Being logical


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A description about the book Being Logical, D.Q McInerny

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Being logical

  1. 1. Attitudes, points of view and practical procedures whose adoption preapares the mind for a successful engagement with logic.
  2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Be attentive Get the facts straight Ideas and the objects of ideas Be mindful of the origins of ideas Match ideas to facts Match words to ideas Effective communication Avoid vague and ambiguous language Truth
  3. 3. - Pay attention. - Don’t just hear, listen. - Don’t just look, see. - The little things are not to be ignored. - Train yourself to focus on details. - Attention demands an active, energetic response to every situation, to the persons, places, and things that
  4. 4. - A facts is something made or done. - There are 2 basic types of objectives facts, things and events. - Facts can also be thought of as objective or subjective. But things and events are objective facts, they exist in the public domain; a subjective fact is one that is limited to the subject experiencing it.
  5. 5. - An idea is the subjective evocation of an objective fact. - The control we have over our ideas is not absolute, it is real. - Our ideas are the means, not the ends, of our knowledge, they link us to the world, if they are clear ideas the links are strong
  6. 6. - The idea in the mind, as we have seen, is a subjective fact, but the kind of the fact we are concerned with establishing is objective fact.
  7. 7. - The basic components to human knowledge are: 1. An objective fact 2. The idea of the fact 3. The word that we apply to the idea - Bad ideas can be informative, not about the objective world; but about the subject state of the persons who nourish those ideas
  8. 8. - Ideas as such are not communicable from one mind to another. - Putting the right word to an idea is not an automatic process, and sometimes it can be quite challenging.
  9. 9. - Language and logic are inextricable bound up with each other. - It is impossibe to have clear communication without clear thinking. - Matching words to ideas is the first and most basic step in communication. The nex step is putting ideas toguether to form
  10. 10. - Usually the context in wich a general term appears will allow your audience to figure out its referent, but if you have any doubts about that use a specific term. - The only way to avoid ambiguity is to spell things out as explicity as possible.
  11. 11. - The whole purpose of reasoning of logic is to arrive at the truth of things. - Truth has 2 basic forms: - Ontological truth - Logical truth
  12. 12. Assimilate the principles to the point where they become.
  13. 13. 1. First principles 2. Real gray areas, manufactured gray areas 3. Explanation for everything, eventually 4. Don't stop short in the search for causes 5. Distinguish among causes 6. Define your terms 7. The categorical statement 8. Generalizing
  14. 14. - Logic as a science, has its first principles, but logic stands in a unique relationship to all other science because the first principle of logic apply not just to logic but to all the science. Other first principles are: • The principle of identity • The principles of the excluded middle • The principle of sufficient reason • The principle of contradiction
  15. 15. - A gray area is a situation in wich the truth cannot be clearly established. - Gray area exists as gray only because there are the distinct alternatives of black and white.
  16. 16. A good part of our energies as rational creatures is devoted to the search causes. We want to know why things happen. !!! ???
  17. 17. Sometimes our failure to find the root causes of things is for simple lazyness. We don´t investigate enough
  18. 18. The efficient causes is an agent whose activity bring something into existence or that modifies its existence in one way or another.
  19. 19. The process of definition, the mechanics of it, is the way we relate a particular object to other and thereby give it a precise location. The logical definition of terms is a 2 step: 1. Place the term to be defined in its, “proximate genus” 2. Identify the terms specific difference
  20. 20. - The purpose of the reasoning process, logic’s principal concern, is demostration. - An argument will only be as good as the statement of wich it is composed, and those statement , in turn will only be as good as the terms of wich they are composed. - The most effective argument is one whose conclusion is a categorical statement.
  21. 21. - A general statement is one whose subject is very large in scope. Such a statement is not neccesarily inaccurate. - Explicit language in general statements is important because it guards against any possible confusion on the part of an audience.