• Like
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.




  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. SURVEY ON THE MADICAL APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE MEMBER STATES September, 2005 Kabir Hossain Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission 1
  • 2. CONTENTS I. Introduction II. RCA and RCA Regional Office III. Survey Results on the Medical Applications of Radiation Technologies in the RCA Member States IV. Survey the Regional and International Development and Financial Organizations Related to Human Health Activities V. Concluding Remarks VI. Acronyms Related to Human Health 2
  • 3. I. INTRODUCTION The mandate of the Regional Cooperative Agreement Regional Office (RCARO) is to increase RCA awareness and promoting partnerships for RCA programme. In order to carry out this mandate more successfully, it is needed to learn the status of current and potential end-users in radiation applications of the Member States (MSs). The studies on the status of human health related activities of the RCA Member States and regional & international development and financial organizations for the use as a database is a substantial notion of the RCARO. This will assist the Member States in pursuit of deriving medical applications of radiation technologies for the socioeconomic development of respective MSs. It will also be benefited for RCA project participants for maintaining close relationships with the end-users. Apart from the aforementioned, the invited staff from the RCA Member States to RCARO will also assist to (i) gather knowledge and experience on RCA management through the working in an institute of excellence in the region (ii) develop inter personal relationship through out the programme which will be beneficial for the strengthening of inter institutional cooperation (iii) enhance the understanding about the Korean experience on effective use of nuclear technology for its socioeconomic development. The applications of radiation technologies are widely utilized in MSs to meet the basic human needs and to enhance the capacity buildup in Thematic Areas viz., Agriculture, Health, Industry, Environment, Energy/Research Reactors/Waste Management, and Radiation Protection. For developing medical application, radiation technologies are used in the field of nuclear medicine, applied radiation biology and radiation therapy, dosimetry and medical radiation physics, and nutrition and human related environmental studies. Due to the proper utilization of radiation technologies in human health sector recently life expectancy has risen dramatically in the developing countries. The nuclear technologies are employed in numerous ways in the medical field. In developing countries; emphasis is placed on preventive medicine, early detection of 3
  • 4. hepatitis and neonatal hypothyroidism, accurate evaluation of nutritional deficiencies and timely diagnosis of common hereditary diseases. The application of radiation technologies are span in many disciplines- such as radioimmunoassay, radiotherapy, radiopharmaceutical productions and sterilization techniques for transplantation and medical instruments. Radiation techniques are being adapted to treat cancer in the developing world. IAEA also give the priority for the establishment of quality assurance programme for radiation dosimetry and treatment of cancer. One of the treatments is for advanced cervical cancer, which is the most common female cancer. In the field of public health, RCA has supported projects on the measurement of the level of toxic elements in foodstuffs, treatment of cervix cancer by radiotherapy, management of liver cancer using transarterial therapy. The RCA has recognized the value of health care in the Southeast Asian region and has contributed establishing Human Tissue Banks to serve the region. Chemical compounds labeled with short-lived radioactive isotopes are useful for diagnostic purposes, especially to study how well an organ is functioning. The RCA programme has proven to be an effective mechanism for increasing regional self-reliance, fostering linkages and collaboration amongst its MSs through consensus. It has been able to produce tangible outputs from participation in well designed projects, despite the varying stages of development and diversity among Member States. The success of the RCA as a reliable regional framework for cooperation is linked to the unique benefits provided by the application of nuclear science and technology to address regional needs. To further develop and strengthen technical cooperation among the regional MSs and to achieve Millennium Development Goals for sustainability through regional cooperation in radiation technology, the RCARO has incepted in Daejeon, Korea for the overall benefit of the region. 4
  • 5. The Human Health related IAEA/RCA projects for 2005-2006 cycle are-  Distant Assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians (EXTENSION)  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology (CONTINUATION)  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training (EXTENSION)  Improvement in QA for Brachytherapy of Frequent Cancers in the Region (NEW)  Prevention of Osteoporosis and Promotion of Bone Mass in Asian Populations using a Food-based Approach (NEW)  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes (NEW) 5
  • 6. II. RCA AND RCA REGIONAL OFFICE A. REGIONAL COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT (RCA) RCA-a window to the future-acronym stands for Regional Co-operative Agreement for the co-operation with each other and with the IAEA to promote and co-ordinate co- operative research, development (R&D) and training projects in nuclear science and technology through their appropriate national institutions in East Asia and the Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA. It is an intergovernmental agreement. It was about 45 years ago (early 1960s), the IAEA, India and the Philippines came together under a three-way agreement to jointly operate an Indian neutron diffraction machine in the Philippines and was called the “India-Philippines-IAEA (IPA) Agreement”. Other inter-country activities on nuclear technology applications followed. Their success begged the question: why not develop a structure for promoting inter- country collaboration? This laid the foundation of the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) and was formalized in 1972, involving the Agency and ten government parties of the Asia and the Pacific region. The earliest signatories to the original agreement, according to the records we have seen were the following: India (7 June 72), Vietnam (12 June 72), Indonesia (16 Oct 72), Thailand (4 Dec 72), Philippines (17 April 73), Singapore (Sept. 74), Pakistan (6 Sept 74), Korea (9 Oct 74) Bangladesh (23 Oct 74) and Sri Lanka (9 Mar 76); now there are seventeen (17) in RCA which are as follows: Australia, Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia Republic of Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The newest members are Mongolia (1922), Myanmar (1994) and New Zealand (1994). The RCA agreement has the IAEA as a partner, not a party. It is one of four regional cooperative agreements under the aegis of the IAEA. The other three-a pioneering 6
  • 7. approach in the United Nations-has been replicated are ARCAL for Latin America, formed in 1984, and AFRA, for Africa, formed in 1990 and ARASIA for Middle East (formed in 2002). Of the four agreements the RCA can be considered the most mature, most committed, and enviable. It is the most mature being the longest, not necessarily the oldest, running regional agreement – in its 33rd year now; it is most committed since many member states are now not only participating actively in its activities but also contributing financially to support projects; it is enviable since it is a model for other regional projects and is a pioneering approach to Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) in the United Nations System. The functions of IAEA within the framework of the Agreement is: to perform the secretariat duties required under the agreement; to support the co-operative projects through technical assistance and other IAEA programmes, as resources allow; to administer the project funds; and, to prepare an annual report. The IAEA is not a signatory to the RCA. The vision of RCA is: Security and Safety of Food & Nutrient To produce cheap & nutritious food Health Care Good health care at affordable price for mass population Industrial Development To improve economy & provide employment Energy Fuel of the economy Depletion of conventional sources Environmental Care & Protection Efficient technology ensuring environmental integrity Since 1995, RCA has re-focused its activities to reflect the increasing ability of the developing states to support their own activities scientifically and the global trend 7
  • 8. towards research that is more applied and focused upon the needs of end-users. The new mission of RCA is to be recognized as the source of regional competence in nuclear science applications, to ensure a problem-solving focus in its activities, and to widen the range of funding sources. During last three decades RCA has shown remarkable achievements in the following Thematic Areas: Agriculture:  Asian Regional Project on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery  Food Irradiation of Food and Horticulture Products  Mutation Breeding (more than 500 varieties) Industry:  NDT :radiography, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing and Eddy current testing  NCS : Pulp & paper, coal and petro-chemical industries  Tracer Techniques Health:  Nuclear medical applications for diagnostics and treatment  Cancer therapy  Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts to improve tissue banking Radiation Protection:  To build radiation protection infrastructure  Waste Safety  Environmental monitoring  Radiation protection for workers and public Energy:  Tools for planning electricity expansion schemes  Plant management & operational safety  Radioactive waste management Technical Co-operation:  Expert missions 8
