of Intuition
    Development of Cognitive Skills
    Development of Abstract Thinking Skills
    Adapted from (Can, 2007)
  • 16. Experiential Learning
    Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle
    Adapted from (Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2011).
  • 17. Objectivism
    Adapted from (Hannafin& Land, 2007, p. 57)
  • 18. Scaffolding
    Scaffolding includes:
    Adapted from (Pea, 2004, p. 432)
  • 19. Learner Environment Foundation
    Much of my teaching environment is based on the premise of setting and obtaining goals in order to master a particular skill. I find this “Chunking” provides a reachable target in which students can feel positive about what they have learned. I incorporate Scaffolding concepts to help students gain confidence with their mastery of skills. This provides an atmosphere of respect where students thrive on their achievements.
  • 20. Learning Environment
  • 21. Learner Motivation
    • ARCS
    • 22. Hierachy of Needs
    • 23. Collaborative Learning
  • ARCS
    Adapted from (Keller, 1984)
  • 24. Heirarchy of Needs
    Adapted from (Maslow, 1943)
  • 25. Collaborative Learning
    Adapted from (Smith & MacGregor, 1992)
  • 26. Learner Motivation
    I find that everyone wants to feel needed. Giving learners tasks and rewarding them for a job well done helps to fulfill the desire to be needed and respected. When a learner develops improves their self esteem, they are motivated to work even harder to learn more.
    I incorporate Collaborative Learning activities to serve several purposes:
    To reinforce what they students have learned. When they are confident enough to teach their peers, they have mastered the concept at a deep level.
    To help the learner know that they are important and valued. This reinforces the Heirarchy of Need.
  • 27. References
    Can, T. (2007, April 26). Constructivist concepts in classes [Web log post]. Retrieved from
    Can, T. (2007, January 21). Piaget’s theory of learning and constructivism [Web log post]. Retrieved from
    Chen, I. (n.d.) In An electronic textbook on instructional technology. Retrieved from
    Cobb, J. (2009, May 21). A definition of learning. [Web log post]. Retrieved from
    Driscoll, M. (2007). Psychological foundations of instructional design. In Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J. (eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (p. 37, 41). New Jersey: Pearson.
    Gagnè, R. (1985). The conditions of learning and the theory of instruction. (4th ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
    Hannafin, M. & Hill, J. (2007). Epistemology and the design of learning environments. In Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J. (eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (p. 57). New Jersey: Pearson.
    Hannafin, M. & Land, S. (1997). The foundations and assumptions of technology – enhanced student - centered learning environments. In Instructional Science, 25, 167 – 202. Retrieved from
  • 28. Keller, J. (2007). Motivation and performance. In Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J. (eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (p. 88). New Jersey: Pearson.
    Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, February). Experiential Learning (Kolb) at Retrieved from
    Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. In Psychological review. 50, p. 370 – 396.
    Mayer, R. & R. Moreno (1998). A cognitive theory of multimedia learning: implications for design principles. Retrieved from
    Pea, R. (2004). The social and technological dimensions of scaffolding and related theoretical conceptsfor learning, education, and human activity. In The Journal of the learning sciences, 13(3). P. 432
    Smith, B. & MacGregor, J. (1992). What is collaborative learning? A sourcebook for higher education. Published by the National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment at Pennsylvania State University.