Refers to change in manufacturing methods: From slower(more expensive) to fast production by machine(cheaper) From work at home to work in the factoryBroad meaning: Effect of machinery upon humanity
First phase (1750 Second Phase (1870 – -1870) still going on) Invention of first New sources of complex machines power – new and building of first industries factories Application of Steam as sources of science to industry power Automation – New methods of machines replacing transportation and men communication Use of computers
Renaissance spirit – concern in improving life in this worldCommercial Revolution –expansion overseasWhere: Great BritainWhen: 18th centuryWhy: Combination of conditions (factors of production) –basic resources necessary for industrialization: land / capital /labor
Land: Natural resources – coal, iron and raw materials from colonies (cotton for ex.) Good geographic location with many ports and an excellent internal canal system to ship materials and goods) Freedom from destruction of wars on the continent.
Labor: Agricultural changes – Enclosure Acts, technological advances – many people seeking work Population growth and more skilled workers.
Capital: Markets – colonial power Wealthy entrepreneurs Stable and strong economy – National Bank ofEngland – since 1694
Minds gifted men with ideas and visionManpower workers leaving the rural areas to come to the cities for jobsManagers leadership to manage factories and shopsMaterials coal, iron ore and other natural resourcesMoney capital made on wars and trade ventures available for investmentMarkets a large colonial empire and established trade agreementsModes of transportation roads, rail and shipping facilities
Size of cities - Growth of factories, bringing job seekers to cities - Urban areas doubled, tripled or quadrupled in size - Factories developed near sources of energy - Many new industrial cities, specializing in certain industries.
No sanitary codes or building controlLack of adequate housing, education and police protectionLack of running water and indoor plumbingFrequent epidemics sweeping through slumsEventually –better housing, healthier diets and cheaper clothing
New jobs were created Workers trying to kep pace with machines Unsanitary and dirty factories Dangerous operation of machines Harsh and severe factory discipline Eventually – higher wages, shorter hours , better conditions
Growing middle class of factory owners, shippers and merchantsUpper class of landowners and aristocrats resentful of rich middle classLower middle class of factory overseers and skilled workersLower class of underpaid and overworked men, women and childrenIn general, a rising standard of living for some groups.
TransportationSteam engine revolutionized transportation- water transportation- railroadsRoads also improved. Wagons could now travel over roads without sinking in mud. Roads would be covered with layers of crushed rocks and large stones for drainage.
1. Industrial workers in the late 1800s had no power to make big business raise their pay or improve their working conditions.2. Workers united = more power – they started to organize themselves for a common goal forming labor unions.3. Skilled workers led the way in forming unions – they were not easily replaced.4. Labor unions workers would try to force employers to improve the working conditions or raise their pay.5. Labor unions also used their voting power to persuade the government to pass laws favoring them.6. Union movement grew slowly in Europe and U.S
Why Government favored businessinterests?Influence of Fear of strikes Unfavorablebusiness in Strikes were public opinionGovt. illegal for the Many peopleBig business gave longest time since believed that iflarge governments unions succeeded incontributions of winning higher feared they wages, prices wouldmoney to would hurt the rise.governemt growth of Unions were seen asleaders gaining economy. a threat to socialinfluence over British workers order and stability.them. could not even form unions early on.
1799/1800 – Combination Acts – outlawed unions and strikes.1824 – Parliament repeals the Combination Acts. Government unhappily tolerated unions.1833 –Factory Acts – to regulate child labor1842 –Mines Act – women and children could not work underground.1845 – Workers formed a National Labor Organization.1847 – Ten Hours Act – limited workday to 10 hours for women and children in the factories.1859 –Government allowed peaceful demonstrations.1875 –Workers win the right to strike. Unions had 1 million members.