The sound patterns of language


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The sound patterns of language

  1. 1. The sound patterns of language By:- Saray Cisternas. -Claudio Fuentealba. -Camila Martinez. -Viviana Sanhueza. Teacher: M.Gabriela Valenzuela Date: 19-May-2014 Course: General Linguistics
  2. 2. Introduction  Obvious differences occur when a individual is shouting, is suffering from a bad cold or is asking for a sixth martini.  How do we manage consistently to recognize all those versions, for example of the word :  me as the form [mi]  not [ni] or [si] or [ma]  or [mo] or something else entirely?  Phonology.
  3. 3. Phonology  Phonology from Greek φωνή, phōnḗ, "voice, sound," and the suffix -logy (which is from Greek λόγος, lógos, "word, speech, subject of discussion")  Phonology is essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language.  Phonology is concerned with the abstract set of sounds in a language that allows us to distinguish meaning in the actual physical sounds we say and hear.
  4. 4. Phonemes o Each meaning-distinguishing sounds in a language. o When we learn to use alphabetic writing, we are actually using the concept of the phoneme as the single stable sound type which is represented by a single written symbol. o An essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively. This contrastive property is the basic operational test for determining the phonemes that exist in a language. o The basic phonemes of English are listed with the consonant, vowel and diphthong diagrams
  5. 5. Phones and allophones  Phoneme: abstract unit or sound-type (“in the mind”), there are many different versions of that sound-type regularly produced in actual speech (“in the mouth”).  What are the Phones? Phones are phonetic units and appear in square brackets.  Allophones: When we have a set of phones, all of which are versions of one phoneme, we add the prefix “allo-” (= one of a closely related set) and refer to them as allophones of that phoneme.  Example: [t] the [t] sound in the word tar is normally pronounced with a stronger puff of air than is present in the [t] sound in the word star.  Distinction between phonemes and allophone is that substituting one phoneme for another will result in a word with a different meaning  Substituting allophones results in diff difference in the pronunciation of /i/ in the words seed and seen. In the second word, the effect of the nasal consonant [n] ] in a narrow phonetic transcription. So, there are at least two phones, ], used to realize the single phoneme. They are both allophones of /i/ in English.
  6. 6. Minimal pairs and sets  What is a minimal pair? Are two words that are identical in form except for a contrast in one phoneme, occurring in the same position.  Examples: fan–van, bet–bat, site–side  Minimal pairs have traditionally been used in the teaching and testing of English as a second or foreign language to help students develop the ability to understand the contrast in meaning based on the minimal sound contrast.  Minimal Set: When a group of words can be differentiated, each one from the others, by changing one phoneme (always in the same position in the word),  Example : feat, fit, fat, fate, fought, foot, (based on the vowel) big, pig, rig, fig, dig, wig.(based on consonant)  Coarticulation: The process of making one sound almost at the same time as the next sound.
  7. 7. Phonotactics  This type of exercise involving minimal sets also allows us to see that there are definite patterns in the types of sound combinations permitted in a language.  In other words, Phonotactics are the rules govern the combinations and ordering of phonemes in a syllable.
  8. 8. Syllables  A syllable must contain a vowel or vowel-like sound, including diphthongs.  There are some basic internal segmental structure as follows  Onset  Nucleus  Coda
  9. 9.  Syllables like me, to or no have an onset and a nucleus, but no coda. They are known as open syllables. When a coda is present, as in the syllables up, cup, at or hat, they are called closed syllables.  The basic structure of the kind of syllable found in English words like green (CCVC), eggs (VCC), and (VCC), ham (CVC), I (V), do (CV), not (CVC), like (CVC), them (CVC), Sam (CVC), am (VC) is shown in the accom- panying diagram.
  10. 10. Consonant clusters  In English the number of consonants in sequence could be 3 maximum in initial position and up to 4 in the final one and can of course occur in the median position.  (C)+(C)+ (C) - V - (C)+(C)+(C)+(C)  The combination /st/ is a consonant cluster (CC) used as onset in the first consonant must always be /s/, followed by one of the voiceless stops (/p/, /t/, /k/) and a liquid or glide (/l/, /r/,/w/). You can check if this description is adequate for the combinations in splash, spring, strong, scream and square.
  11. 11. Coarticulation effects  The process of making one sound almost at the same time as the next sound is called coarticulation.  There are two well-known coarticulation effects, described as assimilation and elision.
  12. 12. Assimilation  When two sound segments occur in sequence and some aspect of one segment is taken or “copied” by the other, the process is known as assimilation.  Vowels are also subject to assimilation.  can /kæn/  I can go /aɪkəŋɡoʊ/  and /ən/  you and me /juənmi/
  13. 13. Elision  Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce. friendship /frɛnʃɪp/ In consonant clusters aspects /æspɛks/ he must be /himəsbi/ Vowels also disappear every /ɛvri/ interest /ɪntrɪst/ camera /kæmrə/
  14. 14. Conclusion  In a sense, every individual has a physically different vocal tract.  Consequently, in purely physical terms, every individual will pronounce sounds differently.  Finally, there are, potentially millions of physically different ways of saying a simple word.