2009 06 14 Ttra Accomm Class 3 B


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Presentation to the US Travel and Tourism Research Association, Honolulu Hilton 21 June 2009

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2009 06 14 Ttra Accomm Class 3 B

  1. 1. Hotel Accessibility Criteria: Improving Accessible Accommodation Information Formats US Travel and Tourism Research Association Conference Honolulu Hilton 14 June 2009 Simon Darcy PhD University of Technology, Sydney Contact: [email_address]
  2. 2. This presentation will: <ul><li>Overview the research; </li></ul><ul><li>Critique systems of accommodation information provision; </li></ul><ul><li>Detail the research design; </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the findings; </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the template outcome. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Role of accommodation in travel for people with disabilities <ul><li>Theoretical approaches to disability; </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of access; </li></ul><ul><li>Role of dimensions of access in accommodation options; </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation as a key determinant of destination choice. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disability & Dimensions of Access <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health, smoke free, chemical sensitivity, allergies, behavioural issues + others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rationale for included dimensions based on BCA, SA & DDA complaint cases </li></ul>
  5. 5. Critique systems of accommodation information provision <ul><li>Mainstream information provision; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government tourism marketing authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism operators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rating systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Other approaches; </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of people with disabilities; & </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research questions: Which room criteria are “important” in making accessible accommodation choices? What information format best allows a person with a disability to make an informed accommodation choice for their access needs?
  7. 7. Objectives <ul><li>Determine the key selection criteria for accessible rooms on which people with disabilities make informed decisions for their access considerations; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide information about accessible accommodations in the four formats to people with disabilities to determine whether the information meets their access considerations; </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain which format was preferred; </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a template to assist accommodation managers’ better market and promote their accessible rooms. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research Design <ul><li>Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Access audits of the hotel rooms and accessible tourism information development; </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel Accessibility Scale; </li></ul><ul><li>Information appraisal and decision-making of the accessible tourism market ; & </li></ul><ul><li>Product testing and in-depth interviews of people with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Scale reliability, principal components analysis; </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptives, Chi-square, T-tests and ANOVA; & </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative analysis of the access audit information provided to the accessible tourism market - pre-visit determination and visit assessment. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four Information Formats <ul><li>AAA tourist accommodation guide information (ACROD, 1994; Australian Automobile Association, 2005; Australian Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled (ACROD) Ltd, 1999); </li></ul><ul><li>Textual presentation of AS1428 - (Australian Quadriplegic Association, 2002; Fodor's, 1996); </li></ul><ul><li>Textual and spatial presentation (Cameron, 2000; City of Melbourne, 2006); and </li></ul><ul><li>Digital photography or virtual digital video tour (Accor - Australia and the Pacific, 2006; Voyages Hotels and Resorts - Australia, 2006) and the One-Stop Shop for Accessible Tourism Europe (Buhalis, 2005; Buhalis, Michopoulou, Michailidis, & Ambrose, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>See Darcy, S. (2007, 11-14 February). A methodology for assessing class three accessible accommodation information provision. Refereed paper presented at the CAUTHE Tourism - Past Achievements, Future Challenges, Manly - Sydney Australia. CD </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electronic snowballing Sample Organisations (50+) <ul><li>Australian Federation of Disability Organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Disability Council of Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Deafness Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Vision Australia </li></ul><ul><li>National Council of Intellectual Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Disability Sporting Organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Para Quad (NSW/VIC/QLD), Spinal Cord Injury Australia, Muscular Dystrophy Association, Northcott etc. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Scope, Spastic Centre of NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Council of the Ageing </li></ul><ul><li>Carers Australia </li></ul><ul><li>State and Commonwealth ageing, disability and carers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sample N=566
  12. 12. Sample
  13. 13. Sample <ul><li>Gender: Female 58% Male 42% </li></ul><ul><li>Age: bell curve with a slight aged skew </li></ul><ul><li>University 48% or TAFE educated 19% </li></ul><ul><li>Full time/self employed 33% Part time 17% Pension/Retired 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Australian-born 80% with 8% affiliation to other cultural/ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>midlife singles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>older working couples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>young singles living at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>older non-working couples </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Travel Patterns <ul><li>Average number in group 3.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Only person with a disability 68% </li></ul><ul><li>Average number in disability group 6.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Sports groups </li></ul><ul><li>Disability advocacy groups </li></ul><ul><li>Service organisations and group homes </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 trips per year 33% </li></ul><ul><li>6+ trips per year 26% </li></ul>