  • 9.  Training programmes  Regional Resource Units (RRU) B. RCA REGIONAL OFFICE (RCARO) An RCA office that represents all Member States of the RCA is needed in order to make an orchestrated effort with the related department of the IAEA. There has been no such structure in the RCA history while the Agency has administratively supported RCA Member States for effective and efficient programme implementation. Although the Agency initiated the creation of the RCA, the real ownership of the RCA programmes is of the Member States. The RCA office will thus act as a bridge between the Member States and the Agency. Hence to enhance RCA ownership by MSs, it was recommended to establish RCA Regional Office at Yangon Meeting in 1997 The RCA National Representatives meeting held in Mumbai in 2000 was a significant year for the RCA family since the Government of Korea offered to host the RCA Regional Office in Korea, and the Member States have welcomed the offer. In 2001 Dhaka meeting of RCA National Representatives supported for the establishment of the RCA Regional Office in Korea and at that time a Task Force Group (Australia and Korea take Lead) is requested to prepare draft Working Paper. RCA 30th GC in 2001 in Vienna agreed in Principle the Establishment of RCA Regional Office in Korea for 2- year interim period to finalize Legal Provisions and other preparations. Thus RCA Regional Office (RCARO) has opened on March 2002, Wednesday, 17:00 at Nuclear Training Center Building at KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. The 31st RCA General Conference Meeting in Vienna in September 2002 adopted the ‘Working Paper on the Establishment and Operation of the RCA Regional Office in Korea’ that stipulated details of operation and management of RCARO. The Working Paper was amended by the 32nd RCA General Conference in Vienna in September 2003 that incorporated the adoption of a RCA Resolution on the Establishment of the RCA Regional Office. 9
  • 10. III. SUERVEY RESULTS ON THE STATUS OF THE MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE RCA MEMBER STATES AUSTRALIA The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) is responsible for delivering specialized advice, scientific services and products to government, industry, academic and other research organizations as Australia's national nuclear research and development organization and the centre of Australian nuclear expertise. ANSTO's science has applications in a diverse array of areas including health, the environment and industry. Diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's and heart disease are some of the areas they work in within the health domain. Every Australian, for instance, will, on average, have a nuclear medicine treatment using a radiopharmaceutical produced at ANSTO in their lifetime. It is an active partner and founder member of the RCA. It’s a donor country for RCA activities and participates in the following active Medical Application related RCA projects as a valuable contributor for the regional development.  Strengthening Medical Physics Through Education and Training.  Improved Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Distance Learning in Radiation Oncology  Improvement of Research Reactor Operation and Utilization Phase II 10
  • 11. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: AUSTRALIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Peter MacCallum Cancer St Andrews Place Services offer a multi-disciplinary approach to the Centre East Melbourne Vic 3002, Australia diagnosis/investigation, treatment and follow-up of cancers: Breast Tel: 61 3 9656 1111 Service, Gastrointestinal Service, Urology Service, Gynaecologic http://www.petermac.unimelb.edu.au/ Oncology Service, Haematology Service, Head & Neck Service, Lung Service, Melanoma & Skin Oncology Service, Neuro- Oncology Service, Paediatric and Late Effects Service, Sarcoma Service etc. -Radiation therapy (including Brachytherapy), Chemo-radiation, Chemotherapy, Radio immunotherapy, and Hormonal therapy etc. Research within the broad framework of four research programs, namely Cellular & Molecular Biology, Stem Cell, Cancer Immunology and Cancer Genomics & Genetics VITA MEDICAL LIMITED PO Box 350, Menai Central, -Innovator, manufacturer and distributor of diagnostic medical NSW 2234, Australia products. Tel+61(0) 2 9541 0411 -Specializes in lung ventilation imaging in the field of nuclear Facsimile: : +61(0) 2 9543 0960 medicine http://www.vitamedical.com.au High Flux Australian Reactor PMB 1 Menai NSW 2234 -Production of much needed radioisotopes for medical purposes (HIFAR) Australi and for industry Australian Nuclear Science and E-mail: enquiries@ansto.gov.au Technology Organization -Production of gamma ray sources for Sterilization purposes, (ANSTO) Cancer therapy, Industry etc. ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals PMB 1 Menai NSW 2234 Preclinical and clinical radiopharmaceutical development and Industrials (ARI) Australia • Drug synthesis, particularly in oncology and neurology 11
  • 12. Tel: + 61 (02) 9717 9502 applications Fax: + 61 (02) 9543 6511 • Non-invasive imaging of the drug delivery process for specificity E-mail: ari@ansto.gov.au and targeting • Assessment of drug delivery with visual evidence of deposition profiles • 'Proof-of-concept' studies to evaluate drug delivery and disposition in patients with targeted therapeutics. • Access to the full range of reactor and cyclotron produced radioisotopes. Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. PET Centre, -All types of radiation injected diagnosis using PET and SPECT Sydney, Australi imaging techniques which rely on cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals. -Specially LEUKOSCAN STUDY, for use in diagnostic imaging of the long bones and feet in patients with suspected osteomyelitis and where patients do not have access to ex-vivo WBC scanning National Medical Cyclotron ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals and Industrials (ARI) -Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes used in SPECT include: (NMC) PMB 1 Menai NSW 2234 Gallium-67 used to diagnose soft tissue tumors and some Australia inflammatory lesions, Thallium-201, used to assess heart Tel: + 61 (02) 9717 9502 conditions, Iodine-123, used to diagnose certain thyroid diseases, Fax: + 61 (02) 9543 6511 Iodine-123 labeled tracers commonly used to monitor neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, Thallium-201 as thallous chloride used in nuclear medicine for assessing the firmness of the heart etc. .-Currently developing an Indium-111 production system for use in SPECT for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease. Further development in PET based pharmaceuticals include F-18 Dopa and Carbon-11 labeled compounds which will be used at the PET Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospitals. -ANSTO's manufacturing arm, dispatches the cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals to hospitals and nuclear medicine practices across Australia 12
  • 13. -Development of new radiopharmaceuticals has designed and built automated production systems for SPECT radiopharmaceuticals so they will be available to hospitals across Australia - Expand production for the overseas market End-users are the medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working in different hospitals and nuclear medicine across Australia and in the overseas markets. Radio Pharmacology Dr Nabil Morcos -Various radiobiological studies Laboratories Leader, Research and Development -Applications of radioisotopes in autoradiography, drug bio- ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals and Industrials distribution, drug metabolism, and receptor and transporter binding Telephone + 61 (02) 9717 9242 under physiological or pathological conditions Fax + 61 (02) 9543 6588 -Nuclear medicine Pre-clinical research into new radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostics or therapeutics -Pharmacokinetics and Toxic kinetics Evaluation of stability, distribution and clearance of drugs or toxicants in vivo -Functional Imaging and quantitative assessment of biological responses to internal or external stimuli in the model system Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals and Industrials Radiopharmaceutical preparation, organic synthesis, biological Laboratories Telephone + 61 (02) 9717 9242 evaluations, and handling of short lived radioisotopes. Fax + 61 (02) 9543 6588 SIRTeX Medical -Developing a biocompatible radioactive micro-sphere treatment for liver cancer sufferers, with fewer side-effects than alternative treatments such as chemotherapy -More than 800 000 new cases of primary or secondary liver cancer are diagnosed each year, with life expectancies varying from months to years, worldwide. Global Medical Solutions John Hodder -Provides a wide range of radiopharmaceuticals and associated Managing Director, products and services for nuclear medicine applications that include diagnosing heart disease, treating thyroid conditions and detecting tumors. Austin & Repatriation Medical Dept of Nuclear Medicine -The Department boasts comprehensive "Hot" and "Cold" 13
  • 14. Centre Level 1, Harold Stokes Block, Studley Road Laboratories and manufactures many of the pharmaceuticals Heidelberg, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3084 (99mTcS/C, 99mTcMAA, 99mTcDTPA, 99mTcMDP, 99mTcRBC, Tel: (+61 3) 9496 5718 99mTc HMPAO etc.) and used for diagnosis (Liver, Spleen, Bone Fax: (+61 3) 9457 6605 Marrow, Lung, Brain, Kidney, and Thyroid Scan etc.) routinely, in- E-mail: www@petnm.unimelb.edu.au house. -The most commonly used radio nuclides within Nuclear Medicine includes: 32-P, 51-Cr, 67-Ga, 89-Sr, 90-Y, 99m-Tc, 111-In, 131-I, 201-Tl amongst others. Centre for Positron Emission Austin Hospital, Austin Health, Studley Road, -The tracers/radiopharmaceuticals routinely produced in the centre Tomography Heidelberg, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3084 are: [15O] oxygen, [15O]carbon monoxide, [15O]water, Tel: (+61 3) 9496 5669 [13N]ammonia, [18F]FDG, [18F]FMISO, [18F]MPPF, , [18F]FLT, Fax: (+61 3) 9457 6605 [11C]flumazenil, [11C]PIB, [11C]choline etc. E-mail: ams@austin.unimelb.edu.au -Appropriate amounts of the four positron emitters commonly used http://www.petnm.unimelb.edu.au/pet/detail/index.ht radio nuclides in this PET centre are: 15O, 13N, 11C and 18F and can ml be obtained with 10 MeV protons and 5 MeV deuterons. The WA PET/Cyclotron 1st Floor, G Block -The most common radioisotope produced by the cyclotron Services Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, located at the Hospital is Fluorine-18 or 18F and used in Phone: 61 8 9346 2656 their PET as 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG Fax: 61 8 9346 3610 (radiopharmaceutical). It is used extensively in tumor, http://www.scgh.health.wa.gov.au/pet/index.html brain and heart imaging studies. -Researchers are striving for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals e.g., C-11 methionine, F-18 FLT and F-18 fluorocholine. BANGLADESH Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority and pioneer research organization for the introduction and 14
