U3A Comparative religion: Anglicanism and Anglo-Catholicism

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Presentation to the U3A Comparative Religion Group in Gosport on the history of Anglicanism and its manifestation as Anglio-Catholicism.

These are all personal opinions and are not the views of the Church of England or the Diocese of Portsmouth

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  • High Church is generally used to describe forms of Anglicanism influenced, to a greater or lesser extent, by the Catholic tradition. Anglo-Catholicism is often identified with this variety of churchmanship, although not all "High Church" Anglicans, such as Liberal Anglo-Catholics, would endorse some prominent aspects of Anglo-Catholicism.Low Church usually refers to Anglicans of a more Evangelical tradition who, more consistent with the Protestant tradition, emphasise the primacy of scripture and salvation through faith alone. Low Church Anglicans usually worship according to the official prayer books, but with much less ceremony.Broad Church generally refers to Anglicans somewhere between the "high" and "low" traditions. The ‘via media’ of Anglicanism
  • 1521 Pope Leo X makes Henry VIII “Defender of the Faith” for his writing on “Defense of the Seven Sacraments”
  • The First Book of Common Prayer, 1549Although a formal break with the Papacy came about during the time of Henry VIII, the Church of England continued to use liturgies in Latin throughout his reign, just as it always had. However, once the young Edward VI attained the throne in 1547, the stage was set for some very significant changes in the religious life of the country. And so a consultation of bishops met and produced the first Book of Common Prayer. It is generally assumed that this book is largely the work of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, but, as no records of the development of the prayer book exist, this cannot be definitively determined. This Book of Common Prayer was not created in a vacuum, but derives from several sources. First and foremost was the Sarum Rite, or the Latin liturgy developed in Salisbury in the thirteenth century, and widely used in England. Two other influences were a reformed Roman Breviary of the Spanish Cardinal Quiñones, and a book on doctrine and liturgy by Hermann von Wied, Archbishop of Cologne. This prayer book was in use only for three years, until the extensive revision of 1552. However, much of its tradition and language remains in the prayer books of today, as may be seen by even a cursory examination of the text. 
  • The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, 1552The first Book of Common Prayer of 1549 did not satisfy the more extreme of the Protestant reformers in England, who demanded changes in that book. These, led by such as Martin Bucher and Peter Martyr, objected to not only the services themselves, but also to what they believed to be overly-elaborate altars and vestments for the clergy. Archbishop Cranmer eventually allied himself with the reformers, and the result was the revision of 1552. The changes made in this prayer book were extensive, and included, among others:Added the Introductory Sentences, Exhortation, Confession and Absolution to Morning and Evening Prayer.Many changes were made in the Communion office, including addition of the Decalogue, omission of the Introit, a new prayer of Consecration, rearrangement of parts of the service, etc. The Communion service was also altered to make ambiguous the traditional Catholic doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the elements. A rubric, called "the Black Rubric" (so-called as it was printed in black in 19th century versions) was added only days before final printing, over many objections, and sought to assure that kneeling at the Communion did not in any way imply adoration of the host.The exorcism, anointing, the chrism, and triple immersion were omitted from the Baptism service.The use of reserved sacrament was left ambiguous in the Visitation of the Sick.The Burial service was drastically shortened, omitting Communion, prayers for the dead, and the psalms.The book was introduced at the very end of 1552, and only preceded the death of the young and sickly King Edward by six months. Edward was succeeded by Queen Mary, who quickly outlawed the Book of Common Prayer and restored the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. So this prayer book never even came into general usage in England. Nevertheless, the 1552 Book of Common Prayer has had lasting impact, as the next revision (1559, on the accession of Elizabeth I) was based very closely on it. *** Mary makes it illegal, Elizabeth Restores it
  • The Elizabethan Prayer Book, 1559The Prayer Book of 1559 was the third revision for the Anglican Church, and was brought about by the accession to the throne of Elizabeth I and the restoration of the Anglican Church after the six-year rule of the Catholic Queen Mary. It was in use much longer than either of its predecessors - nearly 100 years, until the Long Parliament of 1645 outlawed it as part of the Puritan Revolution. It served not only the England of Elizabeth I, but her Stuart successors as well. This Book was a conservative revision of the 1552 edition, with the effect of making it somewhat less "Protestant". Some of the few changes made included:Dropping the very last rubric in the Communion service (called the "Black Rubric"), which had sought to assure that kneeling during Communion did not in any way imply worship of the elements;Combining the two versions of the sentences used for administration of the elements during Communion from the previous two Prayer Books;Dropping prayers against the Pope from the Litany; andAdding a rubric to Morning Prayer prescribing the use of traditional vestments.Some minor changes were made in 1604 on the accession of James I. The most important of these was to lengthen the Catechism by adding sections on the Sacraments. Also, a number of Saints' days and festivals were added to the Kalendar in 1561; these are also noted. Effectively unchanged until 1928 attempt at revision and the authorisation of the Alternative Service Book of 1980 and Common Worship in 2000.The BCP remains the legal and spiritual basis of Anglican Worship
  • The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communion's doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. The four points are:The Holy Scriptures, as containing all things necessary to salvation;The Creeds (specifically, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds), as the sufficient statement of Christian faith;The Sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion;The historic episcopate, locally adapted.
  • 1829 Oxford Don John Keble preaches at Oxford Assizes on the tradition of the Church in EnglandAlthough Conservative in tone, this reaction to religious apathy, Political radicalism and atheism sparks a return to interest in the traditions of AnglicanismReturn to sacramental life, including Holy Communion
  • Catholic Relief Act 1829
  • In these days of liturgical diversity, with the general public largely indifferent about what goes on in churches, it's strange to think that 150 years ago, because of changes to the style of worship, thousands of people stormed a church Sunday by Sunday for several months, bringing in their dogs, lighting their pipes and attempting to set fire to the furniture, throwing their caps in the air, heckling and jeering and catcalling throughout the sermon and singing rival songs during the hymns. (Rule Britannia and God save the Queen were the favourites, though 'nigger ditties' were also sung. Dean Stanley is said to have attended on one occasion and, having no ear for music, nor eye for what was going on, pronounced the hymn-singing to be 'most hearty'.) There were riots outside the church too, so that the Rector needed a police escort to escape from a side door back into the Rectory.All this is what happened at St George-in-the-East between May 1859 and July 1860. Questions were asked in both Houses of Parliament, where there was little support for the Rector and his pleas for more effective protection. Indeed, because of the actions of the Vestry it was members of the clergy and their friends, rather than the rioters, who were prosecuted.
  • Unashamedly “high church”
  • Anglican Roman Catholic International CommissionWe must ask ourselves what the purpose of the Commission is for?For dialogue and understanding or the finding of enough common ground to seek unity?What does Unity really mean? For Rome it means submitting to their authority (cf Council of Whitby, 664AD and the establishment of the Ordinariate in 2010/11For me, personally, it means accepting our differences and identifying what unites us. The establishment of Women of the LGBT in ministry will not affect that latter aim.
  • U3A Comparative religion: Anglicanism and Anglo-Catholicism

