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10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs
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10.2 - First law of Thermodynamics and PV graphs

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  • 1. Pressure Law Pressure and Temperature aredirectly proportional as long as the temperature ismeasured in Kelvins
  • 2. Boyle’s LawEach line represents an experiment done at adifferent temperature
  • 3. Pistons Wd = P.A.Δd Wd = P. ΔV
  • 4. Wd = P. ΔVAs long as there is an AREA under the line thenyou can see that work is done (and calculate it)
  • 5. First Law of ThermodynamicsIt just says that if you add Heat to a gas it must beequal to the Work Done by the gas + any change inInternal Energy This is mainly difficult because: 1. Heat can be gained or lost 2. Internal Energy can rise or fall 3. Work can be done ‘on the gas’ or ‘by the gas’
  • 6. 1. Isobaric Constant Pressure1. The gas is expanding – doing Work (Work is +ve)2. The temperature is increasing so ΔU is increasing (ΔU is +ve)3. ΔQ = ΔU + W so Q must be +ve4. Heat must have been added
  • 7. 2. Isovolumetric / Isochoric Constant Volume1. The gas isn’t expanding or contracting. No Work is done. ΔW=02. Because the Pressure is increasing the temperature must be rising so ΔU is +ve3. Q = ΔU + W so Q = ΔU so heat is +ve4. Heat must have been added
  • 8. 3. Isothermic Constant Temperature1. The gas is expanding – doing Work (Work is +ve)2. The temperature is constant so ΔU is 03. Q = ΔU + W so Q =W4. Heat must have been added to enable the gas to do work
  • 9. 4. AdiabaticNo Heat is being exchanged – perfectly insulated.1. No heat is exchanged so Q = 02. Volume is reducing so Work is being done ON THE GAS (W= -ve)3. Q = ΔU + W so 0 = ΔU - W4. ΔU = W so work done on the gas increases the Internal energy of the gas Adiabatic lines are always steeper than Isotherms
  • 10. A Heat Cycle A-B Isochoric / Isovolumetric Temperature rise B-C Isobaric Expansion C-D Isochoric / Isovolumetric Temperature drop D-A Isobaric Contraction
  • 11. The Carnot Cycle
  • 12. Forward Carnot Cycle
  • 13. Reverse Carnot Cycle D

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