  • 15. promotion of the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology in the country. BAEC and other research organizations in the country are working during the last four decades in the area of medicine, food and agriculture, industries and environment for the socio- economic development using nuclear technology. BAEC has one Nuclear Medicine Institute and 13 Nuclear Medicine Centers (NMCs) located in different regions in the country and three private clinics also are established and rendering nuclear medicine services for public demand. A dozen of Tele-therapy units (Co-60), 2-Linear Accelerators, 6-Brachytherapy units (Cs-137) and a number of Deep therapy X-ray units are located at different government & private hospitals in the country. All such irradiation facilities are presently being used for the treatment of cancer patients. There are 11 active regional projects for the enhancement and development on the medical application of radiation technologies in Bangladesh-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes 15
  • 16.  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: BANGLADESH NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib - Developing and upgrading the Nuclear Medicine in the country. Ultrasound (INM&U) Medical University (MSMMU) - Investigated for diagnosis of thyroid, kidney, bone, brain and liver/spleen etc. Shahbagh, Dhaka-1000 disorders. Tel: - Treatment for thyroid cancer. Fax: - Tc-99m, I-131 solutions and capsules etc. isotopes are being used for diagnosis E-mail: and therapeutic purposes -Analysis of thyroid hormones such as-T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, Prolactine, etc. in RIA laboratory -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis Institute of Nuclear Science & Radioisotope Production Division - Production and supplies Tc-99m generator and I-131 to the end users are in Technology (INST) AERE, Ganakbari regular basis. P.O. Box # 3787 - Scandiam-46, Irridium-192, Holmium-166 are also produced on request. Savar, Dhaka - Presently, the laboratory is capable to produce only 32% isotopes of the country Tel:880-2-7701816 demand. E-mail:ripd_inst@yahoo.com End-users: The direct end-users are medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working in nuclear medicine. Research activities: Research and development on Tc-99m generator columnmatrix other than alumina. -Investigation on the development on diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals. 16
  • 17. Institute of Nuclear Science & Neutron Activation Analysis group - Analysis of trace especially essential and toxic elements in different varieties of Technology (INST) RNPD, AERE, Ganakbari imported food items for the protection of human health. P.O. Box # 3787 -Determination of arsenic in Human hair/nail samples for arsenic affected patients. Savar, Dhaka Tel:880-2-7701829 E-mail: syed9495@hotmail.com Tissue Bank Unit AERE, Ganakbari -Collection of amnion membranes & bone grafts and sterilized with 50-kCi P.O. Box # 3787 gamma radiation source and supplied to the different hospitals/clinics for the Savar, Dhaka treatment of burn, orthopedic and dental patients. Tel:880-2-7701679 End-users are medical physicians across the country.. Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Bangladesh Atomic Energy - Investigated for diagnosis of thyroid, kidney, bone, brain and liver/spleen etc. Centers (NM&UCs) Commission (BAEC) disorders. 4, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue - Treatment for thyroid cancer. P.O. Box # 158 - Tc-99m, I-131 solutions and capsules etc. isotopes are being used for diagnosis Ramna, Dhaka-1000 and therapeutic purposes Tel:+880-2-8619000 -Thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH etc.) analysais in RIA lab. Fax:+880-2-8613051 -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis E-mail:baec@agni.com Dhaka Medical College and Radiotherapy Department Treatment of cancer patients through Linear Accelerator (LINAC), Hospital Dhaka Medical College and Brachychytherapy units and Co-60 teletherapy units. Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh Popular Diagnostic Centre Ltd. House#11/A, Road# 2 -Diagnosis of Brain, Bone, Kidney, Liver, GFR, whole body scan & Dhanmondi R/A SPECT,thyroid with Tc99m labeled with respective kits. These isotopes and Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh labeled compounds are imported from abroad. Tel: +880-2-9669480, 9661491-2 -Analysis of thyroid hormones such as-T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, Fax : +880-2-8611634 Prolactine, etc. in RIA laboratory. -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis. LABAID LIMITED House No. 1, Road No. 4, -Diagnosis of Brain, Bone, Kidney, Liver, GFR, whole body scan & Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 SPECT,thyroid with Tc99m labeled with respective kits. These isotopes and Tel:880-2- 8610793-8 labeled compounds are imported from abroad. Fax: 880-2-8617372 -Analysis of thyroid hormones such as-T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17
  • 18. Email: info@labaidgroup.com Prolactine, etc. in RIA laboratory. http://www.labaidgroup.com/ -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis. Delta Medical Center Mirpur-1, Dhaka, Bangladesh Treatment of cancer patients through Linear Accelerator (LINAC), Brachychytherapy units and Co-60 teletherapy units. PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA China accepted the RCA agreement following its admission to the IAEA in 1984. Since then it has actively participating in all sorts of RCA activities and co-operative research projects. In a few years after its acceptance to the agreement, the Chinese government started its voluntary donations in finance to RCA activities. For the familiarization of radiation technologies in China, China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) is the pioneering and responsible organization since 1950s. In medical application technology in China, it has 7 bases producing Radioactive Medicine, maintaining the momentum of rapid development of nuclear appliance. There are over 1000 hospitals applying nuclear medical technology, which make considerable contributions to the improvement of public health level. China actively participated in the ongoing nuclear development projects related to human health are-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radio conjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy 18
  • 19.  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES China Atomic Energy Authority A8, Fuchenglu, Haidian District, -More than 40 units are engaged in R&D and production of radioisotopes (CAEA) P.O. Box 2102 Beijing 100 822 China and radiopharmaceuticals for medical and industrial applications. In Tel: 00 86 10 8398 3381 respect of radiography sources, Mo-Tc99m generator is available in every Fax: 00 86 10 8398 3516, 00 86 10 8858 1516 week. e-mail: zhangjing@caea.gov.cn - With the rapid evolution of modern nuclear medicine, the application of http://www.caea.gov.cn advanced nuclear medical devices (such as SPECT and PET) the radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of difficult and complicated cases, e.g. tumor, has developed at a quick pace. -4 tissue banks in different areas of China and its products in line with ISO quality standard have been utilized in over 150 different hospitals for clinical practices solved and cured patients. -End users of these radioisotopes and bone/tissue grafts are the medium and small ranking hospitals all over the country Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Panjiayao Zuoanmenwai, Therapy. Beijing 100021, China 19
  • 20. E – mail:chensszz@sina.com.cn Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Application of Nuclear Medicine Fudan University Tel: 86 21 64041990 ext2507 Fax: 0086 21 640238472 e-mail: slchen@shmu.edu.cn China Institute for Radiation Xuefu Street 270, Taiyuan, China 030006 - To develop tissue banking practice and promote the technique of Protection Tel: 86 351 2203513 radiation sterilization for tissue grafts. Fax: 86 351 7020407 -Bone allograft have been distributed to hospitals. E-mail: osteorad@public.ty.sx.cn Dept of Nuclear medicine and Shanghai Nuclear Medicine Quality Control PET Centre Centre Hua Shan Hospital Fudan University Shaghai 200040 P.R China Tel:86-21-62489999 ext. 6478 Zhong Shan Hospital Dept of Radiology -Malignance diagnosis and treatment services such as nasopharyngeal 180 Fenglin Road Shanghai carcinoma, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, breast carcinoma, rectum China cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, brain tumors etc and diagnostic Tel:86-21-64041990 radiology, interventional radiology through single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Linear Accelerator (LINAC), magnetic resonance scanner, computed tomography (CT) etc. Cancer Hospital Dept. Of Medical/Radiation Oncology -Systemic control and treatment of a variety of malignancies, such as Medical Center of Fudan University breast cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, gastric P.R.China cancer, nasopharynx carcinoma, liver cancer, thyroid carcinoma, http://www.shmu.edu.cn/EFSYY.HTM carcinomas of mouth cavity (lingua cancer), lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, choriocarcinoma, ovary cancer, hysterocarcinoma, testicles tumors and soft tissue sarcoma etc. with high and low energy linear accelerator, 60Co machine, interstitial radiotherapy equipment, X knife, several types of X-ray machine, GE digital mammogram and Stereo tactic 20