    1. 1. U3A Comparative Religion: Anglicanism & Anglo-Catholicism<br />Fr. Simon RundellSCP, Vicar, S. Thomas the Apostle, Elson<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />To outline the history and diversity of the Anglican Church<br />To identify the nature and theology of Anglo-Catholicism<br />To establish the nature of the Church of England as both Catholic and Reformed<br />To identify some of the points of tension in the Anglican Communion and the particular response of Liberal Anglo-Catholicism to them.<br />
    3. 3. “Churchmanship”<br />High Church <br />Low Church <br />Broad Church <br />
    4. 4. History of the Church of England<br />Historically part of the Western Church <br />Henry VIII was a faithful and devout catholic<br />Awarded title “Defender of the Faith” by the Pope in 1521for his devotion<br />
    5. 5. History of the Church of England<br />Political machinations over succession, heirs and the Pope’s niece result in a break with Rome between 1529 and 1540<br />Henry assumes role as head of the Church<br />Custom and practice largely unchanged<br />
    6. 6. Separation from Rome<br />Religious adherence becomes test of nationalistic loyalty<br />CofE established as a catholic yet reformed church<br />1549 Book of Common Prayer<br />
    7. 7. The rise of Protestantism<br />First BCP did not satisfy the more radical reformers influenced by European Protestantism<br />Revision in 1552 largely by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer<br />
    8. 8. “The Elizabethan Settlement”<br />After Mary’s return to Catholicism, Elizabeth I sought a compromise<br />Creation of 1559 Book of Common Prayer<br />Largely untouched until the 1928 (failed) revision, the 1980 Alternative Service Book and Common Worship in 2000<br />Remains the legal and spiritual basis of Anglican Worship<br />
    9. 9. Richard Hooker & William Laud<br />1594 Hooker’s Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity<br />Establishes theological and ecclesiological argument for Anglicanism<br />William Laud and the Caroline Divines<br />includes Lancelot Andrews, John Cosin & Thomas Ken<br />IdentifedtheCatholic underpinning of Anglicanism<br />Claims Apostolic Succession<br />
    10. 10. Marks of Anglicanism<br />A federated communion of national churches without central hierarchy<br />Archbishop of Canterbury is not substitute Pope!<br />“First Amongst Equals”<br />…until the Anglican Covenant is established!<br />
    11. 11. Marks of Anglicanism<br />Focus upon Scripture, Tradition and Reason<br />Expounded formally in the 39 Articles<br />But the articles are not an explicitly confessional document like the Westminster Catechism for Lutherans for example<br />Articles are open to some degree of interpretation<br />Anglican Clergy are expected to swear obedience to them, although in practice there is ALWAYS variance<br />
    12. 12. Lambeth Quadrilateral (1870)<br />Scripture<br />Creed<br />Sacraments<br />although effectively only the sacraments of Baptism & the Eucharist<br />Historic Episcopate<br />
    13. 13. Marks of Anglicanism<br />Ordinal of Bishops, Priests and Deacons<br />The ‘Catholic Creeds and Councils’<br />All those before the 1054 schism between East & West<br />Book of Common Prayer<br />Authorised Version of Scripture<br />‘LexOrandi, LexCrededi’<br />
    14. 14. The rise of Puritanism<br />Extreme Protestantism<br />Fallow period for classical Anglicanism<br />Mattins (Morning Prayer) becomes principle act of Sunday worship rather than Holy Communion<br />Persecution of those with ‘high church’ ideals<br />Imprisonment of Non-Jurors <br />
    15. 15. The Oxford Movement<br />1833 Oxford Don John Keble preaches at Oxford Assizes on the tradition of the Church in England<br />Anonymous ‘Tracts for the Times’ published by Pusey and Newman<br />
