Sant'Anna di Stazzema by 2muvPresentation Transcript
Sant’Anna di Stazzema National Park of Peace Historical Museum of Resistance Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org for
Sant’Anna di Stazzema: the village Sant’Anna di Stazzema is a small village in Tuscany (Italy), in the Province of Lucca, on the first foothills of the Apuan Alps. Sant’Anna is 650 meters above sea level, can be reached through a scenic route of about 10 km that from the sea goes through the hills of Versilia. In remote times, Sant’Anna was the mountain pasture of the small village of Farnocchia and the inhabitants mostly lived on agriculture and pasture. The village consists of a centre and small groups of houses which are differently named, perched in the valley dominated by the mountains Gabberi, Lieto, Rocca and Ornato. In the centre of the village there is the small church, entitled to Sant’Anna, dating back to the XVIth century. In the surroundings are still visible the traces of the mining sites “Argentiera” (where, from ancient times minerals like argentiferous galena were extracted) and “Monte Arsiccio” (extraction of iron and mixed sulphides, active till the end of the nineteeneighties). Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Sant’Anna di Stazzema: the History In the morning of August 12th 1944, with the first light of dawn, four columns of the SS, surrounded the valley, where hundreds of people had found refuge, evacuated from places such as Versilia, Pisa, Livorno, Genova and La Spezia. When the Nazis were spotted, the men hid in the woods and in the caves, thinking that it was one of the usual round ups to enforce the man power for the fortification work on the Gothic Line, meanwhile the elderly, women and children stayed at home, assuming that there was nothing to be afraid of. The reality was completely different: the village was destroyed and burnt and the inhabitants massacred without pity. In the Vaccareccia district about seventy people were closed in some stalls and killed by machine guns and hand grenades; in Colle, in Moco, in Franchi, in Case, in Coletti, in Mulini there was no escape. 132 persons were grouped together in the church square, and were killed by machine guns,;the pile of bodies were covered in petrol and set afire, making any identification impossible. Then the Nazists burned the corpses, the houses, the stables, the animals. In Sant’Anna di Stazzema was committed one of the most terrible crimes against the civilians during the second war. In few hours, in the small village, 560 people were killed. The villagers was defenceless, without fault. Most of the victims were women, childrens and elderly people. Even though the massacre was carried out by the men of the 16 th division SS, the fascists also shared a great responsibility. Individuals with covered faces, that spoke in Italian, even speaking with a Versilian dialect, guided the nazis along the valley paths. The slaughter of Sant’Anna di Stazzema still arouse a sensation of civil and moral dismay and desolation, because it represent one of the most brutal pages of nazifascist’s barbarism, an hateful outrage who damaged the whole human dignity. Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Sant’Anna di Stazzema: the History Mass grave in the church square - October 1944 Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org House destroyed in places Vaccareccia - 1944
The National Park of Peace
The National Park of Peace of Sant’Anna of Stazzema was founded with the national law n.381 dated 11/12/2000. Purpose of the Park is to promote cultural and international initiatives, inspired to the goal of peace and collaboration among people, to build up the future even on sad memories from the past, to a peace culture and to erase the war from population’s history.
The Park extends into the sacral area that, from the church square and from the Historical Museum of the Resistance, through the Via Crucis and the surrounding woods, leads to Colle di Cava on the summit of which is situated the Charnel-house Monument.
A receptive polyvalent structure will serve as a reception center and and will be an important site for the activities that the Law n° 381/2000 foresees, or implies.
From a morphological and functional point of view, t he Park was designed as a unitary environmental system by means of the link between history, human settlement, the vegetable plots, the woods: an environment that, although maintaining the depth of sacredness, forms an exhortation to life.
Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Aims of the Park The aim is to meet the goals for which the National Park of Peace was founded by Italian Parliament: - to conserve, enhance and disseminate permanently history and memory of the Nazi-Fascist made 12 August 1944 Sant'Anna di Stazzema, as well as research, produce and disseminate educational and historical material on the Nazi occupation of Italy, the movement Resistance, the Liberation (with particular attention to Versilia, the Province of Lucca, Tuscany), the Nazi massacres, the war on civilians. - to sensitize people and especially the young generations about peace, memory, solidarity, democracy and rights’ themes, having a direct experience with places that have known hate and the sacrifice of broken human lives. - to deepen social, historical and cultural contemporary themes, granting the possibility to young people to get in touch with the history and achieve acknowledgement regarding Nazi-Fascist massacres, the period of the Second World War. - to develope cultural exchanges and projects, inspired by collaboration and friendship among population, to promote a culture of peace and a unviolent diplomatic practice in the resolution of the conflicts. - to create a connection between history and memories, between past, present and future. Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
International partnership In the recent past there have been close contacts between Sant’Anna di Stazzema and German institutions and bodies: - the Ministry of Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany has funded the creation of the website of the National Park of Peace; - the Italian-German association "Friends of the Organ" since 2007 organizes during summer many classical concert with the “Organ of Peace”, built through the efforts of German musicians Maren and Horst Westermann; - last and this year the “Youth in Action” program brought to Sant’Anna 15 young workers from LVR (Landschaftverband Rheinland) that worked on the environment of the Park of Peace, fixing the path that leads to the Sacrary, implementing and printing a guide in deutsch language for the Park, accommodation of a lookout and placement of a sculpture. Contacts have been made with the Peace Park of Peace in Hiroshima thanks to the collaboration of the sculptor. Kan Yasuda. Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
How do we remember Collection of testimonies The massacre of 12 August 1944 was for the story of the little village of St. Anna is a very crucial event, a break from deep in its natural development. The community was halved. The broken life. The memory of the massacre has remained for a long time as a kind of collective shock: was not able to deal with a situation deemed unacceptable, irrational. The survivors also had to confront for decades with an almost total lack, until a few years ago, a consolidated public knowledge about the massacre. Elaboration of collective mourning and tragedy, and then the beginning of a community's collective narrative about the massacre and a sort of "control" of the event, proceeds slowly over the years, through the consolidation of hundreds of scattered fragments of experience and individual memories. Each fragment becomes a piece of a choral novel about the massacre, that still shows unresolved and painful. What continues to shape at St. Anna is therefore a complex memory, which have not yet been fully studied in the contours anxieties, and unresolved contradictions, both individually and collectively. Our commitment is aimed to collect organically testimonies and promote anthropological studies aimed at a "totalizing" and recognized reconstruction of the events. Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Studies and Research The Historical Museum is committed to promoting research and studies that are able to offer a complete reconstruction of the country's history and of the massacre of 12 August 1944 and which may provide recognition and visibility to Sant'Anna di Stazzema in schools and on academic , regionally and nationally. The Historical Museum also stands as an important place in the Region of Tuscany for studies and research on the more general theme of Nazi massacres in Tuscany and the war on civilians. In particular working with the University of Pisa, where the working group of prof. Pezzino started many years an important research work on these issues. The Historical Museum also has created the Charter of Memory , a valuable tool, aimed primarily at schools, to improve public knowledge of history of Nazi massacres in Tuscany in the period 1943-1945, with information on the number of victims and the ways in which all the municipalities affected by the massacres preserve the memory of the events (museums, monuments, gravestones, multimedia materials and websites, etc., publications, etc.). Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org How do we remember
The justice The finding, by chance, of 695 files regarding the nazi fascist massacres, hidden for years in a cupboard in the basement of the Rome Military Prosecution has opened a new prospect for the identification of the guilty. The trial of the perpetrators of the massacre, which ended the Military Prosecutor of La Spezia in 2005, was an important step not only for the search for justice, but also for the reconstruction of historical truth, which for years has been kept hidden from authorities and misunderstood by historians. How do we remember Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Art and media The National Park of Peace of Sant’Anna every year promotes the production of video reconstruction of the events of August 12-1944, and television and news reports, in order to gather looks and different interpretations about the historical facts by journalists , directors, etc. Important articles and services on Sant’Anna went out on New York Times, Time, Herald Tribune, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Express, Corriere della Sera, Repubblica, L'Unità, La Stampa, Il Manifesto, BBC World, ARD, France 2, RAI 1, RAI 2, RAI 3 It also promotes cooperation with national and international artists to create works on the history of St. Anna and on issues related to it (murder, war on civilians, the promotion of a culture of peace). We believe that art is an essential tool for interpreting reality and channeling messages and worldviews. To cite just a few examples: Spike Lee (film maker), Oliviero Toscani (photographer), Mario Luzi (poet), Moni Ovadia, Luca Zingaretti (actor), Giuliano Vangi, Kan Yasuda, Novello Finotti (sculptor), Piero Pelù (singer), etc. national and international How do we remember Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Historical Museum of Resistance Housed on the old structure of elementary schools in the country, was inaugurated as a gallery subject in the autumn of 1982, by President Sandro Pertini. On 19 September 1991, thanks to the Regional Law n.39/91, was transformed into the Historical Museum of the Resistance. The layout of the museum space was conceived as the articulation of an open path, with places and points of view showing spatial relationship between internal exposures and the surrounding landscape. The Museum offers visitors an overview of essential, but at the same time fully and strictly historical, the events that took place during the Nazi occupation in Tuscany, Lucca Province, Versilia . The exhibition and historical documentary traces chronologically the stages of resistance in Versilia, highlighting aspects, the most important episodes and characters, on the basis of documents, photographs and newspapers. Much time is devoted to the massacres committed by the fascists in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Gothic Line, in particular to the massacre at Sant 'Anna. On the ground floor, a large room equipped with video-projection equipment is used for conferences, lectures and teaching. In the adjoining room you can see a substantial literature on the historical period '40-'45, especially with regard to the war events in Versilia, as well as a gathering national and international press review, with specific reference to the quest for justice and truth. In 2007 the construction of the museum was renovated, with a new approach to the exhibition area and new multimedia workstations How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org Historical Museum of Resistance
Reception and guided tours
Museum provides a consistent service and information guide for visitors.