  • 21. Aspiration System, helix CT, SPECT, etc. Prince of Wales Hospital Dept of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ This center performed manifold Nuclear Medicine Activities such as: Imaging Myocardial Perfusion Scan, MUGA Scan, Radionuclide The Chinese University of Hong Kong Lymphangiography, Haemangioma Study, Technetium Thyroid Scan, http://www.droid.cuhk.edu.hk/web/default.ht Gastric Emptying Study, Gastrointestinal Bleeding Study, Gallium m labelled WBC Study, Dynamic Renal Scan, Radionuclide Cystography, I-131 MIBG Scan, SND, Brain perfusion studies, Whole body bone scan, Bone Marrow Scan etc. INDIA The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India was set up on August 3, 1954 and involved in RCA agreement in 1972. DAE play the key role for the development of radiation technologies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry and basic research. During the last couple of decades, remarkable progress in India has been achieved in the application of radioisotopes and radiation technology. India is participating in a number of projects on Medical Application of radiation technology-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach 21
  • 22.  Tumour Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: INDIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Dr. E Borges Road, Parel -Devoted for diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and education for Cancer Cancer Care Center Mumbai - 400 012, India with an objective to provide the highest standard of patient care. Tel. +91-22- 24177000, 24146750- 55 -Over 16,000 cancer patients are seen every year at this hospital. Fax: +91-22-24146937 Research: Low Dose Rate (LDR) versus High Dose Rate (HDR) intracavitary E-mail:info@tmcmail.org brachytherapy for carcinoma cervix. tmcit1@vsnl.com -Fractionation study in Head and Neck Cancer http://www.tatamemorialcentre.com Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Dr. E Borges Road, Parel -Deliver both external beam therapy and Brach therapy for Cancer patients. Dept. of Radiation Oncology Mumbai - 400 012, India -Research: Oesophageal cancers: Treatment by high dose-rate Intraluminal Brachytherapy. -High Dose Rate and Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Carcinoma Cervix. -Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Tata Memorial Hospital Dr. E Borges Road, Parel -Offer a viable alternative to expensive imported grafts bringing allograft within Tissue Bank Mumbai - 400 012, India easy reach of all. -Training staff and providing technical assistance at various hospitals in the country like Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur, Sancheti Hospital, Pune, Government Medical College & Hospital, Nagpur. -The direct beneficiaries will be medical physicists working in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine. Advanced Centre for Treatment, Sector 22, Kharghar, Research investigations currently focus on molecular mechanisms responsible Research & Education in Cancer Navi Mumbai - 410208, India. for causation of major human cancers (ACTREC) Tel:+91-22-2741 2919 Facsimile No: +91-22-2741 2894 Email: cri3@soochak.ncst.ernet.in 22
  • 23. Satyam Hospital and Trauma 392 Adarsh Nagar Centre 144001 Jalandhar City, India Tele:+91 (for India) - 181 - 247 02 00 Telefax:+91 (for India)-181-220 47 10 E-mail:Satyamhospital@hotmail.com The Radiation Medicine Centre Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India) -Involve research and development in nuclear medicine and allied sciences as a (RMC) Tel:+91-22-25505050 / 25505010 major activity followed by patient services as well as human resources Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Fax:+91-22-25505151 / 25519613 development in nuclear medicine. (BARC) -Diagnostics investigations related to almost all organs of the body like thyroid, heart, bone, kidney, lungs, GI bleed, hematology, etc. with the help of PET scanner and 16.5 MeV medical cyclotrons. Department of Atomic Energy Anushakti Bhavan, -To set up Nuclear Medicine Centers and Radioimmunoassay (RIA) centers in (DAE) Chatrapathi Shivaji Maharaj Marg, areas away from the metropolitan cities by providing gamma cameras and RIA Mumbai 400 001 India counters for in-vitro and in-vivo diagnostics studies. Tel: + 91 22 283 6901 -Equipments, diagnostic kits and radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured Fax: + 91 22 204 8476 indigenously and supplied for medical applications, Irradiation facilities etc to e-mail: raghu@dae.gov.in the centers. http://www.dae.gov.in -Necessary training is also provided to end-users. -Promotional activities related to peaceful medical application of radiation technology. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India) Conduct various training courses in radiation medicine for doctors, for medical (BARC) http://www.barc.ernet.in technologists, in radiation therapy for medical physicists, in RIA and its clinical applications concerned with safety aspects in the use of ionizing radiation in Medicine, Industry and Research applications and to work as Medical Physicists / RSO in radiotherapy/ radio-diagnosis centres. Rotary Cancer Centre 117/K/11, Gutaiya, G.T.Road 208002 Kanpur, India Tel:+91- 512 - 543 887 Telefax:+91- 512 - 543 887 e-mail:avadheshdixit@rediffmail.com 23
  • 24. Isotope Production Division Vashi complex, 400 705 Mumbai, -Production of radiopharmaceuticals: 99m Tc-Phy, 99mTcS/C, 99m Tc-mebro, 99mTc- Board of Radiation and Isotope India MDP, 99mTc-RBC, 99mTc-MIBI, 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-EC, 99m Tc-GHA, 99mTc- ECD Technology (BRIT) Tel: +91-22-27887014 for the clinical use of Liver imaging, Liver and spleen imaging, Hepatobilliary E-mail: admin@britatom.com function, Bone Scan, Cardiac Function and Blood Pool Scans, Myocardial http://www.britatom.com Perfusion study, Renal Function , Renal tubular function, Kidney imaging, Brain Scan and Scans for Infection -Produces and supplies sealed radiation sources of Cobalt-60 and Iridium-192 and Blood Irradiator for use in cancer hospitals, Cs-137 Brachytherapy sources for intracavitary treatment of cancer. -Produce the fission molly (Mo-99m) and Tc-99m generator for use in across the country and overseas. -Production of labeled compounds: 32P-Labelled nucleotides, 33P-Labelled nucleotides, 35S-Labelled amino acids & alpha-35S-dATP, 14C-Labelled compounds including custom synthesis, 3H-Labelled compounds including T- Labelling service. -Production of RIA kits for HGH, HLH, HCG, T3, T4, insulin, TSH etc. and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits for various hormones End-users are the medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working in different hospitals and nuclear medicine of India.. Amala Cancer Hospital & Amalanagar P.O., Thrissur - 680 553, -Diagnosis, treatment and management of Cancer through Chemotherapy, Research Centre Kerala, India Radiotherapy and Cancer Surgery Phone: 91-487-211240 / 211751 -Radiotherapy systems include: Cobalt 60 Tele-therapy, Caesium137 tubes, Fax: 91-487-711020 / 712191 ridium192 etc. Email:amalacan@md3.vsnl.net.in Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Idgah Hills, P.B. No. 32, -Investigation and different nuclear medicine study includes- Renal functions, Hospital Bhopal - 462 001 (M.P.) GFR estimation, Myocardial perfusion scan, thyroid uptake, brain scan, bone Dept of Nuclear Medicine Ph. 2665 720, 2666 374 scan etc. with gamma camera, thyroid uptake system, RIA laboratory etc. Fax: (0755) 2738 325 -Treatment of thyrotoxicosis, CA thyroid, thyroid neoplasm etc. Email: jncancer@sancharnet.in -Radiation therapy treatment of cancer patients with Tele therapy, Brach therapy, Website: http://www.jnch.nic.in/ LINAC etc. MNJ Institute of Oncology & Red Hills, Hyderabad - 500 004 24
  • 25. Regional Cancer Centre India Tel:+91- 40 - 233 184 14 Telefax :+91- 40 - 233 140 63 Website:http://www.mnjiorcc.gov.in E-mail:info@mnjiorcc.gov.in INDONESIA The National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) is assisting the nation to harness the radiation technology for the national development since its inception in 1958. BATAN has research and development facilities in nuclear fields located at five working regions called Nuclear Energy Research Centers. It transfer radiation technology to end-users through the number of national institutions and provide services of radiation technologies to the general public. BATAN involved in most of the RCA projects being implementing in the region in the field of application of radiation technologies for socioeconomic development. Apart from BATAN and its institutions, number of private sectors are also involved in the application of radiation technologies in the field of medicine, industries etc. Indonesia has 17 Nuclear Medicine hospitals and rendering service country-wide. Radioisotopes/radiopharmaceutical for Nuclear Medicine hospitals are produced internally and also exports sometimes like fission molly for Tc99m generator, I-131, I-125, Ir-192 etc over their country demand. Indonesia attached with RCA in 1972 and working as an active participant. Presently, Indonesia has a number of human health related RCA projects;  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians 25
  • 26.  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: INDONESIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Center for Research and JL. Cinere Pasar Jumat Production of radioisotopes-201Tl, 153Sm, 86Rb, 89Sr, 166Ho, 131I etc. for nuclear Development of Isotopes and PO.Box.7002 JKSKL, medicine diagnosis and treatments- leukemia treatment, Bone cancer, Radiation Technology Jakarta 12070, Indonesia prostate cancer, breast cancer treatment, Cervic cancer therapy, Osteoblastic Tel. 62 021 7690709, therapy etc. Fax. 62 021 7691607-7513270, E-mail : p3tir@batan.go.id End-users are medical physicists, radiation technologists, physicians working with radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine etc. in different hospitals of Indonesia. National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang -Radioisotopes produced by BATAN include: I-201, m-153, Sr-89, Rb-86, (BATAN) - 15310 Au-198 etc Center for Development of Tel. : 021.756.3141; 021.758.72031 -Production of labeled compounds- MIBI for detection of heart perfusion, Radioisotopes and Fax : 021.756.3141 HMPAO for detection of brain perfusion; 131I-Lipiodol for brain therapy, Radiopharmaceuticals E-mail : <p2rr@batan.go.id>; 131I-MIBG diagnose and therapy, Sm-EDTMP for therapy of bone cancer, <p2rr@centrin.net.id> MAG-3 for tracing of kidney function, 26
