Darcy Nztri 2005 Setting An Agenda For Accessible Tourism Research


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A presentation to the New Zealand Tourism Research Institute about conducting a workshop to develop an accessible tourism strategy.

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  • Over the last 25 years, research on the TI perspective on supplying goods and services for people with disabilities has been sporadic and varied both within Australia and overseas. The research has had four foci: 1. self-reported assessments of the accessibility of TI product; 2. interviews that seek to document current TI approaches to people with disabilities; 3. instruments that review TI attitudes towards people with disabilities; 4. assessments of compliance with human rights legislation. The quantitative studies all had low response rates that may be indicative of the TI disinterest in disability tourism. The major difference between the US and Australian research was the impact of the ADA in shaping a research agenda. There was a commonality between overseas and Australian research that suggests that there is an under supply, or constraint of opportunities, for people with disabilities wishing to travel. This under supply or constraint is compounded by TI managers, who do not perceive people with disabilities as a market segment. Further, the research demonstrates the lack of understanding on the part of the TI in regard to the legislated responsibility to provide equality of experience for this group. Yet, none of these studies sought to explain why organisations act in this way.
  • Air transport remains the single area of international review, with a range of other initiatives developing in isolation in other countries. In Canada, the initiatives involved an ongoing partnership between a provincial TA and a disability organisation. The USA has relied on disability rights legislation to develop case law precedent and set compliance timeframes for TI groups. The UK and European initiatives have been driven by Tourism for All that started with a series of ad-hoc initiatives during the 1990s but developed a strategic agenda from 1999-2001. While the impact has been highly variable between European countries, the recent agenda on encouraging improved public transport, providing TI with information about improving access to accommodation and attractions, and developing accommodation accreditation systems is to be commended. What cannot be determined from these initiatives is whether they have improved the tourism experiences of people with disabilities, but they may nevertheless offer some direction for future Australian projects. Lastly, there has not been an evaluation of the Australian government’s disability tourism initiatives in the literature.and to a the
  • The various models proposed to explain and classify disablements may be expressed in a dialectic of “medical model” versus “social model”. The medical model views the disablement phenomenon as a “personal” problem, directly caused by disease, trauma or health conditions, which requires medical care provided in the form of individual treatment by professionals. Management of disablement is aimed at the person’s better adjustment and behaviour change. Health care is viewed as the main issue and at the political level it is health care policy that needs to be modified. The social model of disablement, on the other hand, sees the issue mainly as a “societal” problem from the viewpoint of integration of persons with disabilities into society. Disablement is not an attribute of a person, but a complex collection of conditions many of which are created by the social environment. Hence the management of the problem requires social action and it is the collective responsibility of society to make the environmental modifications necessary for the full participation of people with disabilities into all areas of social life. The issue is, therefore, an attitudinal or ideological one which requires social change, while at political level it is a question of human rights. Hence the issue is highly political for all intents and purposes.
  • The point of understanding stereotypes of disability is highlighted in this slide. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Publication reviewing 10 years of the DDA states ‘Don’t judge what I can do by what you think I can’t’ This comes from a poster that HREOC put out that has people of diverse backgrounds interacting together. As lecturers your responsibility is to provide educational opportunities and not to make assumptions re what people with disabilities can and cannot do. In the University context I have called this Maximizing Educational Participation We are largely here today due to the DDA and through the University’s implementation of a Disability Action Plan. Two actions of the DAP were a review of inclusive disability practice within the curriculum and alternate assessment procedures. Both these reports identified the need for professional development with regard to disability issues within the university learning environment.
  • Darcy Nztri 2005 Setting An Agenda For Accessible Tourism Research

    1. 1. Setting an Agenda for Accessible Tourism Research Dr Simon Darcy Faculty of Business Tourism Queensland 2000 Tourism Queensland 2000
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Outline disability as a legitimate area of tourism research from demand, supply, coordination and regulation perspectives; </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce participants to alternative conceptual frameworks to the dominant medical approaches through human rights and social model approaches to disability; </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the outcome of a Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre agenda for accessible tourism; and </li></ul><ul><li>Provide NZTRI members the opportunity to discuss ideas for collaborative accessible tourism research in New Zealand and the Pacific Rim. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Disability as a legitimate area of tourism research from demand, supply, coordination and regulation perspectives.
