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Simon Guest Senior Director, Technical Strategy Microsoft Corporation Session Code: ISB204
This is Jim
Jim is an IT Manager
For a large pharmaceutical
Jim’s Boss (the CIO) has asked him to  “ move their company to the cloud”
Jim has no idea what this means
Jim has heard of cloud computing, but is lost when it comes to the terminology
Is cloud computing just about virtualization in the data center? http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=vi...
Is cloud computing just another term for software as a service? http://www.daniweb.com/blogs/entry3993.html#
Is cloud computing something new? http://www.cloudviews.org/2009/01/is-this-cloud-thing-something-new/
Is cloud computing for stupid people?! http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/692407
Goal of the next 55 minutes: Help Jim “demystify” the cloud
Help him understand  the terminology  surrounding cloud computing
Show Jim  what applications  make sense in the cloud, and why
Teach Jim the  important considerations  for moving to the cloud
 
Buzzword Bingo
SOA – Service Oriented Architecture
SaaS – Software as a Service
Web 2.0
RIA – Rich Internet Applications
Software + Services
Are any of these cloud computing?
Not really – these are  styles  of application architecture
These  styles  may work in the cloud, but by themselves they are not cloud computing
To understand cloud computing, we need to instead start by looking at  where applications live
 
On Premises
I purchase my own hardware and manage my own datacenter
Order 10 servers from DELL, they arrive a week later, I un-box them and install them in racks
Traditional way of doing things – has worked well for Jim the past few decades
Application runs  on-premises Buy my own hardware, and manage my own data center <ul><li>Application runs  </li></ul><ul><...
Hosted
I pay someone to host my application using hardware I specify or provide
“ Dear hosting company, please set me up 2 x dedicated Web servers and 1 x database, backed up nightly” “Sure – that’ll be...
Used heavily for public web site and/or company extranet and partner sites
Application runs  on-premises Buy my own hardware, and manage my own data center Application runs at a  hoster Pay someone...
Cloud
Pay someone for a pool of computing resources that can be applied to a set of applications
Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of co...
With a cloud, the administrator defines the service level for an application
The cloud software manages the application by creating one or more instances and handling storage
Application runs  on-premises Buy my own hardware, and manage my own data center Application runs at a  hoster Pay someone...
Cloud “Variants”
Private Cloud
Pool of computing resources that lives within a self managed datacenter
Pool of computing resources that lives within a datacenter with no sharing
Hosted Cloud
Pool of computing resources that is offered through a hoster, utilizing software from another vendor
Public Cloud
Pool of computing resources offered from the same vendor that supplies the software
Jim now understands the  style  of an application, and where it  lives , but who creates the application?
Build vs. Buy
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform Build vs. Buy Build Bu...
“ Nice diagrams so far… … but, what about  my  applications?”
 
“ CRM and Email are commodity services.  We have few customizations, and it should be cheaper for someone else to run thes...
“ This is a viral marketing website.  It has a small chance of being really big, but we’re not sure!” “ How difficult is i...
“ This application runs at full capacity for short periods of time at the end of each month.” In case it is successful, we...
“ MRI images are very large and exponentially growing.  Is there a better way of storing these?” “ Can the cloud help us i...
“ Does the cloud give me the storage I’m after?” “ We need to share results from our H1N1 trials with government entities....
“ I can’t afford to maintain this old HR application written in VB – it’s driving me mad!” “… but due to regulatory issues...
“ A good solution could be to find a suitable packaged application here.” Application runs  on-premises Application runs a...
What  patterns  do we see here?
Pattern 1:  Transference
Taking an existing on-premises application and moving it to the cloud
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform “ Packaged” Applicatio...
Drivers? Economic, Consolidation, Prototyping
Pattern 2:  Scale and Multi-Tenancy
Creating an application that has the ability to handle web load without requiring the full capital investment from day one
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform “ Packaged” Applicatio...
Drivers? Prototyping, Risk Mitigation
Pattern 3:  Burst Compute
Creating an application that has the ability to handle additional compute on an as-needed basis
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform “ Packaged” Applicatio...
Drivers? Economic (avoiding over capacity)
Pattern 4:  Elastic Storage
Creating an application that has the ability to grow exponentially from a storage perspective
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform “ Packaged” Applicatio...
Drivers? Economic (avoiding over capacity), Management
Pattern 5:  Communications
Creating an application that has the ability to communicate between organizations using a pre-defined infrastructure
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform “ Packaged” Applicatio...
Drivers? Infrastructure Management
From this exercise, Jim realizes…
Not all applications look the same in the cloud
Instead, he must understand the drivers for moving (or creating) cloud based applications
Also, not everything makes sense in the cloud
Application runs  on-premises Application runs at a  hoster Application runs using  cloud  platform “ Packaged” Applicatio...