  • 27. Http ://www.batan.go.id/p2rr -Radiopharmaceuticals/Radioisotopes produced by BATAN have been marketed and used for medical purposes in different Indonesian hospitals, nuclear medicine etc. (end user) National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Kuningan Barat, Mampang Prapatan To conduct research, development, and design in nuclear science and (BATAN) Jakarta, 12710 technology that can be usefully promoted for increasing the welfare of the Phone: +62 -21 5251109 people E-mail: humas@batan.go.id PT. BATAN TEKNOLOGI PUSPIPTEK COMPLEX, Building 70, -Production of radioisotopes for medical, industrial, research and other SERPONG, nuclear technology application purposes TANGERANG 15310 P.O. Box : 343 CIPUTAT 15400 INDONESIA Tel. : (62-21) 7560555, 7560211,7563317,7560196, 7563357 Fax : (62-21) 7560118, 7560928, 7566646 e-mail : info@batantek.co.id http://www.batantek.co.id/mainpreface.htm Division for Radioisotope PUSPIPTEK COMPLEX, Building 70, -Producing a wide variety of isotopes for medical purposes, like isotopes and Production SERPONG, TANGERANG 15310 labeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy. PT. BATAN TEKNOLOGI P.O. Box : 343 CIPUTAT 15400 -Producing more than 20 kind of radioisotopes, including Mo-99, I-125, INDONESIA I-131, P-32. Tel. : (62-21) 7560555, -Producing labeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy such as Tc99m 7560211,7563317,7560196, 7563357 generator, Na-I131, I131 labeled compound and DTPA, MDP Fax : (62-21) 7560118, 7560928, 7566646 - Produces sterile radio pharmaceutical kits (cold-kit) ready for use of e-mail : info@batantek.co.id preparation of various Technetium-99m radio pharmaceuticals. http://www.batantek.co.id/mainpreface.htm End-users are medical physicists, radiation technologists, physicians working with radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine 27
  • 28. etc. in Indonesia. University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine -Radiodiagnosis and Radiotherapy (External radiation) for cancer patients Dept. of Radiology Jl. Salemba Raya no 6 with Cobalt 60 (CGR), PO Box # 1358 -Research for radiation response in nasopharyngeal cancer with Jakarta 10430, Indonesia hyperfractionation compare to conventional fractionation Tel:+ 62-21-335006 Fax : +62-21-3915001 E-mail: fkui@fk.ui.ac.id, info@fk.ui.ac.id http://www.fk.ui.ac.id University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Research and medical service with Tc 99m radioisotope (Tc 99m Generator Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Jl. Salemba Raya no 6 supplied from BATAN). PO Box # 1358 Jakarta 10430, Indonesia Tel;+ 62-21-3148627 E-mail: fkui@fk.ui.ac.id, info@fk.ui.ac.id http://www.fk.ui.ac.id Dharmais Cancer Hospital JL. Letjend. S. Parman Kav 84-86 Slipi Investigation, prevention, treatment and management of cancer in Indonesia. National Cancer Center Jakarta Barat Indonesia Tel:+62 21 5681570 Fax:+62 21 5681579 e-mail dharmais@dharmais.co.id JAPAN Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (AEC), act as a guardian-deliberating long term program of research, development and utilization of atomic energy, checking the progress along the program and making advice them. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, 28
  • 29. Inc. (JAIF) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization incorporated under the auspices of the industry to promote peaceful utilization of nuclear energy for the benefit of Japanese nationals in consideration of the importance of the peaceful use of radioisotopes and radiation in a wide variety of fields. JAIF contribute to the development of a healthy and quality human life through the application various nuclear techniques in industry as well as in daily life i.e., its play a pivotal role for the familiarization of application of radiation technologies in Japan. Application of radiation technologies are well established in Japan. Since Japan is highly industrialized, technological and economical wealth is far exceed the other regional member states other than Australia, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, India, Singapore, and China, it provide financial assistance to RCA programme. It does not use IAEA technical assistance rather it donates. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: JAPAN NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Research Center for Charged Department of Medical Physics -This institute performs many medical physics service in heavy-ion therapy Particle Therapy Chiba, Japan clinical studies, nuclear medicine studies for tumor detection with 3-PET National Institute of E-mail:tadana@nirs.go.jp scanners, 2- SPECT scanners and 3-Radioisotope producing Cyclotrons Radiological Science (NIRS) http://www.nirs.go.jp -Developing the 4D X-ray CT system and the next-generation PET system and conducting basic research in collaboration with other departments of the Center. -Basic research covers three themes in heavy ion therapy (e.g. "Highly- accurate irradiation method"), one theme in diagnostic imaging ("Spiral CT Examination System for Lung Cancer"), and one in medical exposure. End-users: Nuclear medicine physicians. 29
  • 30. Cancer Research Institute 13-1, Takara-machi, Research focuses on the molecular basis of generation, differentiation, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, invasion proliferation and metastasis of cancer, as well as the development of 920-0934 JAPAN new therapeutic methods for hard-to cure diseases including cancer based on controlling apoptosis Kanazawa University 13-1, Takara-machi, Promote research and education in the safe and smooth use of RI (Research The Radioisotope Center Kanazawa, Ishikawa, using radioisotopes), to supervise the safety of RI as a facility for education 920-0934 JAPAN and research for common use in the university, and to provide related teaching staff with opportunities to use the facility jointly. Japan Atomic Energy Research Tokai Research Establishment -R&D for production and application of radioisotopes.. Institute (JAERI) 2-4 Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Department of Research Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 Reactors Tel: +81-(0)29-282-5111 Fax:+81-(0)29-282-6111 http://www.jaeri.go.jp/english/index.cgi Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Radiation Application Research with -Study for radioisotope (RI) productions and labeled compounds for cancer Research Establishment Charged Particles and Radioisotopes diagnosis and cancer therapy. (TRCRE) 1233 Watanuki-cho, Takasaki-shi, -Development of pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium (186Re, 188Re) for Gunma-ken 370-1292, Japan cancer therapy. Tel:+81-(0)273-46-1211 -Development of glass micro-spheres of radioactive yttrium (90Y2O3) for Fax:+81-(0)273-47-2561 treatment of liver cancer. http://www.jaeri.go.jp/english/index.cgi National Cancer Center 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, -Clarifying the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer promotion and Chemotherapy Division Tokyo 104-0045, Japan progression using the innovative proteomic and transcriptomic techniques E-mail: research-admin@ncc.go.jp National Cancer Center 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, -Researches include cloning of genes involved in carcinogenesis, biological Cancer Medicine and Biophysics Japan and structural analysis of proteins, analysis of animal model, and Division E-mail: research-admin@ncc.go.jp development of new strategies for cancer therapy Gunma University Hospital Faculty of Medicine Radiation Therapy two Linear Accelerators (LINAC) and a Tele cobalt Dept. of Radiology and 4-2 Aramaki-machi, Maebashi City, machine are operating for cancer treatment. Low-dose rate and high dose rate 30
  • 31. Radiation Oncology Gunma, 371-8510 Japan brachytherapy are mainly performed for patients with head and neck tumors Tel: 027-220-7111, 027-220-7727 and gynecologic tumors. http://www.gunma-u.ac.jp/ -Radioactive iodine therapy is also performed for patients with thyroid disease. Diagnosis and treatment for neoplasm malignant neoplasm include: brain, head & neck, lung & mediastinum, esophagus, breast, digestive system, skin, bone & soft tissue, urinary organs, genital organs, malignant lymphoma etc. -Diagnosis for malignant tumors is carried out by various kinds of X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Nuclear medicine including Positron Emission Tomography (PET) etc. Tohoku University Cyclotron Radioisotope Center -Cyclotron-produced positron emitters nuclides (C-11, F-18, O-15) and Division of Nuclear Medicine 6-3Aoba, Aramaki, corresponding radiopharmaceuticals ( [11C]Methionine, [11C]Doxepin, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578, [11C]Benztropin, [18F]FDG, [18F]FDOPA, [18F] Fluorodeoxyuridine, JAPAN [15O]Oxygen, [15O]Carbon dioxide, [15O]Carbon monoxide, [15O]Water) Tel.+81 022-795-7800 are used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine. http://www.cyric.tohoku.ac.jp -Whole body imaging of glucose metabolism has been routinely carried out for cancer diagnosis using 3D-PET Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Dai-ichi Chojiya Bldg. 5th fl -Promote peaceful utilization of nuclear energy for the benefit of Japanese Inc. (JAIF) 1-2-13, Shiba-daimon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, nationals in consideration of the importance of the peaceful use of 105-8605, JAPAN radioisotopes and radiation in a wide variety of fields. Tel: +81-3-5777-0750 -JAIF Annual Conference and Japan Conference on Radiation and Fax: +81-3-5777-0760 Radioisotopes E-mail:information@jaif.or.jp -Promote the research, development and utilization of radiation and isotopes Japan Radioisotope Association The Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center -Produces positron emitting -11C, 13N, 15O, 18F by the cyclotron. (JRIA) http://www.jrias.or.jp -Nuclides are synthesized to radiopharmaceuticals which are administered to patients for disease diagnosis and research work. Ministry of Health, Labour and 1-2-2 Kasumigasek Chiyoda-ku Promotional activities for the application of Radiation and Radioisotopes for Welfare (MHLW) Tokyo, 100-8916 Japan Medical use. E-mail: www-admin@mhlw.go.jp http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/index.htm l 31
