Ricerca iconografica sull'educazione della donna attraverso i secoli


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Woman education pictures through the centuries

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Ricerca iconografica sull'educazione della donna attraverso i secoli

  1. 1. L’educazione femminile in Età Moderna Storia dei processi formativi Modulo 2 S. Leonardi, G. Zambelli,G. Toso, R. Puleo,P. Ruperto   I.U.LINE
  2. 2. La musica….solo per le donne nobili   scelta da simonetta Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Siméon 18th century National Gallery London
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>La Chiesa indica il ruolo che spetta alla donna all’interno della </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>famiglia. Per la Chiesa protestante la madre non deve solo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insegnare ai figli i buoni costumi, ma può assumere anche il </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ruolo di padrona della casa in mancanza del padre, mentre per i </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cattolici la sua funzione principale e quella di educatrice, intesa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>come figura che insegna e tramanda ai figli i valori morali e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spirituali, l'insegnamento religioso, le credenze popolari e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>un'istruzione elementare che permetta di leggere e scrivere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quanto alle figlie è responsabile di quasi tutto il patrimonio di </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conoscenze che le farà spose sottomesse ed obbedienti. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Educazione in famiglia <ul><ul><li>Precettore o governante nelle famiglie benestanti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragonard , Jean-Honoré </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museo del Louvre </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>A Young Woman playing a Harpsichord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full title: 'A Young Woman playing a Harpsichord to a Young Man' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably 1659 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STEEN, Jan 1626 - 1679 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG856. Bought with the Peel collection, 1871. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated above the keyboard: IOHANIS STeeN FECIT 16(5?)(9?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast to Steen's characteristic scenes of dissolute households and festive abandon, this painting shows an interior within a stone arch in the manner of Dou and the Leiden 'fijnschilders' (Fine Painters). A girl playing the virginals, or as here, a harpsichord, was one of the most popular subjects with Dutch 17th-century painters, and as in Metsu's roughly contemporary painting, ' A Man and a Woman seated by a Virginal ' in the National Gallery, the instrument is inscribed with popular quotations from the Bible . The inscription reads: ACTA VIRUM / PROBANT (actions prove the man), which may be a witty and ironic comment on this scene of rather passive flirtation. On the inner side of the instrument one can read: 'Soli Deo Gloria' (Glory to God alone). The picture was probably painted in 1659. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. A Woman playing a Virginal Full title: 'A Woman playing a Virginal, Another singing and a Man playing a Violin' probably 1675-80 OCHTERVELT, Jacob 1634 - 1682 NG3864. Bought, 1924. Signed over the door: Jac : Ocht(. .)velt : f. Inscribed on underside of virginal's lid: S? D?E?. The map on the wall above the virginal is based on one of North and South America called 'Americae nova descriptio' which was published by Dancker Danckerts in Amsterdam in 1661. The dress and coiffure of the woman who stands before it are identical to those in ' A Woman by a Harpsichord ' by Ochtervelt (also in the National Gallery's Collection).