So, all of this looks great in PowerPoint … but what else should Jim be considering?
 
Each data center is  11.5 times  the size of a football field
When you have this many machines to look after, the rules change
MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure)
Approximate lifetime value that manufacturers state for system components
Average Manufacturer Disk MTBF = 1M hours = failure every 114 years (Does not mean that every disk will last 114 years – c...
Average Manufacturer NIC MTBF = 44 years
Average CPU Cooling Fan MTBF = 22 years
Statiscally, with 20,000 machines this equates to 2 or 3 machines out of order every day
Which isn’t bad
Except if it’s your machine!
What does this mean?
Management of a cloud datacenter has to be done differently
“ Pager at 2am” vs. “9 – 5 datacenter management”
Different replacement strategy NIC Server Rack Container
 
What does this mean for Jim?
Jim’s team’s approach to application architecture has to change
Away from the approach of a single application running on a single machine
Need to move from  ACID  transaction model to  BASE  transaction model
ACID  = Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, Durable (traditional transactional commit model)
Really difficult to implement ACID transactions in distributed systems (actually an anti-pattern)
Spend a lot of money trying and still not get working perfectly
BASE =  Basically Available, Soft state, Eventually consistent
It’s OK to be wrong, as long as consistency is achieved eventually
Compare the cost of an apology vs. the cost of knowing for sure
6.9 million copies of “The Half Blood Prince” were sold in the first 24 hours of release in the US http://en.wikipedia.org...
If you were the online bookstore selling those 6.9 million copies would you optimize for ACID or BASE consistency?
If you accidentally oversell by a few books, it’s OK to apologize
Flickr  (http://highscalability.com/flickr-architecture)
Jim’s development team needs to think differently about app architecture in the cloud, especially transactional state
“ If my application is running in one of these massive datacenters, it’s not very “green” is it?”
 
The cost to buy a server is cheaper than the cost to run (power) a server
Datacenter Power Consumption Chart Power  Conversion Cooling Hoteling Systems
It’s not only the single server either – it’s about all the other stuff attached…
Drug Inventory Service DNS Services Application Deployment Services System Provisioning Services Instrumentation & Monitor...
Green Grid (Green Computing Consortium)
PUE : Power Usage Effectiveness http://www.thegreengrid.org/Global/Content/white-papers/The-Green-Grid-Data-Center-Power-E...
The ratio of total energy consumption (servers + cooling) to 'useful' energy consumption (servers only).  http://it.toolbo...
A typical enterprise-level data center is thought to have a PUE of  2.0  or greater  http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/...
This means that for every watt of IT power, an additional watt is used to cool and distribute power to the IT equipment ht...
Our prediction is that the Chicago data center will deliver an average PUE of  1.22   http://www.greenm3.com/2008/10/micro...
(Can’t have a PUE less than 1.0 – then you’d be generating your own power!)
http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/7/b/a7b72ab1-ca17-4589-923a-83b0ff57be6d/Energy-Efficiency-Best-Practices-in-Micr...
http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/7/b/a7b72ab1-ca17-4589-923a-83b0ff57be6d/Energy-Efficiency-Best-Practices-in-Micr...
http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/7/b/a7b72ab1-ca17-4589-923a-83b0ff57be6d/Energy-Efficiency-Best-Practices-in-Micr...
Jim can barely keep his eyes open. Why is this important to him?  He’s not running a cloud data center…
True ; but running applications in the cloud means that Jim “inherits” the green profile (PUE) of that datacenter
May be of little consequence now, but what happens in 5, 10, 15 years time when regulations get stricter about PUE?
Did you know that our industry accounts for 2% of the total carbon emissions – the same as the aviation industry! http://w...
When that time comes does Jim want to be measuring his own PUE or inheriting from someone else?
Fair point – good to know that you are on it
Talking about policy – what’s the deal with cloud computing when it comes to regulations?
 
… especially having your data stored in datacenters located outside your own country
For example, would a non-US government entity trust data stored in a US datacenter?
Would  you  trust your data to be stored in a datacenter not in your home country?
This is high on the list of concerns for many thinking about moving to the cloud…
Ironically, we have these issues today – they are just implicit
Takes his laptop on a business trip to: Pierre Lives in: Accesses his email stored in: Through a cache server in:  Uses me...
Two solutions:
Vendors build datacenters in each and every country
An expensive and unlikely proposition
There is cultural change of accepting access to data across foreign borders
Do you remember online banking 15 years ago? http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_1995_June_21/ai_17104850/?tag=...