  • 32. Japan Radioisotope Association The Koka Laboratory Activities include radiation sterilization of disposable medical devices such as (JRIA) http://www.jrias.or.jp surgical gloves, syringes and dialyzers, radiation reforming of high polymer substances, gamma-ray irradiation service and training of technical personnel in the related fields. Research: studies on the properties of microorganism against gamma- radiation and determination and measurement of the optimum dose for sterilization. Kyoto University Research Division of Nuclear Engineering Science -Studies concerning the production of isotopes using Kyoto University Reactor Institute Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Reactor and their various applications. Isotope Production and Kumatori-cho Sennan-gun Research activities: Production and chemical separation of isotopes Application Group Osaka 590-0494, Japan -Methodology and application of neutron activation analysis Tel:+81-724-51-2300 Fax:+81-724-51-2600 http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/ REPUBLIC OF KOREA In Korea, nuclear-related activities are planned and carried out by various organizations such as-the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), and the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE). The Atomic Energy R&D Program, so called the "National Mid- and Long-term Atomic Energy R&D Program", is implemented mainly by KAERI, KCCH and KINS. The R&D Program covers fields as follows: i) nuclear reactor & 32
  • 33. nuclear fuel, ii) nuclear safety, iii) radioactive waste management, iv) safety regulation and radiation protection, v) radiation/radioisotopes application and production, and vi) basic nuclear technology. There are 130 hospitals (including 35-PET Centers) having Nuclear Medicine facilities including Gamma Camera, CT, PET, CT-PET, SPECT etc in Korea. For rendering services in these hospitals, Korea is capable to produce Radioisotopes/ radiopharmaceuticals as their country demand and also export some radiopharmaceuticals to the Philippine, South Africa etc. Korea plays an active role in promoting peaceful nuclear technology corporation among the countries in Asia and Pacific region since it’s inception in RCA family in 1974. The RCA’s contributions to Korea’s nuclear technological development and economic growth can be seen in such fields as food and agriculture, medicine and health, industry and others. Many regional activities particularly the various regional training courses are organizes by the Korea. Korea has been participating in a number of RCA projects actively. At present, the projects related to the medical application of radiation technologies are:  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach 33
  • 34.  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: REPUBLIC OF KOREA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Seoul National University College of Medicine, Improve the clinical management of cancer patients by radionuclide (SNU) E-mail:jmjng@snu.ac.kr imaging techniques with Single Photon Emission Computed Department of Nuclear Tel: +82-2-2072-3805 Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for Medicine, Fax: +82-2-745-7690 cancer detection Korea Atomic Energy Research Center for application of radioisotope and -Development of radioisotopes-Tc-99m, I-131, Au-198, Cr-51, P-32, Institute (KAERI) radiation Ir-192 etc. for medical and industrial use. Radioisotope Production P. O. Box 105, Yusung-gu, -Development of radio labeled compounds-Hipuran MIBG, Phytate Facility Daejeon, 305-600, Korea MDP, DISIDA DTPA, PTP, Sn colloid, HAS, MAA, ASC, DMSA, Tel: +82 42 868-8120 HMPAO, HMA, MA, DTPA, CHICO etc. for medical use. Fax: +82 42 868-8448 -Development of cyclotron for medical use http://hanaro.kaeri.re.kr/english/rp_intro.htm -Enhancement of RI handling technologies -Production of fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator -KAERI recently developed radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes are Holmium-166 chitosan complex (166 Ho-CHICO), 166Ho-patch, radioactive stent and balloons for the treatment of liver cancer, skin cancer and cystic brain cancer, and Iridium-192 sealed sources for Brachytherapy. -Producing Iodine-131 solution of specific activity of 2~4 Ci/ml and therapeutic capsules of 30 to 200 mCi for the treatment of thyroid cancer and supplies to domestic users. The maximum capacity of I-131 production will be 60 Ci/week. -Medical radioisotopes, such as I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166, are routinely 34
  • 35. produced and supplies to end users. End-users- are medical physicists, medical oncologist, nuclear medicine physicians, and radiation technologists working in nuclear medicine, different government and private hospitals in Korea.. Korea Radioisotope Association 14-5, kaepo-dong, kangnam-gu, Promotion of radioisotope utilization and mutual cooperation among (KRIA) Seoul, Korea Radioisotope users Tel:82-2-3411-6494, Fax:82-2-445-1014 The Korea Cancer Center 215-4 Gongneung-dong -Treatment and services for both cancerous and non-cancerous patients Hospital (KCCH) Nowon-ku, Seoul 139-706, Korea using state-of-the-art medical equipment such as a PET, SPECT, MRI, Tel:82-2-974-2501, Linear Accelerator (LINAC), Cyber Knife, Spiral CT, and an NT50. Fax:82-2-978-2005 -Advancement of cancer treatment and nuclear medicine by producing homepage: http://www.kcch.re.kr/english/ and distributing medical radioisotopes in Korea. -Enhance public health by conducting research on cancer, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and clinical medicine. Seoul National University Seoul, Korea -Major study : Brain SPECT, Whole Body Bone SPECT, GET, Hospital (SNUH) Myocardium SPECT, Thyroid scan ,Thyroid uptake, 131I-Whole body Dept of Nuclear Medicine scan, Renal scan, Lymphangio scan, Lung perfusion scan, Other thyroid function test, etc -Developed and standardized of Rhenium-188 lipiodol and being used for liver cancer treatment. Seoul National University 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Research Activities: College of Medicine Korea -Clinical focus is the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis and Department of Nuclear Tel: +82-2-760-3805 therapy of cancers with the up-to-date imaging modalities, PET and Medicine E-mail : jmjng@snu.ac.kr monoclonal antibody. -Development of new radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis or therapy. -Design new molecules and synthesize organic and inorganic compounds and labeled with radioisotopes such as 99mTc, 188Re, 123I, 18F, 11C, 13N, or 15O. After labeling, the new compounds are radio chemically analyzed and applied to animals to investigate their in vivo behavior. 35
  • 36. The Institute of Radiation Tel : +82-2-740-8944 Major activities of Radiation Medicine are to – Medicine Fax: +82-2-762-8935 -Diagnosis and treatment of human diseases by using radiation Medical Research Center e-mail: swha@snu.ac.kr -Medical application of radiation and radioisotopes Website http://snumrc.snu.ac.kr/ (Korean/English) -Development of human resources related to radiation medicine College of Medicine Tel : +82-2-3668-7009 To conduct research in both basic and clinical fields of cancer study Cancer Research Institute Fax: +82-2-766-4477 Homepage http://cri.snu.ac.kr (Korean Only) Seoul National University 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Research activities: College of Medicine Korea -Combination effect of Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) and Dept. of Radiation Oncology Tel: +82-2-760-3805 radiation. Tel: 82-2-760-2524 -Significance of apoptotic cell death compared to total cell death after Fax: 82-2-742-2073 g-ray irradiation in human H&N cancer cell. E-mail: swha@snu.ac.kr -Role of Membrane Transfer Sequence (MTS) in radiation sensitization effects of COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. -Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on radiation sensitivity of head and neck cancer cell lines and its mechanism Korea Institute of Radiological 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-ku, -Treated spine oncology, spine vessel diseases, lung cancer, liver and Medical Sciences Seoul, Korea 139-706 cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreas cancer, prostate cancer, and (KIRAMS) http://www.kirams.re.kr other diseases that are not treatable with radiation treatment equipment, as well as brain tumours, brain vessel disease, tertiary neuralgia, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy through the Cyber Knife Centre. -Provide cancer patient care, cancer prevention and diagnosis in early stage, cancer genetic consultative service through the Cancer Prevention Centre equipped with CT, MRI, PET/CT, Gamma camera etc. -Production and distribution of Radioisotopes for diagnosis and treatment. Research include-Development of cancer diagnosis and treatment. -Usage of radioisotopes and accelerator. 36
  • 37. Laboratory of Tissue 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-ku, On-going research development of Bio-artificial skin Engineering Seoul, Korea 139-706 -Development of Tissue Engineered Cartilage Korea Institute of Radiological Tel:82 2 970-1317, 1319, 1373 -Development of Bio-Vascular Graft and Medical Sciences Fax:82 2 949 3809 -Bioreactor for tissue Engineering (KIRAMS) http://www.kirams.re.kr MALAYSIA Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a premier R&D based organization in nuclear science and technology, continues to play an active role and contributes to the implementation and realization of national science and technology policies to ensure that she remains to be a relevant public research institute. The scope and coverage of MINT research technology development is focused to the major sectors of national and economic development, which among others include the industry, medical and health care, manufacturing, environment etc. Among the products which have been successfully marketed include radioisotopes and radiopharmaceutical kits, radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex and mutants of ornamental plants, whilst the technical services include irradiation services, secondary standard and personal dosimetry, non-destructive testing (NDT), radioactive waste disposal, quality assurance in medical physics, neutron activation analysis (NAA), radiochemical analysis, microbiology test and nuclear instrumentation maintenance. MINT is the one and only licensed government radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facility in Malaysia and is instrumental to the development of nuclear medicine in Malaysia through fund-sourcing, training, infrastructure development and the product development and supply of radiopharmaceutical. Malaysia also co-ordinates and participates in regional co-operation projects comprising RCA, FNCA and IAEA research contracts as well as it’s involvement as host to a number of international 37