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>A Young Man and Woman making Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full title: 'A Young Man playing a Theorbo and a Young Woman playing a Cittern' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably 1630-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOLENAER, Jan about 1610 - 1668 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1293. Bought, 1889. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed on the foot-warmer: (I?) MR [in monogram]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The duet played by the couple may well refer to the harmony of true love, while the foot-warmer is usually interpreted as a symbol for the effort a man has to make in order to gain a woman's love. The portrait in the right background is in the style of Michiel van Miereveld (1567 - 1641), and is probably of Prince Frederik Henrik of Orange (1584 - 1647), who became Stadholder of the Dutch Republic in 1625. On loan to the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle from April to July 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Le tre Parche di Francesco del Cossa, parte dello </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affresco nella Sala dei Mesi di Palazzo Schifanoia, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferrara. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>AACK, Johannes van </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Der 1635/6 - after 1680 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1397. Presented by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry J. Pfungst, 1894. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower margin of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engraving: Joannes-Ab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aack fecit/ 1655; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inscribed on the oval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>border of the engraved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portrait: vin (cere) au(t) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mori. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The engraved portrait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the wall shows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian, Duke of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brunswick (1599 - 1626), a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant general in the early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>part of the Thirty Years' War. It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is by Willem Jacobsz. Delff after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a portrait by Michiel van </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miereveld . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on canvas 108.8 x 82 cm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Old Woman seated sewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1655 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. nobildonne <ul><ul><li>Portrait of a Woman 1618 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIEREVELD, Michiel van </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1567 - 1641 NG2292. Bequeathed by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Fielder, 1908. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated above the left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shoulder: F[?] 1618 /M Mierevelt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The female sitter in this portrait has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not been identified. There is a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fragment of paper on the back with the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remains of an inscription: Cad(..) rello </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ...rta (.) (p?) rello. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miereveld was an immensely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>successful portrait painter in Delft and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>painted many members of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stadholder's court at The Hague. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Donna e riforma protestante <ul><ul><li>Portrait of a Woman of the Hofer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family about 1470 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWABIAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG722. Presented by Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victoria at the Prince Consort's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wish, 1863. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inscribed at the top: geborne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hoferin [née Hofer]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sitter's family is identified by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the inscription (born a Hofer), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>although her precise identity is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unknown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She holds a forget-me-not, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presumably for remembrance. On </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>her headdress is a fly, either a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbol of mortality or a reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the artist's skills of illusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The artist worked in Southern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany; the portrait probably </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dates from about 1470. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Portrait of a Woman with a Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cap 1657 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRAIJ, Jan de </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1626/7 - 1697 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1423. Presented by Alfred Fowell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buxton, 1894. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed below the inscription: Braij; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inscribed in Dutch on the left: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1657/Ouwt 52 jaar [1657/52 years old]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 52-year-old sitter has not been </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identified. Her black peaked cap, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enlivened only by the small pearl drops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attached to the edges, identifies her as a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De Braij worked in Haarlem and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amsterdam, and was the son of the painter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>architect and poet Salomon de Braij. Most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of his works are portraits, but he also made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etchings and was active as an architect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The panel may have been cut on the left, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the initials preceding the surname of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the signature consequently lost. X-ray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photographs show that the head was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>originally further to the left and that the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collar was lower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On loan to the Frans Hals Museum, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haarlem from February to June 2008, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>followed by Dulwich Picture Gallery from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>July to October 2008. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>PIETER DE HOOGH - La dispensa </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>A Woman scraping Parsnips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full title: 'A Woman scraping Parsnips, with a Child standing by her'1655 MAES, Nicolaes 1634 - 1693 NG159. Bequeathed by Lord Farnborough, 1838.Signed and dated bottom right: N MAES 1655 [MAE in monogram]During the years 1654-59 Maes painted small-scale genre paintings showing simple domestic scenes. These employ a restricted palette dominated by browns and reds and a rich ' chiaroscuro ' (Italian for light-dark, meaning the balance of light and shadow), reflecting the training Maes had with Rembrandt in Amsterdam in the years around 1650. After 1660 Maes devoted himself exclusively to portraiture.Oil on oak 35.6 x 29.8 c </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>A Woman and a Fish-pedlar in a Kitchen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1713 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIERIS, Willem van 1662 - 1747 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG841. Bought with the Peel collection, 1871. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated top left: W.van Mieris. Fc Anno 1713 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the sill are two ducks, a basket of snipe, and fish; hanging on the right, a pheasant and two rabbits. The bas- relief is a variant of a 'Triumph of Galatea' relief which appears in several of van Mieris' paintings (e.g. 'Joseph and Potiphar's Wife', Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle). </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>A Man and a Woman by a Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full title: 'An Interior, with a Man and a Woman seated by a Fire' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1653 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BREKELENKAM, Quiringh van Died: 1668 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1329. Bought, 1891. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated, right background: Q.VB.1653 [VB in monogram]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the background is a map of the Netherlands, bearing the lion of Holland. As is often the case in 17th-century maps, north is not at the top but on the right. The map is inscribed in the right background: 'H(?)AR(E?) GE(R?)WANIC UM / DE NO (O?)RT ZEE'. This is a faulty transcription of 'Mare Germanicum', Latin for the North Sea. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>A Woman scouring a Pot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1650-60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BOSCH, Pieter van den, attributed to about 1613/15 - after 1663 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2551. Salting Bequest, 1910. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A woman in an interior, perhaps a kitchen, scours a pot on top of a barrel. The attribution to van den Bosch is based on comparison with a signed picture of the same subject in Berlin (Staatliche Museen, Gemäldegalerie). The picture has also been attributed to Pieter Slingeland. It shows the influence of Gerrit Dou and can be dated on grounds of style to the 1650s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on oak </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>An Old Woman peeling Pears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TENIERS the Younger, David, follower of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG805. Bought from G.H. Phillips, 1870. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the right of the woman is a greyhound, and to the left objects that include earthenware and brass pots and cauliflowers. The furniture in the background recurs in Teniers's ' An Old Peasant caresses a Kitchen Maid in a Stable '. An Old Woman peeling Pears' was probably inspired by Teniers's style of the 1640s. It is reminiscent of a work by the artist's brother, Juliaen Teniers the Younger, in Copenhagen. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>An Old Woman scouring a Pot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1660s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCHALCKEN, Godfried 1643 - 1706 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG997. Wynn Ellis Bequest, 1876. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed bottom right: G . Schalcken . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The old woman, the broken pot, the butterfly and the empty candle-holder are all elements which, taken together, identify the painting as a ' vanitas ', an allegory of the transience of life. This is an early work in the style of Schalcken's teacher, Gerrit Dou . It is reminiscent of Dou's 'niche paintings' - an interior seen through an aperture </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cortigiane <ul><ul><li>A Blonde Woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1520 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PALMA Vecchio Died: 1528 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG3939. Mond Bequest, 1924. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The woman seems to unveil her charms and as she does so offers us flowers - this is perhaps a poetic allusion to the goddess Flora (although Flora was also a common name for courtesans). The painting is an early and notable example of a type of painting also produced by Titian (active about 1506; died 1576). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on wood </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Woman at a Window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably 1510-30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITALIAN, NORTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2146. Purchased, 1855. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The provocative character of her dress and her sly look out of the window suggest that the subject is a prostitute, but not necessarily the portrait of a specific individual. The painting is likely to date from the second or third decade of the 16th century. In the past this painting has been attributed to Pordenone . The costume is comparable to that in other Italian works of about 1515. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on wood </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>A Young Woman with Carnations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably about 1590-1600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITALIAN, VENETIAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2097. Bequeathed by the Misses Cohen as part of the John Samuel collection, 1906. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This unidentified woman is seen with one breast exposed, and with carnations tucked into her chemise. This picture appears to have been painted in the late 16th century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on canvas 97.8 x 74.3 cm. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Two Lovers at Table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1644 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SORGH, Hendrick 1610 or 1611 - 1670 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1056. Bequeathed by John Henderson, 1879. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated, top right: H. Sorgh 1644 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorgh worked in Rotterdam and specialised in peasant scenes. This is one of a pair of paintings - the other is ' A Woman playing Cards with Two Peasants ' (also in the National Gallery Collection) - which illustrate ways in which women can make fools of men. Here, the procuress behind the door on the left will make the man pay dearly for the young woman's favours. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>A Woman holding a Mirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1625 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CODDE, Pieter 1599 - 1678 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2584. Salting Bequest, 1910. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated on the frame of the landscape: PCodde. Anno 1625 [PC in monogram]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The woman's features are not sufficiently individualised for this to be a portrait, nor is it likely to be an allegory of Pride ('Superbia'), since the woman does not admire her features in the mirror. Instead, it may be a ' vanitas ' (a picture symbolising the vanities and transience of human life), or simply a scene from everyday life. This seems to be Codde's earliest dated work. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Marianna de Leyva, figlia di un ricco condottiero spagnolo dopo i voti Suor Virginia Maria, costretta a farsi suora per non spartire il patrimonio familiare. A lei si ispirò Manzoni con la Monaca di Monza