So, assuming Jim’s data could be stored overseas what does security look like?
 
Two aspects: Physical and Electronic
Physical is the easier one
Security guys outside the datacenter http://www.rtl2.de/images/trailer/1_policeacademy7_detail.png
Biometric devices on datacenter colos http://www.aspwebhosting.com/datacenter.htm
Cages around most sensitive equipment http://www.aspwebhosting.com/datacenter.htm
Security of the data itself
Relatively easy to implement – i.e. encrypt with PK and move to cloud, decrypt with pK when need be On Premises Cloud Data...
Validate integrity, sign with pK and validate by decrypting hash with PK Hash Data On Premises Cloud Datacenter pK PK Hash...
This is relatively secure, but…
How does the vendor backup the data (without the key, difficult to know what has changed) On Premises Cloud Datacenter Dat...
How do you create a service that can search cryptographic data? On Premises Cloud Datacenter Data PK PK{Data} pK Data How ...
Jim understands that it’s less about trusting the security of data in the cloud…
… but more about understanding the use cases of accessing that secure data
Related to security, how about the identity of Jim’s users?
He’s still suffering from the SSO project that he started 5 years ago…
 
The vast majority of enterprise applications rely on knowing the identity of the user
On premise applications often have the luxury of being close to the identity store On Premises Cloud Datacenter App AD
Things can get complicated if you transfer the application to the cloud… On Premises Cloud Datacenter App AD
Do you want to move the identity provider?  Probably not. On Premises Cloud Datacenter App AD Where did AD go?
Many organizations end up creating a second ID provider for the cloud Cloud Datacenter On Premises App AD App SQL
Even with good replication between the two, this can create a problem with identity management
Cloud Datacenter On Premises App AD App SQL Joe [email_address] Joe/Password
Even with aggressive replication  this is hard
Problem gets worse with multiple hosted applications
How do we solve this?
Similar to your attendee pass Registration Desk Door person Attendee Speaker Crew Main Hall Attendee Speaker Crew Speaker ...
Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Passport Agenc...
Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Where’s your b...
Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Come on in… He...
Claims Based Identity
Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Where’s your I...
Definitely easier than that SSO project – thank you!
This has been good things to consider so far, but Jim has one last question…
“… I have a great new idea that I want to try out in the cloud.  Will it make me rich!?! :-)”
 
Consultant’s answer:  Well, it depends…
One on hand, possibly…
On premises CRM system
$12 per month per user
Hardware, software, datacenter hoteling, management, operations, helpdesk, etc.
Cloud based CRM software
$10 per month per user
Arguable $2 per user per month saving (not factoring in migration costs)
DELL PowerEdge M600 = $4,689
10 of those = $46,890
$0.30 per compute hour (High CPU)
The same $46,890 would buy you 156,300 compute hours
651.25 compute days for 10 instances
21.4 compute months for 10 instances
Let’s not forget however… Bandwidth is not free
Jim’s get-rich-quick idea is a new cloud based application for Blu-ray movies!
What’s this going to cost to run?
Internet Radio (64kps)  21Gb per month (24 hours per day)
YouTube  (512kps) 166Gb per month (24 hours per day)
HDTV (4Mbps) 1296Gb per month (24 hours per day)
Storage - $0.15 per Gb Data Transfer - $0.17 per Gb
Sounds cheap, but is it?
YouTube example = $0.17 x 166Gb  ($28.22 per user per month)
HD Movie = $0.17 x 1296Gb ($220.32 per user per month)
Jim’s new movie service in the cloud…
Storage = 2TB of Movies Stream:  ~1,000 users per day @ 4Mbps
Storage cost (month) = $150
Data Transfer (month) = $215,156
… but Jim said he wanted Blu-ray!
Storage = 9TB of HD Movies  (360 titles at 25Gb per title) Stream:  ~1,000 users per day @ 36Mbps
Storage cost (month) = $1350
Data Transfer (month) = $1.93M!
To break-even, each user would have to pay $1,937 per month subscription!
“ Several industry insiders estimate that YouTube spends roughly  $1 million a day  just to pay for the bandwidth to host ...
  &quot;... Veoh, a video-sharing site operated from San Diego, decided to block its service from users in Africa, Asia, L...
The Point?  Sometimes that we forget  we are not in a lab!
Cloud computing opens up new and interesting possibilities, but don’t forget the business model to support this!