  15. 15. Room Criteria Importance <ul><li>55 Room criteria </li></ul><ul><li>5 point importance scale 1 very imp to 5 Not at all Imp </li></ul><ul><li>Sig p <.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of access – 47 items </li></ul><ul><li>Level of support needs – 38 items </li></ul><ul><li>Socio demographic – eg. Age 7, Gender 11, Emp 18, Ed 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>Travel party </li></ul><ul><li>Dimension + Level of support + demographic + ind need + travel party = accommodation choice </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation space </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld shower head </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Low pile carpet </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation in bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible parking </li></ul><ul><li>Blind/vision </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation space </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Luggage assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Grab rails in bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld shower head </li></ul><ul><li>Lever water taps </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf/hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Teletext decoders </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Phone with vol control and alert </li></ul><ul><li>In room temperature control </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Clear signage </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Non audibel door bell </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm system </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation space </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld shower head </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation in bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Low pile carpet </li></ul><ul><li>In room temperature control </li></ul>Top 10 by Dimension
  17. 17. <ul><li>Overall </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation space </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld shower head </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible parking </li></ul><ul><li>In room temperature control </li></ul><ul><li>Luggage assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation space </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Low pile carpet </li></ul><ul><li>Grab rails in bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible parking </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld shower head </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Grab rails in bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible parking </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency phone in lift </li></ul><ul><li>Well lit public areas </li></ul><ul><li>Luggage assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Other mobilkity aids </li></ul><ul><li>Non-slip bathroom floor </li></ul><ul><li>Can do customer service attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous accessible path </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms of equal level of comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Grab rails in bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Roll in shower </li></ul><ul><li>Clear circulation space </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible parking </li></ul><ul><li>Luggage assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld shower head </li></ul>Top 10 by Dimension
  18. 18. Principal Component Analysis <ul><li>Component 1: Core Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Component 2: Hearing & Vision (Communication) </li></ul><ul><li>Component 3: Ambulant (Safety) </li></ul><ul><li>Component 4: Service & Security </li></ul><ul><li>Component 5: Amenity (comfort/recreation) </li></ul><ul><li>Component 6: Supplementary Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha scores all above .7) as a whole and as individual components </li></ul>
  19. 19. Preferred Format Mean Std. Deviation Statistic Std. Error Statistic AAA preference 3.50 .046 .992 Text preference 2.76 .033 .707 Floorplan preference 2.17 .034 .735 Photo preference 1.57 .045 .974 Valid N (listwise)
  20. 20. Preferred Format
  21. 21. Preferred Format <ul><li>Reinforces the inadequacy of ratings icons </li></ul><ul><li>Technical measurements abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding ‘the space’ is important </li></ul><ul><li>Floor plans provide an understanding of the space </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs reinforce abstract concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs only as good as the features shown </li></ul><ul><li>Rich textual description is important for people who are blind/vision impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group reinforced that it was the room/bathroom that was essential to making a decision </li></ul>
  22. 22. Recognised limitation <ul><li>Limited funding </li></ul><ul><li>Can be expanded with support </li></ul><ul><li>Response to the current inclusion of the Building Codes of Australia and the Australian Standards for access and mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Other dimensions of access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health, smoke free, chemical sensitivity, allergies, behavioural issues + others </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Informed decisions require detailed information </li></ul><ul><li>Information and, hence, the understanding of access varies for each individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimension of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel party etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not an exercise in certifying/rating </li></ul><ul><li>Information savvy consumer group </li></ul><ul><li>Trust has been compromised through past experience </li></ul><ul><li>Trust can be regained through a systematic approach </li></ul>
  24. 24. Template Outcome: <ul><li>The document is divided into eight parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Part A Premises name and contact details. </li></ul><ul><li>Part B Transport and parking </li></ul><ul><li>Part C Main entry and foyer </li></ul><ul><li>Part D Signage, toilets, telephones, lifts et. </li></ul><ul><li>Part E Accessible room(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Part F Bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Part G Respiratory and other sensitivities </li></ul><ul><li>Part H Other features </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to UTS & Easy Access Australia © </li></ul>
  25. 25. For full papers see <ul><li>Darcy, S. (2009). Accommodation Accessibility Criteria: Towards Improving Accessible Accommodation Information Formats. Paper presented at the &quot;Catch the Wave: Tourism Research!&quot; 40th US Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) Conference. from http://www.ttra.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Darcy, S. (2010). Inherent complexity: Disability, accessible tourism and accommodation information preferences. Tourism Management , Accepted & published online awaiting volume allocation. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thank you Mahalo
  27. 27. Way/s forward… <ul><li>http://www.nican.com.au </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.accessibility.com.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.accessfinder.com.au </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.australiaforall.com.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>AAA Tourism??? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.perth.wa.gov.au/WAAccess/vis13_waaccess.html </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Tourism Data Warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome from this research… </li></ul>