The tours are divided into three phases:
class lectures: narrative of the events of August 12, 1944 and discussion on historical issues and current affairs - projection of movies
visit of the exhibition area
visit the memorial sites inside the park. Every year, rise to Santa Anna about 25,000 visitors, of whom about 8,000 are represented by schools and groups.
How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Events and initiatives The Museum plays during the whole year, educational activities for schools of all levels: guided tours, training, conferences and meetings. The Peace Park organizes annual activities and events designed to bring more visitors to the St. Anne / spectators: - Concerts - Meetings, seminars and presentations of books - Youth Forum Sant'Anna di Stazzema (3 days of meetings and theatrical performances for schools at all levels) - Field of education for peace (annual meeting to promote nonviolent conflict resolution mode) - Organ Festival Organ of the Peace of Sant'Anna di Stazzema Also of great importance is the commemoration of the massacre of 12 August 1944, which, in addition to a cultural program throughout the month of August, is focused on the day of 12 August each year, hundreds institutional delegations from all over Italy to pay homage to the victims. How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Via Crucis and Charnel-house Monument The Via Crucis is a paved path from the church square, through the forest leading charnel monument. Along the way tiles are arranged in bronze, made by famous artists, linking the Calvary of Christ the massacre and, symbolically, of the 560 victims of the August 12, 1944 to any other martyr, war and violence, any place and every time. The peace and quietness enhance the charm of the place and invite the pilgrim to meditation and reflection. Located on the Col di Cava, framed by mountains, the Ossuary Monument dominates the surrounding plains and the coast. Built in 1948 by architect Tito Salvatori, consists of a tower stone walls 12 meters high with four arches. Under the arches is a sculpture representing a woman with child fell under the Nazi-Fascist fire, by the sculptor Vincenzo Gasperetti. The basement houses the remains of victims of the massacre of 12 August 1944 and a plaque on the back of the monument bears the names of those killed and identified. The driveway is flanked by the flags of European countries, signifying the importance of collaboration and dialogue among peoples to build a future of peace and freedom. How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Via Crucis and Ossuary Monument Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Web site The web site of the National Park of Peace, www.santannadistazzema.org, is a straightforward site, which offers the user a chance to orient themselves easily in the six sections and access to news about the museum, the park, the history of the massacre, the historical context. A useful tool for reconstructing an important and tragic period of history. A way to be constantly updated on the actions of Sant'Anna di Stazzema; A way to share the goal of dialogue and cooperation among peoples; The site is also available in English and German. How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Pathways to Peace A new project supported by the Union of Municipalities of Versilia has created a map about all the small districts that make up the village of Sant'Anna. In each of the district will be illustrated the history and the events of August 12, 1944. The project "Pathways to Peace" will allow visitors to walk on their own paths of the park, in a historic, naturalistic, symbolic visit of places. How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Technical equipment and media The Peace Park is conducting a project to equip the Historical Museum of the Resistance of a more appropriate technical equipment and media, in order to ensure on the one hand a modern and effective dissemination of the historical memory of the place and its related topics, especially in relation to the new generations, and the other a more efficient management and promotion of the Museum through appropriate technological means of communication. In particular, we are studying: sound system for the distribution of music and messages in the museum environment with location of centralized direction. Design of screens for projection in a continuous loop of footage with testimonials and / or historical reconstructions. Mounting a video with clips from services / television and movies on Sant'Anna reconstruction (to be shown to the public in the museum). Monitor a 32-inch touch screen: virtual navigation through a menu and a map of the area in 3D, through which you can interact and investigate various aspects of historical evidence. How do we present this to the public Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
Thank you for your attention !
Parco Nazionale della Pace- Museo Storico della Resistenza Sant’Anna di Stazzema
Tel. / Fax. +39 0584 77 20 25
Sant'Anna di Stazzema - National Park of Peace www.santannadistazzema.org
realized by Simone Caponera +39 3201114746 - [email_address] Simone Tonini +39 3280160304 - [email_address] projects to communicate