When Jim was first looking into cloud computing, he wanted to take his VB6 application into the cloud
He now realizes that his VB6 application isn’t well architected for the cloud
Nor does the application know what it takes to participate in a pool of computing resources
And it definitely doesn’t conform to security and identity considerations for the cloud
But now he understands this whole cloud computing space much better
He is much clearer on the terminology, understands where his applications can fit, and the considerations for doing so
… and is already putting together some of the recommendations he needs for his CIO
(which definitely won’t include a  movie sharing site!)
Resources <ul><li>www.microsoft.com/teched   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions On-Demand & Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>h...
Related Content <ul><li>Tomorrow 8.30am – ARC308 – Patterns for Moving to the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow 10.15am – A...
Complete an evaluation on CommNet and enter to win! Required Slide
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Impact Of The Cloud For IT Managers

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Impact Of The Cloud For It Managers (Isb204 Guest) - Presentation from TechEd 2009 that covers the impact of moving to cloud computing for IT Managers.

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  • Tech·Ed  North America 2009 06/10/09 01:52 © 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • Transcript of "Impact Of The Cloud For IT Managers"

    1. 2. Simon Guest Senior Director, Technical Strategy Microsoft Corporation Session Code: ISB204
    2. 3. This is Jim
    3. 4. Jim is an IT Manager
    4. 5. For a large pharmaceutical
    5. 6. Jim’s Boss (the CIO) has asked him to “ move their company to the cloud”
    6. 7. Jim has no idea what this means
    7. 8. Jim has heard of cloud computing, but is lost when it comes to the terminology
    8. 9. Is cloud computing just about virtualization in the data center? http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9121923
    9. 10. Is cloud computing just another term for software as a service? http://www.daniweb.com/blogs/entry3993.html#
    10. 11. Is cloud computing something new? http://www.cloudviews.org/2009/01/is-this-cloud-thing-something-new/
    11. 12. Is cloud computing for stupid people?! http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/692407
    12. 13. Goal of the next 55 minutes: Help Jim “demystify” the cloud
    13. 14. Help him understand the terminology surrounding cloud computing
    14. 15. Show Jim what applications make sense in the cloud, and why
    15. 16. Teach Jim the important considerations for moving to the cloud
    16. 18. Buzzword Bingo
    17. 19. SOA – Service Oriented Architecture
    18. 20. SaaS – Software as a Service
    19. 21. Web 2.0
    20. 22. RIA – Rich Internet Applications
    21. 23. Software + Services
    22. 24. Are any of these cloud computing?
    23. 25. Not really – these are styles of application architecture
    24. 26. These styles may work in the cloud, but by themselves they are not cloud computing
    25. 27. To understand cloud computing, we need to instead start by looking at where applications live
    26. 29. On Premises
    27. 30. I purchase my own hardware and manage my own datacenter
    28. 31. Order 10 servers from DELL, they arrive a week later, I un-box them and install them in racks
    29. 32. Traditional way of doing things – has worked well for Jim the past few decades
    30. 33. Application runs on-premises Buy my own hardware, and manage my own data center <ul><li>Application runs </li></ul><ul><li>on-premises </li></ul><ul><li>Bring my own machines, connectivity, software, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete control and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Upfront capital costs for the infrastructure </li></ul>
    31. 34. Hosted
    32. 35. I pay someone to host my application using hardware I specify or provide
    33. 36. “ Dear hosting company, please set me up 2 x dedicated Web servers and 1 x database, backed up nightly” “Sure – that’ll be $21.99 per month”
    34. 37. Used heavily for public web site and/or company extranet and partner sites
    35. 38. Application runs on-premises Buy my own hardware, and manage my own data center Application runs at a hoster Pay someone to host my application using hardware that I specify <ul><li>Application runs </li></ul><ul><li>on-premises </li></ul><ul><li>Bring my own machines, connectivity, software, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete control and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Upfront capital costs for the infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Application runs at a hoster </li></ul><ul><li>Rent machines, connectivity, software </li></ul><ul><li>Less control, but fewer responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Lower capital costs, but pay for fixed capacity, even if idle </li></ul>
    36. 39. Cloud
    37. 40. Pay someone for a pool of computing resources that can be applied to a set of applications
    38. 41. Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. [National Institute of Standards and Technology] http://news.cnet.com/8301-19413_3-10237274-240.html
    39. 42. With a cloud, the administrator defines the service level for an application
    40. 43. The cloud software manages the application by creating one or more instances and handling storage
    41. 44. Application runs on-premises Buy my own hardware, and manage my own data center Application runs at a hoster Pay someone to host my application using hardware that I specify Application runs using cloud platform Pay someone for a pool of computing resources that can be applied to a set of applications <ul><li>Application runs </li></ul><ul><li>on-premises </li></ul><ul><li>Bring my own machines, connectivity, software, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete control and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Upfront capital costs for the infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Application runs at a hoster </li></ul><ul><li>Rent machines, connectivity, software </li></ul><ul><li>Less control, but fewer responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Lower capital costs, but pay for fixed capacity, even if idle </li></ul><ul><li>Application runs using cloud platform </li></ul><ul><li>Shared, </li></ul><ul><li>multi-tenant environment </li></ul><ul><li>Offers pool of computing resources, abstracted from infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Pay as you go </li></ul>
    42. 45. Cloud “Variants”
    43. 46. Private Cloud
    44. 47. Pool of computing resources that lives within a self managed datacenter
    45. 48. Pool of computing resources that lives within a datacenter with no sharing
    46. 49. Hosted Cloud
    47. 50. Pool of computing resources that is offered through a hoster, utilizing software from another vendor
    48. 51. Public Cloud
    49. 52. Pool of computing resources offered from the same vendor that supplies the software
    50. 53. Jim now understands the style of an application, and where it lives , but who creates the application?