    16. 16. Oxford Movement<br />Catholic Emancipation in 1829 ends persecution of the Roman Church<br />But does not really end the deep held suspicion that Rome has political desires in England<br />Newman ends up converting to Roman Catholicism as a logical conclusion of his Spiritual Journey<br />Re-establishment of Monasticism begins with Community of the Resurrection 1892<br />
    17. 17. Ritual Riots<br />Oxford Movement inspired clergy begin to return to ritualism<br />Candles<br />Vestments<br />English Missal – a high church reworking of the Book of Common Prayer & Sarum Rite<br />Inspired rioting in London, Liverpool & elsewhere (1859-60)<br />Clergy imprisoned!<br />
    18. 18. Anglo-Catholicism<br />Anglo-Catholicism is the natural product of the Oxford Movement<br />A focus on the sacramental life<br />Use of many facets of Roman or Orthodox liturgy<br />Some Anglo-Catholic Churches are indistinguishable from their Roman counterparts<br />
    19. 19. Anglo-Catholicism<br />A blending of the parochial nature of ministry with a continuum of authority, tradition and authenticity<br />Incarnational and Motivated by Social Justice<br />Rise of the ‘Slum Priest’ and the working class nature of Anglocatholicism<br />Challenged by the Churches response to key social and theological changes<br />Ordination of women<br />Role of LGBT persons in the Chruch<br />
    20. 20. Establishment & Legalities<br />Anglican Clergy are not employees<br />They are ‘Post Holders’<br />There is an effective Parish for everyone in England<br />Everyone has a right to be ministered to by an Anglican Clergyperson<br />Incumbents (like myself) cannot be moved or removed without serious professional misconduct<br />Church is not congregational in nature<br />
    21. 21. Relationship with Rome<br />1896 ApostolicaeCuraeby Pope Leo XIII<br />Declares Anglican Orders “absolutely null & void”<br />Responded by CofE in Saepius Officio<br />Issues still seen in the ‘respraying’ of Ordinariate Clergy, 2011<br />1967 establishment of ARCIC<br />Whither Unity?<br />
    22. 22. ‘Traditional’ vs ‘Liberal’<br />1992 Church of England General Synod votes for the Ordination of Women to the Priesthood<br />Provision of conscience in 1992 Act of Synod to care for those unable to support this<br />Resolutions and ‘Flying Bishops’<br />Further fractured by the process of admitting women to the episcopate<br />And confused by the establishment of the Roman Ordinariate<br />
    23. 23. The ‘Schism’<br />So far, the Ordinariate has only seen a handful of Bishops and Priests resign to join the Ordinariate<br />Only 7% of Churches have any kind of Resolution and few will leave their dearly loved buildings and structures<br />There will be provision for those with objection, but not as formal as the Act of Synod<br />Those who feel that is inadequate will ‘cross the Tiber’<br />Those unprepared to leave will and should find a valued place in the Church<br />I have close relationships with many in these positions<br />
    24. 24. Fresh Expressions<br />A new venture in Mission<br />Contextualised to individual communities<br />Strategies for reaching the unchurched or the dechurched<br />New Monasticism<br />Alternative Worship<br />Non Parochial Ecclesial Communities<br />Blesséd in Gosport<br />
    25. 25. Blesséd – Creative Worship as Mission<br />Multimedia based<br />Sacramentally focused<br />Uses all of our senses to create worship which challenges and stimulates<br />Arisen from Youth Work in Portsmouth<br />Leads worship at Greenbelt Festival <br />
    26. 26. Examples of Blesséd liturgy<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28.
    29. 29.
    30. 30. Creative Ideas for Alternative Sacramental Worship<br />Rundell S (2010) Canterbury Press, Norwich<br />Available from Amazon!<br />
    31. 31. Creative Ideas for Sacramental Worship with Children<br />Rundell S (2011) Canterbury Press, Norwich<br />Coming Soon!<br />
    32. 32. Questions?<br />
    33. 33. Thank You<br />St. Thomas the Apostle,<br />on the corner of Elson Road & Elson Lane<br />Mass at 10am Sunday!<br />

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