Decision Making


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Decision Making

  1. 1. Ethical Decision Making
  2. 2. Ethical Decision Making Process 1 Recognizing a Problem & Define the problem 2 Identify the underlying principles, legislation and policies 3 Identify and consider the options 4 Choosing a Solution 5 Implementation 6 Evaluating the Solution
  3. 3. Define the problem Gather as much information as you can that will illuminate the situation. In doing so, it is important to be as specific and objective as possible. Writing ideas on paper may help you gain clarity. Outline the facts, separating out assumptions, hypotheses, or suspicions. There are several questions you can ask yourself:  What is difficult about the situation?  What other factors are involved (e.g. whole of government policy)?  Who else is involved and what are their points of view on the matter? Is there a need to work cooperatively?  What effect does your behaviour have on them
  4. 4. Identify the underlying principles After you have clarified the problem, refer to the Code of Ethics to see if the issue is addressed there. If there is an applicable standard or several standards and they are specific and clear, following the course of action indicated should lead to a resolution of the problem. To be able to apply the ethical standards, it is essential that you have read them carefully and that you understand their implications. If the problem is more complex and a resolution does not seem apparent, then you probably have a true ethical dilemma and need to proceed with further steps in the ethical decision making process. The following area can help to understand the Underlying Principals  Do your personal interests conflict, or reasonably appear to conflict, with the public interest?  What are your duties as a public sector employee?  Does the Code of Conduct require you to behave in a certain way?  Is there a relevant guideline, determination or policy?  Are there any legal implications? Where necessary, seek legal advice.
  5. 5. Identify and consider the options List all alternative options. For each option apply risk management principles to identify the impact on different stakeholders, the legal implications and the relevant principles of the Code of Conduct. For decisions that could have a large impact, or if you are still unsure as to the preferred action, get a second opinion from an independent, trusted person. Where necessary, seek advice from manager, organisation’s human resources unit or ethics advisor, or other agencies.
  6. 6. Choosing a Solution Considering the information you have gathered and the priorities you have set, evaluate each option and assess the potential consequences for all the parties involved. Ponder the implications of each course of action for the client, for others who will be effected, and for yourself as a counsellor. Eliminate the options that clearly do not give the desired results or cause even more problematic consequences. Review the remaining options to determine which option or combination of options best fits the situation and addresses the priorities you have identified.  What would your family or chief executive say if your actions were reported on the front page of a newspaper?  How will this decision be viewed by future generations?  Would you be happy if this action was performed on you?
  7. 7. Implementation  Create a detailed, step-by-step plan for implementing the solutions you choose  Who will do what, when, how? This should include a means of evaluating the solutions effectiveness by following ways  Your choice of action must be within the legislation, policies and guidelines both for your organisation and the whole of government.  Your behaviour must reflect the Code of Conduct for SA Public Sector Employees.  You must be able to justify your course of action.
  8. 8. Evaluating the Solution This is done after the solution has been implemented and involves comparing the results of what happened to what you expected to happen. In addition, you would want to consider what you might do differently if the situation were to occur again.
  9. 9. Types of Problems and Decisions  Structured Problems  Involve goals that clear.  Are familiar (have occurred before).  Are easily and completely defined—information defined—information about the problem is available and complete.  Programmed Decision  A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach.
  10. 10. Problems and Decisions (cont’d) (cont’  Unstructured Problems  Problems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete.  Problems that will require custom-made solutions. custom-  Non-programmed Non- Decisions  Decisions that are unique and nonrecurring.  Decisions that generate unique responses.
  11. 11. Decision-making Techniques Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.