    4. 4. Disability, Ageing and Tourism <ul><li>Disability as part of an human diversity and lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>The ageing of Western & Asian populations </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between ageing and disability through life course </li></ul><ul><li>The role of tourism in the quality of life </li></ul>
    5. 5. Disability Rate by Age and Sex (ABS 2003)
    6. 6. What is Disability? <ul><li>Defined under the Disability Discrimination Act, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Physical; </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory; </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual; </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatric; </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>Physical disfigurement; and </li></ul><ul><li>Presence in the body of disease-causing organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Past, Present & Future – real or believed </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is Access? <ul><li>Operationalised as inclusive practices for mobility, vision, hearing and cognition </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s impairment is not a disability until they encounter disabling environments and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of enabling environments and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Embraced through the concept of citizenship </li></ul>
    8. 8. Dimensions of Access <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramps, lifts, circulation space, accessible unisex toilets, automatic doors, table heights, operational dexterity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile tiles, visual contrast, audible signals (lifts/street crossings), braille, large print, assistance animal respite areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual signals, Auslan Sign interpreters, captioning or Tele text, telephone typewriters, preprepared written material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognition/learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain English material, iconic signage, time, speed of communication, environmental stimulus, alternative modes </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Tourism Queensland 2000
    10. 10. Overseas Initiatives International Declarations <ul><li>1991 World Tourism Organisation with the resolution Creating Opportunities for Handicapped People in the Nineties </li></ul><ul><li>1997 International Bureau of Social Tourism (1997) Montreal Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Community Based Rehabilitation Development and Training Centre , The Bali Declaration on Barrier-free Tourism for People with Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Designing for the 21 st Century , Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Sustainable Social Development, Disability & Ageing </li></ul>
    11. 11. Recent International Conferences <ul><li>International Accessible Tourism Conference (Taiwan May 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>1st International Tourism Forum for People with Special Needs in the Middle East (Dubai May 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Designing for the 21st Century III – Travel and Hospitality Stream (Rio, Brazil Nov 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>NICAN Out of the Blue – Valuing the Disability Market in Tourism Conference (Perth, Australia 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>European Ministerial Conference Tourism for All, Bruges, July 1-2, 2001 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Demand <ul><li>Australia Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Murray & Sproats (1990)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darcy (1998)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market and Communication Research (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darcy (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darcy (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darcy (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overseas Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodside & Etzel (1980)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith (1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavigny and Pascal (1995)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turco, Stumbo & Garncarz (1998)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foggin (2000)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burnett and Bender-Baker (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HarrisInteractive (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israeli (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McKercher, Packer, Yao & Lam (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ray and Ryder (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter-Jones (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaw & Coles (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yau, McKercher & Packer (2004) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Demand-Side Research Summary <ul><li>size of the tourism market of people with disabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>a comparison of tourism patterns of people with disabilities with the non-disabled; </li></ul><ul><li>role of tourism marketing and the provision of tourism access information in tourism planning for people with disabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>inaccessibility of the transport, accommodation and attractions sectors; </li></ul><ul><li>disability market segmentation; </li></ul><ul><li>impact of anti-discrimination legislation on goods and service provision; </li></ul><ul><li>medical approaches of disability tourism research; and </li></ul><ul><li>lack of an explanation for the experiences of people with disabilities. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Overseas Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavinato & Cuckovich (1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ross (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallagher & Hull (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upchurch & Soe (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WADSC (1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daruwalla (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodall (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miller & Kirk (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodall, Dixon & Russell (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameron, Darcy and Foggin (2003) </li></ul></ul>Supply <ul><li>Australia Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weiler & Muloin (1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murray & Sproats (1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSC (WA) 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daruwalla (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O’Neil and Ali-Knight (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darcy (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darcy (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daruwalla and Darcy (2005) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Supply-Side Research Summary <ul><li>self-reported assessments of the accessibility of Tourism Industry (TI) product; </li></ul><ul><li>interviews that seek to document current TI approaches to people with disabilities; </li></ul><ul><li>instruments that review TI attitudes towards people with disabilities; and </li></ul><ul><li>assessments of compliance with human rights legislation. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Coordination and Regulation Research <ul><li>Little published research </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of government reports, policies and initiatives </li></ul>
    17. 17. Government Initiatives <ul><li>What exactly are you aiming for….. </li></ul><ul><li>Oz DDA – Draft Disability Standard for Access to Premises </li></ul><ul><li>UK work – DDA (similar to Australia) </li></ul><ul><li>US ADA – industry sector compliance </li></ul><ul><li>K èroul disability partnership with Montréal Tourism Authority </li></ul><ul><li>UK Holiday Care Service & RADAR </li></ul><ul><li>Europe - OSSATE </li></ul><ul><li>USA Websites? </li></ul><ul><li>NZ disability strategy…later </li></ul>
    18. 18. Conclusions – People with impairments… <ul><li>travel at significantly lower rates than the non-disabled. </li></ul><ul><li>constitute proportionally less of the travelling public than their proportion of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>do not perceive their impairment as the reason for their non-participation </li></ul><ul><li>barriers and tourism requirements are dependent on their impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints are socially constructed through in government and industry practices and discourses </li></ul>
    19. 19. 2. Alternative conceptual frameworks to dominant medical approaches
    20. 20. Medical versus Social Model <ul><li>PERSONAL problem vs SOCIAL problem </li></ul><ul><li>medical care vs social integration </li></ul><ul><li>individual treatment vs social action </li></ul><ul><li>professional help vs individual & collective responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>personal vs environmental adjustment manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour vs attitude </li></ul><ul><li>care vs human rights </li></ul><ul><li>health care policy vs politics </li></ul><ul><li>individual adaptation vs social change </li></ul>WHO 2002
    21. 21. Social Model of Disability <ul><li>The Social Model challenged that disability is the result of an individual's impairment, their 'personal tragedy’, (Oliver 1996) and instead conceptualizes disability as the product of the disabling social environment and the prevailing “hostile social attitudes” (Barnes 1996:43) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the lived experiences of disabled people; </li></ul><ul><li>2. disability as socially constructed barriers & attitudes; & </li></ul><ul><li>3. an attack on the barriers that oppress impaired people and lead to their disabled social participation (citizenship). </li></ul>
    22. 22. Medical Model vs Social Model of Disability <ul><li>Why can’t I access this facility? </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Model </li></ul><ul><li>1. Because of my impairment “I can’t walk down stairs” </li></ul><ul><li>Social Model </li></ul><ul><li>2. Because of the stairs “Why was the building constructed with only stair access?” </li></ul>
    23. 23. Social Model of Disability Citizenship Literature <ul><li>Disabling Barriers - Enabling Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Community Participation: Live, Work and Play </li></ul><ul><li>Segregated  Integrated  Inclusive  Universal </li></ul><ul><li>Socially Constructed Barriers Impairment vs Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Social Isolation Person Cannot Participate in the Community Community Loses Contribution of the Person (Tax, Social Capital Etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of Social Relationships Physical, Economic, Political, Social and Spatial </li></ul>
    24. 24. Human Rights <ul><li>United Nations (1948) Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations (1975) Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons . </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations (1976) declared 1981 as the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP). </li></ul><ul><li>UN General Assembly (1993) The Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identified recreation and tourism as target areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to signatory countries to operationalise the declarations </li></ul>
    25. 25. 10 Years of the DDA Source: HREOC 2003
    26. 26. NZ Disability Strategy Ministry of Health 2001 MAKING A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE WHAKANUI ORANGA
    27. 27. Objective 9: Support lifestyle choices, recreation and culture for disabled people <ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><li>9.1 Support disabled people in making their own choices about their relationships, sexuality and reproductive potential. </li></ul><ul><li>9.2 Provide opportunities for disabled people to create, perform and develop their own arts, and to access arts activities. </li></ul><ul><li>9.3 Educate arts administrators/organisations and other recreational and sporting organisations about disability issues and inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>9.4 Support the development of arts, recreational and sports projects, including those run by and for disabled people. </li></ul>Tourism not explicitly mentioned!
