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E1 - Introduction to the Universe
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E1 - Introduction to the Universe



Section E1 of IB Physics Astrophysics

Section E1 of IB Physics Astrophysics



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E1 - Introduction to the Universe E1 - Introduction to the Universe Presentation Transcript

  • The Solar System
  • The Sun  Mass: 1.99 x 1030 kg  Radius:6.96 x 108 m  Surface temperature: 5800 K View slide
  • Planets DataPlanet Picture Distance to the Sun Radius (km) Orbital period Orbital Surface day Density Satellites (km) around its period temp (ºC) (water=1) axisMercury 58 million 4 878 km 59 days 88 days 167 5,43 0Venus 108 million 12 104 km -243 days 225 days 464 5,24 0 Earth 149,6 million 12 756 km 23, 93 h 365,2 days 15 5,52 1 Mars 228 million 6 794 km 24h 37min 687 days -65 3,04 2Jupiter 778 million 142 800 km 9h 50min 30s 12 years -110 1,32 +63Saturn 1 427 million 120 000 km 10h 14min 29,5 years -140 0,69 +56Uranus 2 870 million 51 800 km 16h 18min 84 years -195 1,27 27Neptune 4 497 million 49 500 km 15h 48min 164 years -200 1,77 13 Pluto 5 900 million 2 400 km 6 days 248 years -225 2 1 View slide
  • Mercury and Venus
  • Earth and Moon Mariner 10
  • Earth and Moon
  • MarsSpirit Rover: Mars’ West Valley
  • Mars
  • MarsViking: Martian Face ESA’s Mars Express: Cydonia Region
  • Asteroid Belt Ceres (480km): it was the first asteroid to be seen. Now it’s a dwarf planet. Mathilde (52km) Eros (13x13x33km)
  • JupiterJupiter and its moons: Io, Approximate size comparison ofEuropa, Ganymede and Earth and JupiterCallisto
  • SaturnA rough comparison of the sizesof Saturn and Earth
  • Uranus Size comparison of Earth and Uranus
  • NeptuneSize comparison of Neptune andEarth.
  • Galaxies A galaxy is a collection of a very large number of starsmutually attracting each other through the gravitational forceand staying together. The number of stars varies between afew million and hundreds of billions. There approximately100 billion galaxies in the observable universe. There are three types of galaxies: - Spiral (Milky Way) - Elliptical (M49) - Irregular (Magellanic Clouds)
  • Spiral Galaxies Spiral galaxies consist of a rotating disk of stars andinterstellar medium, along with a central bulge ofgenerally older stars. Extending outward from thebulge are relatively bright arms. Milky Way
  • Spiral GalaxiesAndromeda
  • Spiral Galaxies Sombrero Galaxy
  • Elliptical Galaxies M49 ESO 325-G004Elliptical cross-section and no spiral arms.They range in shape from nearly spherical to highly flattenedellipsoids and in size from hundreds of millions to over onetrillion stars.In the outer regions, many stars are grouped into globularclusters.
  • Irregular Galaxies Irregular galaxies have no specific structure. TheLarge and Small Magellanic Clouds, the nearestgalaxies, are an example of irregular galaxies. Small Magellanic Cloud Hoags Object, a ring galaxy.
  • Constellations A group of stars in a recognizable pattern thatappear to be near each other in space.Orion
  • Polaris
  • NebulaeNebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen gas andplasma. It is the first stage of a stars cycle but it can also referto the remains of a dying star (planetary nebula).Originally nebula was a general name for any extendedastronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way(some examples of the older usage survive; for example, theAndromeda Galaxy was referred to as the Andromeda Nebulabefore galaxies were discovered by Edwin Hubble).Nebulae often form star-forming regions, such as in the EagleNebula.
  • NebulaeEagle Nebula and the Cone nebula: star-forming regions
  • Cat’s Eye NebulaPlanetary nebulae are nebulae that form from the gaseousshells that are ejected from low-mass giant stars when theytransform into white dwarfs.
  • Eskimo nebula
  • SupernovasEta Carinae Crab Nebula