  • 38. activities such as meetings, workshops and training courses. Malaysia became a member of RCA in 1975. Malaysia is participating in a number of regional projects regarding medical application of radiation technologies.  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: MALAYSIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Bangi, 42000 Kajang, -Technology commercializes and transfers the research findings to the Technology Research (MINT) Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia companies and hospitals. Tel : (603)-8925 0510 -Expert services (training) - in the field of radiation safety and human Fax : (603)-8925 8262 health care, NDT, technology management and medical X-ray. E-Mail : kp@mint.gov.my http://www.mint.gov.my Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Bangi, 42000 Kajang, In collaboration with nuclear research reactor and isotope production 38
  • 39. Technology Research (MINT) Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia facility they carry out research projects: Division of Nuclear Medicine E-mail: rehir@mint.gov.my -To develop a radio therapeutic agent of Ho-166 for treatment of http://www. cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. mint.gov.my/R&D/Projects/HO-166_E.HTM -Development of New Radiopharmaceuticals -Development of Radioimmuno diagnostic and Radioimmuno therapeutic Kits for Nuclear Medicine Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Bangi, 42000 Kajang, -Produces radiopharmaceuticals and kits for clinical studies such as- Technology Research (MINT) Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate injections for thyroid and brain Isotope Production Facility http://www.mint.gov.my/CORPINFO/BROCHUR scanning, and Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) for bone E/Medical.htm scanning and myocardial infarction detection and supplies to the hospitals and local health care centers. -Cardiac imaging agent MIBI has been developed with the assistance of nuclear medicine physicians in diagnosis of cardiac problems End-users are the medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working the hospitals and local health care centers Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Bangi, 42000 Kajang, -To establish and provide preventive and corrective maintenance Technology Research (MINT) Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia services for medical x-ray machines to private clinics /hospitals in Medical Physics group E-mail: Saion@mint.gov.my Malaysia. Quality Assurance Programme in Diagnostic Radiology, medical hospitals etc. Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA -Producing and supplying clinical quality radiation-sterilized allograft, Technology Research (MINT) Tel : 60-3 – 89250510/89282912 engrafts & biomaterials for clinical uses to substitute imported graft MINT Tissue Bank Fax: 6-03- 89252588 -Production of hydro gel and the application of aloe vera plant for E-mail: khairul@mint.gov.my wound and burn dressings -End-users are the medical doctors of different hospitals in Malaysia. University Sains Malaysia School of Medical Sciences (USM) Kubang Krian, Kota Bharu Kelantan, Malaysia Department of Nuclear Fax: 609 7653370 39
  • 40. Medicine Radiotherapy and Oncology University Malaya Medical Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. -Diagnosis, treatment and the study of human disease such as: Centre (UMMC) Tel: 03-79564422 Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Measurement, Myocardial Perfusion Division of Clinical Oncology Fax: 03-79562253 Study, Whole Body Imaging, Radionuclide Ventriculography, http// www.ummc.edu.my Radiolabelled leucocyte, Lung Ventilation & Perfusion Study etc. -Diagnosis is performed by using Xenon-133, Cr-51 EDTA, Y-90, Tc99m-DTPA, etc. -Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) for osteoporosis screening -Serves as a tertiary referral center for cancer treatment: -Radiotherapy: External beam radiation – Brachytherapy -High Dose Rate (HDR), Low Dose Rate (LDR), Chemotherapy -Radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancers. Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan 9th floor, Otorhinolaryngology Department, -Hospital UKM is actively working on tissue engineering of human Malaysia (HUKM) Jalan Ya'akob Latif, skin, cartilage and bone Tissue Engineering Laboratory Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: ruszy@medic.ukm.my http://www.hukm.ukm.my UKM Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Diagnosis and treatment services such as separation of cells, plasma Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak pheresis, bone density measurement, radiotherapy & oncology and 56000 Kuala Lumpur, dialysis. Malaysia. Tel: (603) - 9173 3333 / 9170 3804/2115 Fax:(603) - 9173 8612/91737144 Website http://www.hukm.ukm.my Penang Hospital Department of Diagnostic Imaging, -Use of Radiosynovectomy in the Management of Patients Suffering Nuclear Medicine Division, Jalan Residensi, from Painful Joint Disorders 10990 Penang Tel: 604-2293 333 Fax: 604-2281 737 40
  • 41. MONGOLIA Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC), Government of Mongolia was established 1962. Nuclear Energy Commission under auspices of the Member of the Government in charge of science issues shall be responsible for the development of policy for the activities relating to development of nuclear research and technology, use of radiation sources, and to ensure radiation protection and safety. NEC, the Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia, which are the main nuclear research institutes in Mongolia. Mongolia became a party to the RCA on 19 October 1992. Membership in the Agreement has opened ways of promoting nuclear research, introducing new nuclear technology in appropriate sectors, developing co-operation with Member States, and in training and professionally upgrading scientific personnel. Mongolia is participating the medical application related active projects:  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes 41
  • 42. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: MONGOLIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Nuclear Energy Commission Tseren DAMDINSUREN Prof -Development of nuclear research and technology, use of radiation (NEC) P.O.B 46-856 sources, and to ensure radiation protection and safety. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia -To conduct research, implement project by order, establish a Tel/Fax: 976-11-329019 laboratory, advisory board and working group, appoint experts, and E-mail: numelect@magicnet.mn receive assistance from relevant laboratory, professional organizations http://www.nec.mn/ and experts National University of University Street PO Box: 46/A-305, Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Nuclear Research Center Tel: /976-11/-456348, 481369; Fax: /976-11/-324385 Oncology Center Provide radiotherapy services in the country, having Co-60 radiation source for radiotherapy unit low dose rate brachytherapy unit and others Mongolia Academy of Science To perform a reliable and sensitive diagnostic test of Hepatitis B Virus Institute of Biotechnology (HBV) infection by Radioimmunoassay (RIA). National Medical University Provide routine nuclear medical diagnostic services in the country with Central Clinic 2 gamma cameras, RIA laboratory, and others MYANMAR The application of radiation technologies in Myanmar totally depends on the Ministry of science and Technology. The Department of 42
  • 43. Atomic Energy (DAE) was established in Myanmar in 1997 to support and carry out matters related to regulations and promotion of nuclear technology in the country. Myanmar involved in RCA family in 1994. To acquire radiation technologies for national development and improving human health care Myanmar participates following regional projects:  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: MYANMAR NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Department of Atomic Energy 6 Kaba Aye Pagoda Road, Providing irradiation for sterilization of tissues from tissue bank by (DAE) Yangon, Myanmar 12000 Ci Cobalt-60 Gamma Chamber (GC 5000 from BARC, India) Tel: 00 95 1 664233 Fax: 00 95 1 650685 e-mail:dae.myatom@mptmail.net.mm Yangon, Mandalay, and Improvement of the quality of radiation therapy in three general Taungyii General Hospitals hospitals in Yangon, Mandalay, and Taungyii. RIA center, DAE Production and quality control of RIA bulk reagents and kits for thyroid related hormones, (LH, FSH, PRL, microalbumunuria etc.) diagnosis and their applications. 43
  • 44. NEW ZEALAND New Zealand activities within the RCA are coordinated by the Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (GNS). Application of radiation technology for peaceful utilization in the country is carried out with the supervision and guidance of GNS. New Zealand joined the RCA in July 1994. It is donor country to the RCA activities and provides technical assistance to the regional projects as a Regional Research Unit (RRU). There are six regional oncology centers in New Zealand provide medical oncology, radiation oncology and hematology services. These centers are in Auckland, Hamilton, Palmerston North, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin. Since cancer is a complex group of diseases and major health issue for New Zealanders, Government has therefore been given a high priority for cancer control. The New Zealand Cancer Control Strategy under the Ministry of Health provides a high-level framework for reducing the incidence and impact of cancer in New Zealand and reducing inequalities with respect to cancer. There are 18 linear accelerators in New Zealand. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: NEW ZEALAND NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Ministry of Health 133 Molesworth St -Reducing the burden of cancer in the community through prevention, Cancer Control Council P.O. Box 5013 screening and early detection, treatment, support and rehabilitation, Wellington, New Zealand 44