    51. 54. Build vs. Buy
    52. 55. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform Build vs. Buy Build Buy “ Packaged” Application An application that I buy “off the shelf” and run myself “ Home Built” Application An application that I develop and run myself Hosted “ Home Built” An application that I develop myself, but run at a hoster Hosted “ Packaged” An application that I buy “off the shelf” and then run at a hoster Cloud Platform An application that I develop myself, that I run in the cloud “ Software as a Service” A hosted application that I buy from a vendor
    53. 56. “ Nice diagrams so far… … but, what about my applications?”
    54. 58. “ CRM and Email are commodity services. We have few customizations, and it should be cheaper for someone else to run these.” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    55. 59. “ This is a viral marketing website. It has a small chance of being really big, but we’re not sure!” “ How difficult is it to move these to a software as a service model?” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Molecule Research Viral Marketing
    56. 60. “ This application runs at full capacity for short periods of time at the end of each month.” In case it is successful, we’re interested to see if the cloud would help us scale better.” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    57. 61. “ MRI images are very large and exponentially growing. Is there a better way of storing these?” “ Can the cloud help us in providing compute power on an as needed basis?” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    58. 62. “ Does the cloud give me the storage I’m after?” “ We need to share results from our H1N1 trials with government entities.” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research MRI Imaging
    59. 63. “ I can’t afford to maintain this old HR application written in VB – it’s driving me mad!” “… but due to regulatory issues, I can’t store my data off premise.” “ Does the cloud provide anything for inter-organization communication?” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    60. 64. “ A good solution could be to find a suitable packaged application here.” Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    61. 65. What patterns do we see here?
    62. 66. Pattern 1: Transference
    63. 67. Taking an existing on-premises application and moving it to the cloud
    64. 68. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    65. 69. Drivers? Economic, Consolidation, Prototyping
    66. 70. Pattern 2: Scale and Multi-Tenancy
    67. 71. Creating an application that has the ability to handle web load without requiring the full capital investment from day one
    68. 72. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    69. 73. Drivers? Prototyping, Risk Mitigation
    70. 74. Pattern 3: Burst Compute
    71. 75. Creating an application that has the ability to handle additional compute on an as-needed basis
    72. 76. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    73. 77. Drivers? Economic (avoiding over capacity)
    74. 78. Pattern 4: Elastic Storage
    75. 79. Creating an application that has the ability to grow exponentially from a storage perspective
    76. 80. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    77. 81. Drivers? Economic (avoiding over capacity), Management
    78. 82. Pattern 5: Communications
    79. 83. Creating an application that has the ability to communicate between organizations using a pre-defined infrastructure
    80. 84. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    81. 85. Drivers? Infrastructure Management
    82. 86. From this exercise, Jim realizes…
    83. 87. Not all applications look the same in the cloud
    84. 88. Instead, he must understand the drivers for moving (or creating) cloud based applications
    85. 89. Also, not everything makes sense in the cloud
    86. 90. Application runs on-premises Application runs at a hoster Application runs using cloud platform “ Packaged” Application “ Home Built” Application Hosted “ Home Built” Hosted “ Packaged” Cloud Platform “ Software as a Service” CRM / Email Clinical Trial MRI Imaging HR Application Viral Marketing Molecule Research
    87. 91. So, all of this looks great in PowerPoint … but what else should Jim be considering?