    28. 28. <ul><li>Towards 2010: implementing New Zealand tourism strategy </li></ul><ul><li>No mention of disability in the strategy or on the website </li></ul><ul><li>Niche tourism is largely restricted to cultural tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on yield </li></ul>
    29. 29. Disability Specific Travel Information <ul><li>http://www.weka.net.nz/Weka/Weka.Nsf/Wpgsectionindex/Living+With+A+Disability--Travel+And+Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.toursnz.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent solid core of SME providing services for people with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly mobility based </li></ul>
    30. 30. 3. Outcomes of the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre agenda for accessible tourism
    31. 31. STCRC Research Agenda Program Participatory Action Research Approach <ul><li>Welcome to Country - Lester Bostock OA </li></ul><ul><li>Introductory Address - Bill Healey, Australian Hotels Association </li></ul><ul><li>The State of Disability and Tourism Research - Simon Darcy, University of Technology, Sydney </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout Session 1: 4 groups </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoral Approaches to Tourism - Bruce Cameron, Easy Access Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout Session 2: 4 groups </li></ul><ul><li>Competing Discourses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Rights & Tourism - Michael Small, HREOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Issues - Shane Pegg, University of Queensland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identifying a Research Agenda - Tanya Packer, Curtin University </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritising A Research Agenda – all participants </li></ul><ul><li>Closing address - Tim Fischer, Chairman Tourism Australia & past Deputy Prime Minister of Australia </li></ul>
    32. 32. Outcomes <ul><li>Information Provision, Marketing and Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Market Dynamics and Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Total Product Development </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Engagement - Profile, Partnerships and Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Training </li></ul><ul><li>Access to All Sectors of the Tourism Industry </li></ul>
    33. 33. Detailed Outcomes 1 <ul><li>1. Information Provision, Marketing and Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>determine relevant information requirements, format and presentation preferences for each dimension of disability across each sector of the tourism industry; </li></ul><ul><li>test the validity or otherwise of rating systems and alternative information formats for tourism accommodation; </li></ul><ul><li>pilot the outcomes of the above for inclusion on the Australian Tourism Data Warehouse; </li></ul><ul><li>establish collaborative projects with OSSATE and other accessible tourism information projects in other parts of the world; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dimensions of Disability </li></ul><ul><li>understand the different tourism requirements of people based on hearing, vision and cognitive dimensions of disability; </li></ul><ul><li>3. Market Dynamics and Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>establish a commitment to ongoing collection of domestic and international data sources that include a disability module; </li></ul><ul><li>undertake analysis of the size and role of accessible tourism within Australian tourism; </li></ul><ul><li>develop market segmentation studies of disability in tourism; </li></ul>
    34. 34. Detailed Outcomes 2 <ul><li>4. Total Product Development </li></ul><ul><li>operationalise universal design and easy living principles within tourism product development; </li></ul><ul><li>test the operationalisation of the above concepts through place based approaches, local access precincts and access trail development; </li></ul><ul><li>understand the diversity of experiences of people with disabilities through an application of the recreation opportunity spectrum to industry sectors; </li></ul><ul><li>5. Industry Engagement - Profile, Partnerships and Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>development of best practice cases; </li></ul><ul><li>establish the business case for accessible tourism; </li></ul><ul><li>provide resources for identified SME to enter the Australian Tourism Awards; </li></ul><ul><li>encourage industry linked research between disability groups, tourism enterprises and tourism industry representative groups; </li></ul><ul><li>establish accessible tourism organisation/association/lobby group; </li></ul><ul><li>establish an internal government driver of accessible tourism through cooperative Commonwealth and State government Tourism Minister's Council; </li></ul>
    35. 35. Detailed Outcomes 3 <ul><li>6. Education and Training </li></ul><ul><li>extend information provision to interactive industry based disability awareness training that is tested using recognised Australian/international scales; </li></ul><ul><li>undertake disability awareness training with a key industry group to provide the basis for ongoing industry engagement; </li></ul><ul><li>incorporate disability awareness training/curriculum into industry, TAFE and university courses; </li></ul><ul><li>7. Access to All Sectors of the Tourism Industry </li></ul><ul><li>reinforces the need for best practice case studies that also investigate the business case for accessible tourism (see Industry Engagement ); </li></ul><ul><li>develop experiential case studies of disability tourism activities to provide the industry with a diverse understanding of what constitutes disability tourism experience; and </li></ul><ul><li>promote the designation of a specific universal design or accessible tourism award within the Australian Tourism Awards to highlight the importance for the triple bottom line. </li></ul>
    36. 36. 4. Discussion, questions and opportunities for collaboration
    37. 37. Notes <ul><li>I would like to thank the New Zealand Tourism Research Institute for their financial support and collegial environment that I experienced in presenting the workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>See the following for a full references: </li></ul><ul><li>Darcy, S.  (2006), Setting a Research Agenda for Accessible  Tourism , Gold Coast: Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre. http://www.crctourism.com.au/BookShop/BookDetail.aspx?d=473 </li></ul>