industrial revolution & craft movement,Victoria Era
Industrial Revolution, Arts and Crafts, Victorian era. By: Lesley, Hubert and Gillian
Time frame• industrial revolution 1750 -1850• arts and crafts 1860 to 1910• victorian era 1837 to 1901
• Geography kingdom ( 1865 – 1913 industrial revolution, it began in the united us worlds leading industrial nation)• arts and crafts movement, developed first and mostly in the british isles• victorian era, began in britain
Industrial revolution...Rise inindustrialproduction LAISSEZ FAIR “the world turned black”
society• society• Before the Industrial Revolution all work was done by hand, and now it is mainly done by machines. Also when the industrial revolution came, the style of livinng for everyone changed creating other classes other than Rich and Poor hence the Middle class which the majority of the English and American population is.• Before the industrial revolution 80% of people earned income from the land. 4/5ths of the population lived in rural areas, leasing land from aristocrats and the wealthy and farming agriculture. Families would produce mainly what they needed to survive. IR brought about social, economical and cultural changes.
Agricultural revolution• Enclosure movement (no more open-fiend)• Experimental phase
economy• industrial revolution,• the basic income during the period increased ten times and the population increase 6 times in the two centuaries that followed the 1800s.• "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before". Robert E. Lucas, Jr, nobel prise winner.• a transition in parts of great britains previosuly manual labour and animal based economy towards mine based manufacturing, in the later part of the 18th century.
Sectors of economy that grew dramatically during this period and had significant technological• Textile Industry advances:• Introduction of steam power• Iron and steel• Railway• Coal mining
Inventions ... Steam Engine VS James Watts Improved Steam Engine James Watt was sent a Newcomen steam engine to repair that led him to invented improvements for steam engines.• Thoman Newcomen •James Watt (1736 - 1800) (1663 – 1729)
... More inventions• 1712 Illustration of Thomas Newcomens Steam Engine• In 1712, Thomas Newcomen together with John Calley built their first steam engine. Flying Shuttle, Automation of Textile Making & The Industrial Revolution
Increased Yarn and Thread Production During Industrial Revolution The spinning jenny used eight spindles of instead of the one found on spinning wheels. In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny,Spinning Frame or Water FrameRichard Arkwright patented the spinning frameor water frame that could produce strongerthreads for yarns
Spinning Mule Increased Variety in Threads and yarn In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water frame Power Looms Effect on the Women of the Industrial Revolution The power loom was a steam-powered, mechanically-operated version of a regular loom. A loom is a device that combined threads to make cloth.
Practical Sewing Machines & Ready Made ClothingAfter the sewing machine was invented, the ready-madeclothing industry took off. Before sewing machines, nearly allclothing was local and hand-sewn. • The telegraph was invented in 1848 •Laying of the 1st ocean cable in 1864
The introduction to Arts and Craft movement• REBELLION against age of mass production• Return to TRADITIONAL craft methods and ‘romantic forms of decor’• Products manufactured by individuals and small groups• “ATTACKING INDUSTRIAL AGE”• Floral, wavy, leaf-like designs• Believed IR made man less creative
• William Morrisyou do not “ Have nothing in your house that know to be useful or believe to be beautiful”
architecture• 1860-1941 serveral• Jacobethan(1830-1870)• The mixed national Renaissance Revivals style that was made popular in England form the late 1820.• .Elisabethan (Gothic)• .Jacobean(Classic)
Typically Victorian jewelleryThe Jewelry industry benefited from mass production techniques. Machines were developed to make stamping whole pieces of jewelry fromthin sheets of metal.•First applied commercially in the 1840’s, electroplating for jewelry was introduced.•With the introduction of faux stones (paste) and mass production making jewelry that imitated the pieces worn by the wealthy, people of allclasses were now able to afford jewelry.•Queen Victoria loved jewelry and this harkened in the age of sentiment.•She brought the Cameo back in style as well as romantic jewelry, containing a lock of a loved ones hair. It was not considered unnatural forVictoria to wear a bracelet made from her children’s baby teeth.