    88. 93. Each data center is 11.5 times the size of a football field
    89. 94. When you have this many machines to look after, the rules change
    90. 95. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure)
    91. 96. Approximate lifetime value that manufacturers state for system components
    92. 97. Average Manufacturer Disk MTBF = 1M hours = failure every 114 years (Does not mean that every disk will last 114 years – calculated using batch of 1500 disks running for 30 days without failure) http://www.datarecovery.com.sg/data_recovery/disk_drive_mean_time_failure.htm
    93. 98. Average Manufacturer NIC MTBF = 44 years
    94. 99. Average CPU Cooling Fan MTBF = 22 years
    95. 100. Statiscally, with 20,000 machines this equates to 2 or 3 machines out of order every day
    96. 101. Which isn’t bad
    97. 102. Except if it’s your machine!
    98. 103. What does this mean?
    99. 104. Management of a cloud datacenter has to be done differently
    100. 105. “ Pager at 2am” vs. “9 – 5 datacenter management”
    101. 106. Different replacement strategy NIC Server Rack Container
    102. 108. What does this mean for Jim?
    103. 109. Jim’s team’s approach to application architecture has to change
    104. 110. Away from the approach of a single application running on a single machine
    105. 111. Need to move from ACID transaction model to BASE transaction model
    106. 112. ACID = Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, Durable (traditional transactional commit model)
    107. 113. Really difficult to implement ACID transactions in distributed systems (actually an anti-pattern)
    108. 114. Spend a lot of money trying and still not get working perfectly
    109. 115. BASE = Basically Available, Soft state, Eventually consistent
    110. 116. It’s OK to be wrong, as long as consistency is achieved eventually
    111. 117. Compare the cost of an apology vs. the cost of knowing for sure
    112. 118. 6.9 million copies of “The Half Blood Prince” were sold in the first 24 hours of release in the US http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Potter#cite_note-bbc-hbp-record-95
    113. 119. If you were the online bookstore selling those 6.9 million copies would you optimize for ACID or BASE consistency?
    114. 120. If you accidentally oversell by a few books, it’s OK to apologize
    115. 121. Flickr (http://highscalability.com/flickr-architecture)
    116. 122. Jim’s development team needs to think differently about app architecture in the cloud, especially transactional state
    117. 123. “ If my application is running in one of these massive datacenters, it’s not very “green” is it?”
    118. 125. The cost to buy a server is cheaper than the cost to run (power) a server
    119. 126. Datacenter Power Consumption Chart Power Conversion Cooling Hoteling Systems
    120. 127. It’s not only the single server either – it’s about all the other stuff attached…
    121. 128. Drug Inventory Service DNS Services Application Deployment Services System Provisioning Services Instrumentation & Monitoring Services Patch Management Services Troubleshooting Analysis Break/Fix Services Network Services Storage Services Messaging Services Authentication Authorization Non-Repudiation Services Access Control Services Presentation Services Credit Card Transaction Service Shipping Service Control Service Pricing Service File Management Services
    122. 129. Green Grid (Green Computing Consortium)
    123. 130. PUE : Power Usage Effectiveness http://www.thegreengrid.org/Global/Content/white-papers/The-Green-Grid-Data-Center-Power-Efficiency-Metrics-PUE-and-DCiE
    124. 131. The ratio of total energy consumption (servers + cooling) to 'useful' energy consumption (servers only). http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Power_Usage_Effectiveness_%28PUE%29
    125. 132. A typical enterprise-level data center is thought to have a PUE of 2.0 or greater http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Power_Usage_Effectiveness_%28PUE%29
    126. 133. This means that for every watt of IT power, an additional watt is used to cool and distribute power to the IT equipment http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Power_Usage_Effectiveness_%28PUE%29
    127. 134. Our prediction is that the Chicago data center will deliver an average PUE of 1.22 http://www.greenm3.com/2008/10/microsoft-blog.html
    128. 135. (Can’t have a PUE less than 1.0 – then you’d be generating your own power!)
    129. 136. http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/7/b/a7b72ab1-ca17-4589-923a-83b0ff57be6d/Energy-Efficiency-Best-Practices-in-Microsoft-Data-Center-Operations-CeBIT.doc SCRY
    130. 137. http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/7/b/a7b72ab1-ca17-4589-923a-83b0ff57be6d/Energy-Efficiency-Best-Practices-in-Microsoft-Data-Center-Operations-CeBIT.doc 22% improvement over 3 years Generation 1
    131. 138. http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/7/b/a7b72ab1-ca17-4589-923a-83b0ff57be6d/Energy-Efficiency-Best-Practices-in-Microsoft-Data-Center-Operations-CeBIT.doc Follows Moore’s Law
    132. 139. Jim can barely keep his eyes open. Why is this important to him? He’s not running a cloud data center…
    133. 140. True ; but running applications in the cloud means that Jim “inherits” the green profile (PUE) of that datacenter
    134. 141. May be of little consequence now, but what happens in 5, 10, 15 years time when regulations get stricter about PUE?
