Robert Sims February 14, 2011 Assignment Two INST 5131 Theoretical Foundations For Instructional Technology
Introduction Definitions of Learning: Driscoll (2007) defines learning as “ a persisting change in human performance of performance potential.” (p. 37) Cobb (2009) offers “Learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes.”
Instructional Technology is based on three foundations:
Psychological Foundations Hannafin and Land (1997) define that “Psychological foundations are subsequently operationalized through various design frameworks, activities, and strategies, which reflect beliefs about how individuals think, learn, understand, and act.” ( p. 172)
Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction Adapted from (Gagne, 1985)
Cognitive Theory Primary Components: Two Channels for learning: Limited Channel Capacity Visual Auditory Adapted from (Mayer, 1998)
Personal foundational Epistemology In my teaching experience, I incorporate sections of each psychological arena presented here in order to provide a quality education for my students. My primary foundation is based on Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. Each part of my curriculum is built upon an objective previously learned. Tasks are broken down into as many smaller tasks in order to bring the learner to a level of achievement.
Sims Hybrid Psychological Foundation Legend Nine Events Cognitive Behaviorism Constructivist Activities Included
Constructivism Ages 0 - 2 Ages 8 - 11 Ages 12 - 15 Ages 3 - 7 Development of Motor Skills Development of Intuition Development of Cognitive Skills Development of Abstract Thinking Skills Adapted from (Can, 2007)
Objectivism Adapted from (Hannafin& Land, 2007, p. 57)
Scaffolding Scaffolding includes: Adapted from (Pea, 2004, p. 432)
Learner Environment Foundation Much of my teaching environment is based on the premise of setting and obtaining goals in order to master a particular skill. I find this “Chunking” provides a reachable target in which students can feel positive about what they have learned. I incorporate Scaffolding concepts to help students gain confidence with their mastery of skills. This provides an atmosphere of respect where students thrive on their achievements.
Heirarchy of Needs Adapted from (Maslow, 1943)
Collaborative Learning Adapted from (Smith & MacGregor, 1992)
Learner Motivation I find that everyone wants to feel needed. Giving learners tasks and rewarding them for a job well done helps to fulfill the desire to be needed and respected. When a learner develops improves their self esteem, they are motivated to work even harder to learn more. I incorporate Collaborative Learning activities to serve several purposes: To reinforce what they students have learned. When they are confident enough to teach their peers, they have mastered the concept at a deep level. To help the learner know that they are important and valued. This reinforces the Heirarchy of Need.
References Can, T. (2007, April 26). Constructivist concepts in classes [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://constructivist-education.blogspot.com/2007/04/constructivist-concepts-in-classes.html Can, T. (2007, January 21). Piaget’s theory of learning and constructivism [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://constructivism.wordpress.com/2007/01/21/piaget%E2%80%99s-theory-of-learning-and-constructivism/ Chen, I. (n.d.) In An electronic textbook on instructional technology. Retrieved from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm Cobb, J. (2009, May 21). A definition of learning. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.missiontolearn.com/2009/05/definition-of-learning/ Driscoll, M. (2007). Psychological foundations of instructional design. In Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J. (eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (p. 37, 41). New Jersey: Pearson. Gagnè, R. (1985). The conditions of learning and the theory of instruction. (4th ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Hannafin, M. & Hill, J. (2007). Epistemology and the design of learning environments. In Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J. (eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (p. 57). New Jersey: Pearson. Hannafin, M. & Land, S. (1997). The foundations and assumptions of technology – enhanced student - centered learning environments. In Instructional Science, 25, 167 – 202. Retrieved from http://web.utk.edu/~mperkin2/hannafin.pdf .
Keller, J. (2007). Motivation and performance. In Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J. (eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (p. 88). New Jersey: Pearson. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, February). Experiential Learning (Kolb) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved from http://www.learning-theories.com/experiential-learning-kolb.html Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. In Psychological review. 50, p. 370 – 396. Mayer, R. & R. Moreno (1998). A cognitive theory of multimedia learning: implications for design principles. Retrieved from http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf. Pea, R. (2004). The social and technological dimensions of scaffolding and related theoretical conceptsfor learning, education, and human activity. In The Journal of the learning sciences, 13(3). P. 432 Smith, B. & MacGregor, J. (1992). What is collaborative learning? A sourcebook for higher education. Published by the National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment at Pennsylvania State University.