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Female Members of a Confraternity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITALIAN, MILANESE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG780. Bought, 1867. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This painting shows the heads or busts of fourteen kneeling women, and part of a patron saint. It was probably painted as part of a confraternity banner or standard once in the Charterhouse of Pavia, which presumably belonged to the unknown confraternity. Another painting probably from the same banner depicts ' Male Members of a Confraternity '. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (1434)By Van Eyck, National Gallery, London </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Portrait of a Woman and Child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1620-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VAN DYCK, Anthony 1599 - 1641 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG3011. Bought, 1914. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of Van Dyck's most intimate and least formal portraits, such as this one, are those he painted of the predominantly bourgeois citizens of Antwerp and their families before his departure to Italy in 1621. This unknown woman and child may originally have been paired with a portrait of the woman's husband, towards whom the child would have been gesturing. The lively pose of the child is contrasted with the stillness of the mother, and complemented by the striking colour of the dress. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>A Woman and Five Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1642 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1425. Presented by Lesser Lesser, 1894. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated: Lenain, f[e]cit 1642 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This work has been known by various titles in the past, including 'A Family Group' and 'The Tasting'. It is one of a number of domestic genre scenes by the Le Nain brothers set before a neutral backdrop </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Qualche eccezione <ul><ul><li>Rosalba Carriera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CARRIERA, Rosalba Giovanna, after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG3127. Layard Bequest, 1916. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosalba Carriera was one of few women to make a successful career as an artist in the 18th century. She began her career painting portrait miniatures on ivory to adorn the inside of snuff-box lids, and by the time she was in her twenties was attracting an international clientele for her portrait miniatures and pastel portraits. This picture is based on a pastel self-portrait that she made in old age, now in the Royal Collection at Windsor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil on canvas 57.6 x 39.4 cm. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Self Portrait in a Straw Hat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after 1782 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VIGÉE LE BRUN, Elizabeth Louise 1755 - 1842 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1653. Bought, 1897. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The painting appears, after cleaning, to be an autograph replica of a picture, the original of which was painted in Brussels in 1782 in free imitation of Rubens's ' Chapeau de Paille ', which Vigée Le Brun had seen in Antwerp. It was exhibited in Paris in 1782 at the Salon de la Correspondance. Vigée Le Brun's original is recorded in a private collection in France. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>A Lady with a Rosary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1550 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEMESSEN, Catharina van, attributed to 1527/8 - after 1566? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Comportamento <ul><ul><li>A Boy and a Girl with a Cat and an Eel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1635 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEYSTER, Judith 1609 - 1660 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG5417. Bequeathed by C.F. Leach, 1943. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed, right: iudiyh [sic], followed by a star. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has recently been suggested that this painting serves as a warning against foolish and mischievous behaviour. The boy has used the small eel to entice the cat into his grasp and then withholds the bait, while the girl teases the cat further by pulling its tail. Judging by its extended claws the cat is about to scratch the boy. The picture thus seems to allude to the Dutch saying: 'He who plays with cats gets scratched', meaning he who looks for trouble will get it. It was common in Dutch 17th-century painting to use children in order to point out the foolish behaviour of adults. Judith Leyster, a painter of genre scenes, portraits and still lifes , was mainly active in Haarlem and Amsterdam. In 1636 she married the painter Jan Molenaer , whose works are also represented in the Collection. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>An Itinerant Musician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full title: 'An Itinerant Musician saluting Two Women in a Kitchen' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably about 1770 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STEEN, Jan, after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG1378. Bequeathed by Sir William H. Gregory, 1892. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inscribed on the fireplace, right: JSt 1670 [JS in monogram]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The old man saluting the women in the kitchen has a flute in his breeches pocket, which suggests that he is an itinerant musician. This monochrome picture (' grisaille '), painted on paper, is a copy of a painting by Jan Steen in an English private collection. It was probably made by (or for) Samuel de Wilde (1748 - 1832) in preparation for his print after Steen's original. The signature cannot be considered genuine. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Donna e libro <ul><ul><li>A Woman Asleep by a Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 1648 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BREKELENKAM, Quiringh van Died: 1668 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2550. Salting Bequest, 1910. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stoneware jug on the table has a relief , which appears to show Adam and Eve before God the Father. The subject of an old woman sleeping in a chair or gazing into a fire was popular with Brekelenkam and his contemporaries in Leiden, and this painting is one of several on this theme by the artist. In the second half of the 18th century, this painting belonged to Jean-Etienne Liotard , whose work is also represented in the Collection. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>An Old Woman with a Book about 1660 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>METU, Gabriel 1629 - 1667 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2590. Salting Bequest, 1910. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed below centre: G. Metsu; the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inscription on the paper hanging over the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ledge is so damaged as to be illegible, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>although the initial D beneath the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inscription can be made out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of subject is derived from Gerrit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dou 's so-called 'niche' paintings, with an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interior seen through an aperture (for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>example, ' A Poulterer's Shop ', also in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Gallery's Collection). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This painting has been dated to about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1660 on the basis of a comparison with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the 'Hunter in a Niche' of 1661 (The </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hague, Mauritshuis). It has been </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggested that this picture was painted as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a pair to 'The Apothecary' (Paris, Louvre). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both were in the Braamcamp collection, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but the dimensions and a description of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1766 make it clear that the pictures were </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not pendants . </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><ul><li>An Old Woman Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TENIERS the Younger, David, imitator of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG2601. Salting Bequest, 1910. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inscribed: DTá [in monogram]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Teniers the Younger was immensely successful as a painter and his work was widely copied and imitated. This appears to be an imitation painted at the end of the 17th century. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Adulterio <ul><ul><li>The Woman taken in Adultery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1644 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rembrandt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 606 - 1669 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NG45. Bought, 1824. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed and dated, bottom right: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rembrandt f 1644 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rembrandt portrays a Bible story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about the nature of God's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forgiveness for those who sin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The subject comes from the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gospel of Saint John. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Scribes and Pharisees, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowing that Jesus took pity on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrong-doers, tried to catch him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condoning disobedience to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law. They brought a woman to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>him who had been caught in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act of adultery and said, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'Teacher, this woman has been </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caught in the act of adultery. Now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the law Moses commanded us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to stone such. What do you say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about her?' Christ replied, 'He </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that is without sin among you, let </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>him first cast a stone at her' (John </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8: 3-7). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Rembrandt's interpretation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ's stature is exaggerated to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make him seem taller (and by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analogy morally superior) than </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>those trying to trick him. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Ricerca effettuata prevalentemente sul sito della </li></ul><ul><li>Galleria Nazionale di Londra. Digitando “woman” sul </li></ul><ul><li>motore di ricerca del sito vengono mostrate 312 opere </li></ul><ul><li>raffiguranti donne di varie epoche,nella maggior parte </li></ul><ul><li>‘ 600- 700. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalla visione di queste opere emergono sempre le </li></ul><ul><li>stesse categorie di donne raffigurate: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritratti di nobildonne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritratti di nobildonne con strumento musicale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con figli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donne di servizio al lavoro in cucina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortigiane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pochissime donne che leggono </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madame de Pompadour was the long-standing mistress of King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis XV of France. In this portrait, the last ever painted of her, she is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presened as a respectable, cultured, middle-aged woman, who gazes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>confidently at the viewer.But who was the real Pompadour, and how did </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>she become one of the most powerful women in 18th-century France? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He painting shows the one-time mistress of Louis XV in the last year of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>her life. Born Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson in 1721, she married in 1741 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and became royal mistress and Marquise de Pompadour four years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>later. She was a patron of the arts and letters and a leader of fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who exercised considerable influence on the public policy of France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The canvas is signed and dated on the work-table as begun in April </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1763. The head, painted on a rectangle of canvas inserted into the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>painting, was presumably taken from life, and the rest of the picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completed in May 1764, the month after the death of Madame de </li></ul></ul>