    135. 142. Did you know that our industry accounts for 2% of the total carbon emissions – the same as the aviation industry! http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=503867
    136. 143. When that time comes does Jim want to be measuring his own PUE or inheriting from someone else?
    137. 144. Fair point – good to know that you are on it
    138. 145. Talking about policy – what’s the deal with cloud computing when it comes to regulations?
    139. 147. … especially having your data stored in datacenters located outside your own country
    140. 148. For example, would a non-US government entity trust data stored in a US datacenter?
    141. 149. Would you trust your data to be stored in a datacenter not in your home country?
    142. 150. This is high on the list of concerns for many thinking about moving to the cloud…
    143. 151. Ironically, we have these issues today – they are just implicit
    144. 152. Takes his laptop on a business trip to: Pierre Lives in: Accesses his email stored in: Through a cache server in: Uses medical app hosted in: Recently updated by a team in:
    145. 153. Two solutions:
    146. 154. Vendors build datacenters in each and every country
    147. 155. An expensive and unlikely proposition
    148. 156. There is cultural change of accepting access to data across foreign borders
    149. 157. Do you remember online banking 15 years ago? http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_1995_June_21/ai_17104850/?tag=untagged
    150. 158. So, assuming Jim’s data could be stored overseas what does security look like?
    151. 160. Two aspects: Physical and Electronic
    152. 161. Physical is the easier one
    153. 162. Security guys outside the datacenter http://www.rtl2.de/images/trailer/1_policeacademy7_detail.png
    154. 163. Biometric devices on datacenter colos http://www.aspwebhosting.com/datacenter.htm
    155. 164. Cages around most sensitive equipment http://www.aspwebhosting.com/datacenter.htm
    156. 165. Security of the data itself
    157. 166. Relatively easy to implement – i.e. encrypt with PK and move to cloud, decrypt with pK when need be On Premises Cloud Datacenter Data PK PK{Data} pK Data
    158. 167. Validate integrity, sign with pK and validate by decrypting hash with PK Hash Data On Premises Cloud Datacenter pK PK Hash Data pK{Hash} Data
    159. 168. This is relatively secure, but…
    160. 169. How does the vendor backup the data (without the key, difficult to know what has changed) On Premises Cloud Datacenter Data PK PK{Data} pK Data What’s changed?
    161. 170. How do you create a service that can search cryptographic data? On Premises Cloud Datacenter Data PK PK{Data} pK Data How can I search this?
    162. 171. Jim understands that it’s less about trusting the security of data in the cloud…
    163. 172. … but more about understanding the use cases of accessing that secure data
    164. 173. Related to security, how about the identity of Jim’s users?
    165. 174. He’s still suffering from the SSO project that he started 5 years ago…
    166. 176. The vast majority of enterprise applications rely on knowing the identity of the user
    167. 177. On premise applications often have the luxury of being close to the identity store On Premises Cloud Datacenter App AD
    168. 178. Things can get complicated if you transfer the application to the cloud… On Premises Cloud Datacenter App AD
    169. 179. Do you want to move the identity provider? Probably not. On Premises Cloud Datacenter App AD Where did AD go?
    170. 180. Many organizations end up creating a second ID provider for the cloud Cloud Datacenter On Premises App AD App SQL
    171. 181. Even with good replication between the two, this can create a problem with identity management
    172. 182. Cloud Datacenter On Premises App AD App SQL Joe [email_address] Joe/Password
    173. 183. Even with aggressive replication this is hard
    174. 184. Problem gets worse with multiple hosted applications
    175. 185. How do we solve this?
    176. 186. Similar to your attendee pass Registration Desk Door person Attendee Speaker Crew Main Hall Attendee Speaker Crew Speaker Rm Speaker Crew Bill Veghte Green Room Crew Joe Pharma Attendee Joe Pharma Passport Agency
    177. 187. Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Passport Agency Registration Desk Door Person
    178. 188. Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Where’s your badge? Where’s your ID? joe@ pharma.com Pwd=123 Please let me use your app I need a badge
    179. 189. Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Come on in… Here you are: Attendee Please let me use your app Attendee
    180. 190. Claims Based Identity
    181. 191. Cloud Datacenter On Premises AD App Joe [email_address] STS (Secure Token Service) [email_address] Attendee Where’s your ID? joe@ pharma.com Pwd=123 No way – you’re fired! Where’s your badge? Foiled! Revenge is not sweet I need a badge Please let me use your app
    182. 192. Definitely easier than that SSO project – thank you!
