Heat or any low grade energy can not be converted entirely into work or to any high grade energy operating in a cycle. Even under reversible condition 100% efficiency can not be achieved in a complete cycle by any reversible engine. Except for total heat input and work output, the engine also has to liberate a part of its heat input that can not be converted into work. The amount of heat that can be converted into work in a complete cycle(useful energy) is known as the exergy and the heat which is liberated is known as anergy.
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Topic 10.3Second Law of Thermodynamicsand Entropy
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The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics• Heat can be completely converted into work in a single process• but continuous conversion of heat in to work requires a cyclic process ( a heat engine)• All attempts to construct a heat engine that is 100% efficient have failed• The Kelvin- Planck statement of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics is a qualitative statement of the impossibility of certain types of processes
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The Law states….• It is impossible for an engine working in a cycle to transform a given amount of heat from a reservoir completely into work or• Not all the thermal energy in a thermal system is available to do work
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The Clausius Statement• No device has been observed for which W=0• This leads to a second way to state the second Law of Thermodynamics• It is impossible to make a cyclic engine whose only effect is to transfer thermal energy from a colder body to a hotter body
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…and The Second Law ofThermodynamics• Recall that in thermodynamics, a system in an equilibrium state is characterised by its state variables.• p, V, T, U, n ..• The change in a state variable for a complete cycle is zero.• In contrast, the net thermal energy and net work factors for a cycle are not equal to zero.
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History • In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Rudolf Clausius proposed a general statement of the second Law in terms of a quantity called entropy.
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Entropy• Is a thermodynamic function of the state of the system• Can be interpreted as the amount of order or disorder of a system• As with internal energy, it is the change in entropy is important and not its absolute value.
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Change in EntropyThe change in entropy ∆S of a system when an amountof thermal energy Q is added to a system by areversible process at constant absolute temperature Tis given by: ∆S = Q / TThe units of the change in entropy are JK-1
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ExampleA heat engine removes 100 J each cycle from a heatreservoir at 400 K and exhausts 85 J of thermal energyto a reservoir at 300 K.Compute the change in entropy for each reservoir:
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SolutionSince the hot reservoir loses heat, we have that:∆S = Q / T = -100 J / 400 K = -0.25 JK-1For the cold reservoir we have:∆S=Q/T = 85 J / 300 K = 0.283 JK-1Therefore:The increase in entropy of the cold reservoir isgreater than the decrease for the hot reservoir.
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Natural Systems• In this example and all other cases, it has been found that the total entropy increases.• This infers that total entropy increases in all natural systems.• The entropy of a given system can increase or decrease but the change in entropy of the system ∆S, plus the change in entropy of the environment ∆Senv must be greater than or equal to zero.
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The Second Law of ThermodynamicsIn terms of entropy, the Second Law of Thermodynamicscan be stated as:3.The total entropy of any system plus that of itsenvironment increases as a result of all natural processes4.The entropy of the Universe increases5.Natural processes tend to move toward a state ofgreater disorder.
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Irreversible processes A block of ice can slide down an incline plane if the frictional force is overcome But the ice cannot spontaneously move up the incline of its own accord The conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy by friction as it slides is irreversible
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Explanation• If the thermal energy could be converted completely to mechanical energy, the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second Law would be violated.• In terms of entropy, the system tends to greater disorder, and the entropy increases.• In another case, the conduction of thermal energy from a hot body to a cold body is irreversible.
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• Flow of thermal energy completely from a cold body to a hot body violates the Clausius statement of the Second Law.• In terms of entropy, a hot body causes greater disorder of the cold body and the entropy increases.• If thermal energy was given by a cold body to a hot body there would be greater order in the hot body
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• And the entropy would decrease.• This is not allowed by the Second Law.• Irreversibility can also occur if there is turbulence or an explosion causing a non- equilibrium state of the gaseous system.• The degree of disorder increases and the entropy increases.
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• Entropy indicates the direction in which processes occur.• Hence entropy is often called the arrow of time.
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Statistical approach• This was first applied to the definition of entropy by Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906).• If a coin is flipped 100 times, it is not improbable for the one hundred coins to land heads up.• But it is highly improbable.• The probability of rolling 100 sixes from 100 dice is even less.
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• A small sample of a gas contains billions of molecules and the molecules have many possible microstates.• It is impossible to know the position and velocity of each molecule at a given point in time.
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• The probability that these microstates suddenly coming together into some improbable arrangement is infinitesimal.• In reality, the macrostate is the only measurable part of the system.• The Second Law in terms of probability does not infer that a decrease in entropy is not allowed but it suggests that the probability of this occurring is low.
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Heat Degradation• A final consequence of the Second Law is the heat degradation of the Universe.• It can be reasoned that in any natural process, some energy becomes unavailable to do useful work.• An outcome of this suggests that the Universe will eventually reach a state of maximum disorder.
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• An equilibrium temperature will be reached and no work will be able to be done.• All change of state will cease as all the energy in the Universe becomes degraded to thermal energy.• This point in time is often referred to the heat death of the Universe.
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The amount of heat that can be converted into work in a complete cycle(useful energy) is known as the exergy and the heat which is liberated is known as anergy.