Say, “Before we discuss the potential damage the coming earthquake will cause, we should first understand what an earthquake is.”
Following this slide say, “Let’s take a look at the disaster in Haiti.”*The 7.0 initial shock was followed by a 6.1 aftershock which nearly doubled the death toll
The reason we’re looking at Haiti rather than one of the other nations recently hit by an earthquake is that Haiti’s devastation most accurately pictures the devastation Nepal will experience should another major earthquake strike.
Take this time to explain to the audience what the Richter Scale is. Explain that Richter Scale measures the strength of earthquakes. It counts to ten, ten being the strongest, and each successive number is ten times more powerful than the number previous (i.e. 2.0 is ten times more powerful than 1.0). Nepal’s earthquakes typically measure 8.0 or higher on the Richter Scale.
Translation: Kathmandu is the most dangerous city to be living in for earthquakes.Source: Nepal Times e Special. Issue 228.31 Dec. 2004
*He further believes that many of the homes constructed after 2003 will also collapse, but cannot provide a percentage because it is unknown how many homes have been built since 2003, and thus, how many of those homes were actually constructed according to the new building codes.
[Following the slide] *These statistics are based on a study conducted by NSET-N in 1997. No recent study has been conducted. Due to extreme growth in both population and housing many experts fear the devastation could be far worse than here predicted.Amrit Man Tuladhar, head of the government earthquake preparedness program fears that as many as 400,000 people could die in the coming quake.
*Bhaktapur: 75% of all buildings (Use this picture to show what an 8.1 earthquake can do.)Remind the audience that scientists believe Nepal’s next quake could be ten times more powerful than the one that caused the damage in this picture.
Before the slide: “What else to look out for?”Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which water-saturated soil changes from a firm material to a semi-liquid material when shaken and loses its ability to support structures. Liquefaction was widely observed after the 1934 earthquake. For example, the first floor of buildings can become the ground floor after the shock.
Say, “There are two methods advocated for earthquake survival. The first is the one you have alluded to.”[Go to next slide]
Lead the audience through the section, “The Triangle of Life” in the manual. Begin with the sixth sentence, “Recently, a new method of survival…”*The fetal position, A position of the body in which an individual is laying on his side with his chin, elbows, and knees drawn in towards his chest. Note:The American Rescue Team International has been at every major disaster since 1985 with the exception of those that happened simultaneously. They now have 31,000 associated members in 32 different countries.
Earthquake Survival Seminar<br />Nepal 2011<br />
The Situation:<br />Earthquakes in Nepal<br />
The earth is composed of several layers. The outermost layer is called the earth’s crust.<br />What is an Earthquake Anyway?<br />
The earth’s crust is broken up into huge pieces of land.<br />The places where these land masses meet are called fault lines.<br />What is an Earthquake Anyway?<br />
Periodically, these plates move causing ruptures where they meet. These ruptures are called Earthquakes.<br />What is an Earthquake Anyway?<br />
The two plates which are of direct concern to us are the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates. The Himalayas are their fault line.<br />What is an Earthquake Anyway?<br />
In the first three months of 2010…<br />Earthquakes Around the World<br />
On average, Nepal experiences a major earthquake every 70-75 years. These typically measure 8.0 or higher on the Richter Scale. <br />Last Major Earthquake: 1934<br />Earthquakes in Nepal<br />
2011 marks the 77th year since Nepal’s last major earthquake—that’s two years passed the average.<br />Scientists studying the Himalayas believe the next major earthquake could occur at any moment…<br />And it could measure as high as a 9.0 on the Richter Scale—that’s 20 times more powerful than the recent earthquake in Haiti!<br />“What year is it?!”<br />
Of the 21 cities around the world in seismic zones Kathmandu is considered at the highest risk of death, destruction, and unpreparedness. <br />Potential Damage to Kathmandu Valley<br />
Potential Damage to Kathmandu Valley<br />If the shaking of 1934 (8.1) repeats itself…<br />95% of all water pipes*;<br />70% of all buildings*;<br />60% of all telephone lines;<br />40% of all electrical lines…<br />heavily damaged many beyond repair<br />Many places in the Valley could be without water for up to one year<br />
2003: Nepal adopted building codes which would assure stronger homes for earthquakes<br />2003-2010: Virtually no homes were built according to those codes<br />2010: “80% of the old homes will collapse” (Amrit Man Tuladhar)*<br />Due to poor structural quality and lack of enforced building codes building collapse in Nepal is highly likely<br />How Likely Is Building Collapse?<br />
Based on the same study…<br /><ul><li>95,000+ injured
600,000-900,000 left homeless…</li></ul>In Kathmandu Valley alone<br />Potential Damage to Kathmandu Valley<br />
Bhaktapur Before and After 1934 Quake<br />
Severe liquefaction-induced damage<br /><ul><li>Buildings will sink
Bridges (including many if not all major bridges) will collapse
Tribhuvan International Airport non-functional</li></ul>Potential Damage to Kathmandu Valley<br />
Earthquake Survival<br />Technique<br />
Method: When the shaking starts move to a sturdy object and curl up in the fetal position* beside it.<br />Reasoning: Curling up beside the object will provide you the best chance of survival during building collapse<br />Advocate: The American Rescue Team International<br />The Triangle of Life<br />