    183. 193. This has been good things to consider so far, but Jim has one last question…
    184. 194. “… I have a great new idea that I want to try out in the cloud. Will it make me rich!?! :-)”
    185. 196. Consultant’s answer: Well, it depends…
    186. 197. One on hand, possibly…
    187. 198. On premises CRM system
    188. 199. $12 per month per user
    189. 200. Hardware, software, datacenter hoteling, management, operations, helpdesk, etc.
    190. 201. Cloud based CRM software
    191. 202. $10 per month per user
    192. 203. Arguable $2 per user per month saving (not factoring in migration costs)
    193. 204. DELL PowerEdge M600 = $4,689
    194. 205. 10 of those = $46,890
    195. 206. $0.30 per compute hour (High CPU)
    196. 207. The same $46,890 would buy you 156,300 compute hours
    197. 208. 651.25 compute days for 10 instances
    198. 209. 21.4 compute months for 10 instances
    199. 210. Let’s not forget however… Bandwidth is not free
    200. 211. Jim’s get-rich-quick idea is a new cloud based application for Blu-ray movies!
    201. 212. What’s this going to cost to run?
    202. 213. Internet Radio (64kps) 21Gb per month (24 hours per day)
    203. 214. YouTube (512kps) 166Gb per month (24 hours per day)
    204. 215. HDTV (4Mbps) 1296Gb per month (24 hours per day)
    205. 216. Storage - $0.15 per Gb Data Transfer - $0.17 per Gb
    206. 217. Sounds cheap, but is it?
    207. 218. YouTube example = $0.17 x 166Gb ($28.22 per user per month)
    208. 219. HD Movie = $0.17 x 1296Gb ($220.32 per user per month)
    209. 220. Jim’s new movie service in the cloud…
    210. 221. Storage = 2TB of Movies Stream: ~1,000 users per day @ 4Mbps
    211. 222. Storage cost (month) = $150
    212. 223. Data Transfer (month) = $215,156
    213. 224. … but Jim said he wanted Blu-ray!
    214. 225. Storage = 9TB of HD Movies (360 titles at 25Gb per title) Stream: ~1,000 users per day @ 36Mbps
    215. 226. Storage cost (month) = $1350
    216. 227. Data Transfer (month) = $1.93M!
    217. 228. To break-even, each user would have to pay $1,937 per month subscription!
    218. 229. “ Several industry insiders estimate that YouTube spends roughly $1 million a day just to pay for the bandwidth to host the videos.” http://techland.blogs.fortune.cnn.com/2008/03/25/youtube-looks-for-the-money-clip/
    219. 230. &quot;... Veoh, a video-sharing site operated from San Diego, decided to block its service from users in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe, citing the dim prospects of making money and the high cost of delivering video there.” http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/technology/start-ups/27global.html?ref=business
    220. 231. The Point? Sometimes that we forget we are not in a lab!
    221. 232. Cloud computing opens up new and interesting possibilities, but don’t forget the business model to support this!
    222. 233. When Jim was first looking into cloud computing, he wanted to take his VB6 application into the cloud
    223. 234. He now realizes that his VB6 application isn’t well architected for the cloud
    224. 235. Nor does the application know what it takes to participate in a pool of computing resources
    225. 236. And it definitely doesn’t conform to security and identity considerations for the cloud
    226. 237. But now he understands this whole cloud computing space much better
    227. 238. He is much clearer on the terminology, understands where his applications can fit, and the considerations for doing so
    228. 239. … and is already putting together some of the recommendations he needs for his CIO
    229. 240. (which definitely won’t include a movie sharing site!)
    230. 241. Resources <ul><li>www.microsoft.com/teched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions On-Demand & Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://microsoft.com/technet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources for IT Professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://microsoft.com/msdn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources for Developers </li></ul></ul>www.microsoft.com/learning Microsoft Certification and Training Resources <ul><li>www.microsoft.com/learning </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Certification & Training Resources </li></ul>Required Slide Speakers, TechEd 2009 is not producing a DVD. Please announce that attendees can access session recordings at TechEd Online.
    231. 242. Related Content <ul><li>Tomorrow 8.30am – ARC308 – Patterns for Moving to the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow 10.15am – ARCINT01 – Architecting your Web Applications for the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow 4.30pm – ARC311 – Software As A Service in the Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday 4.30pm – ARC203 – Is my CIO's Head in the Cloud? </li></ul>Required Slide Speakers, please list the Breakout Sessions, TLC Interactive Theaters and Labs that are related to your session.
    232. 243. Complete an evaluation on CommNet and enter to win! Required Slide
    233. 244. © 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION. [email_address] http://simonguest.com Required Slide
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