  • 45. Tel: +64 04 - 496-2000 and palliative care. Fax: +64 04 - 496-2340 E-mail: emailmoh@moh.govt.nz Geological and Nuclear 30 Gracefield Road -Produces Stable isotopes of carbon 13, nitrogen 15, oxygen 18, Sciences (GNS) PO Box 31-312 sulphur 34, deuterium, and hydrogen. Rafter Stable Isotope Lower Hutt, New Zealand Laboratory Tel: +64 4 570 4636 Fax: +64 4 570 4657 Email: rafterisotopes@gns.cri.nz Auckland Hospital Physician in Charge Department of Nuclear Private Bag 92024 Medicine Auckland Tel: (64)-9-379-6354 ext7608/9 Fax: (64)-9-307-4958 Auckland Hospital Private Bag 92024 -Provide medical oncology, radiation oncology and haematology Dept. Oncology Auckland, New Zealand services. -Treatment for cancers of the breast, lung, rectum and prostate National Radiation Laboratory 108 Victoria St Christchurch, New Zealand Phone: (64) (3) 366 5059 Fax: (64) (3) 366 1156 E-mail: enquiry@nrl.moh.govt.nz PAKISTAN Pakistan joined Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology on September 6, 1974. Pakistan has played an active role in the various development phases of the agreement and has 45
  • 46. gained a great deal from the activities of the RCA in the areas of agriculture, health, industry, quality assurance, research reactor utilization, nuclear analytical techniques, nuclear instrumentation and other related R&D fields. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has established 13- Nuclear Medicine Centers equipped with modern facilities, covering even the remote areas of the country. Most of the diagnostic kits and radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured indigenously and supplied to the centers. The centers are being interlinked with Internet. The RCA collaboration several projects through the application of radiation technologies in Nuclear Medicine with its research establishment are-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 46
  • 47. COUNTRY: PAKISTAN NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Dept of Nuclear Medicine -Provide nuclear medicine related diagnosis (Liver, Bone, Brain, GFR, C/O Pakistan Atomic Energy myocardial perfusion with MIBI etc.) and treatment of cancer and Commission allied diseases to over 3,25,000 patients annually through its 13 state- of-the-art medical centers all over the country. -Development of Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and Immunoradiometryassay (IRMA) reagents production and applied for Radioimmunoassay of Hepatitis-B markers. -Quality Assurance in Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Grafts Pakistan Institute of Nuclear P.O. Box No. 1114, Islamabad, Pakistan -Production and supply of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals to Science and Technology http://www.paec.gov.pk/pinstech/facilities/radio medical centers for the diagnosis as well as the treatment of various (PINSTECH) %20production.htm types of cancer and related diseases. Nuclear Chemistry Divn. -Supplying radiopharmaceuticals, sealed radioactive sources and diagnostic kits to various users. -The radioisotopes produced include 32P, 51Cr, , 99 mTc, 131I and 198AU. -Ten types of kits, like DTPA, MDP, DMSA, DISIDA, MIBI, Pyrophosphate, Phytic Acid, etc., are being produced -Kits are used for the visualization of different body organs like-heart, kidneys, brain, bones, liver, renal organs and red cells. End-users are PAEC medical centers mainly. Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan To measure quite informative GFR by renal dynamic scintigraphy http://www. lhr.comsats.net.pk Pakistan Radiation Services javed@pinstech.org.pk Sterilization of medical products such as infusion sets, disposal (PARAS) syringes and surgical gloves with a gamma sterilization unit of total capacity one million curie University of Peshawer Fax:92-51-9204112 -LDR & HDR Brach therapy in Treating Cervical Cancer 47
  • 48. THE PHILIPPINE The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is mandated to-undertake research and development activities in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, to institute regulations on the said uses and to carry out the enforcement of said regulations to protect the health and safety of radiation workers and the general public. It is one of the research institutes under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). With the facilities Co-60 Irradiator, Iodine-131 Dispenser and Radioactive Waste treatment plat, PNRI cater the public using radiation technologies for various applications such as food irradiation, nuclear medicine etc. Philippine joined with RCA family in April 73. The active projects in radiation technology on Medical Application, the Philippine is participating the followings-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II 48
  • 49. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: THE PHILIPPINE NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Philippine Nuclear Research Atomic Research Division -Dispensed and supplied Tc-99m generator and Iodine-131 to nuclear Institute (PNRI) Commonwealth Avenue, medicine centers and hospitals like- Capital Medical Center, Jose Radioisotope Production group Diliman, Quezon City Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Makati Medical Center, Metropolitan Philippine Hospital, Rizal Medical Center, University of Santo Tomas Hospital http://www.pnri.dost.gov.ph/ and Veterans Memorial Medical Center etc. -Developing a gel column for the commercial production of Tc-99m generator. End users are the nuclear medicine physician, technologist, radiologist of different hospitals in Philippine. Philippine Nuclear Research Atomic Research Division Radiation-Sterilized Amniotic Membranes as Burn Dressing a total of Institute (PNRI) Commonwealth Avenue, 817 radiation- Produced sterilized amniotic membranes and used as Biomedical Research Group Diliman, Quezon City biological dressings for open wounds in case of club- foot surgery, for Philippine second degree burns, and for reconstructive surgeries in various http://www.pnri.dost.gov.ph/ hospitals. Jose Reyes Memorial Medical Rizal Avenue, San Lazaro Compound Center Tayuman, Santa Cruz Manila 1003 Philippines Tel.: +63 2 711 6939 Email: jrcrivera@yahoo.com Philippine General Hospital Department of Radiology Services are rendered by its diagnostic and radiotherapy programmes (PGH) Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippine such as: Tel.: +632 3723439 -Brachytherapy (Intracavitary Radiotherapy) procedure of gyne-onco Fax: +632 5234372 & head & neck malignancies. http://www.pgh.gov.ph -Radiation Therapy, Cobalt Tele-therapy -Studied-FSH, FT3, FT4, HCG, LH hormones in their Radioisotope Laboratory 49
  • 50. The University of Santo Tomas Radiology Division Hospital Espafia, Manila-1008 Saint Luke's Medical Center Radiation Oncology Department 279 E. Rodriguez Sr. Blvd. Cathedral Heights P. O. Box 700 Quezon City 1102 Philippines Tel.: +63 2 7275410 Fax: +63 2 7275410 Email: chuchieuy@yahoo.com SINGAPORE Singapore joined with RCA family in Sept. 74. Application of radiation technology related activities in Singapore are carried out by the National Environmental Agency (NEA) and hence the vision of the NEA is to have a clean and healthy environment loved and cared for by everyone. The National Cancer Center, Singapore General Hospital, National University of Singapore also actively participated with IAEA/RCA projects in the field of Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Protection, Research involved application of radiation technologies etc. Human Health related active RCA projects in Singapore are-  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach 50
  • 51. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: SINGAPORE NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Singapore General Hospital Dept of Medicine Prevention of Osteoporosis with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Bloch-2, basement-1, measurement. Outram road, Singapore Tel:+65-3214201 Fax:+65 2240938 www.sgh.com.sg National University Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Measures bone mineral density in the spine, hip, and wrists by dual Lower Kent Ridge Road, energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Singapore 119074 Republic of Singapore. • Present Research- Areal and volumetric BMD of the spine, hip, forearm and body composition in children in the 3 ethnic Tel: 6774-5095 or 6772-4424 groups Fax: 6774-4082 • BMD and body composition in the process of ageing in men and women in Singapore E-mail:doscsl@nus.edu.sg or doswps@nus.edu.sg • Measurement of BMD in ovariectomised rabbits National Environmental 40 Scotts Road Agency (NEA) Environment Building #13-00 Singapore 228231 Tel: 1800-2255 632, Fax: 62352611 Email: Contact_NEA@nea.gov.sg National University of Faculty of Engineering -Tissue Engineering of a Skin Graft Singapore Block EA, #03-12, 9 Engineering Drive 1 -Devices for Cancer Chemotherapy Division. of Bioengineering Singapore 117576 -Bone Tissue Engineering by using Novel Scaffold Systems doped E-mail:lal@nus.edu.sg, with Heparan Sulphate andrew_krishna81@yahoo.com -Design and Development of bioreactor for in-vitro fabrication of 51
  • 52. http://www.eng.nus.edu.sg/research/RP_Bio.htm biological ligament device using tissue engineering approach -The study of tissue engineered osteochondral and cranial bone grafts in a goat model National University Hospital 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road -Provides tertiary level care in the integrated management of cancer The Cancer Institute Singapore 119074 patients. Tel: (65) 6772 4868 -Radiation oncology services includes: Chemotherapy, Radiation Fax :(65) 6779 6320 Therapy, Bone marrow Transplant (BMT). Email: michaelback@nuh.com.sg Department of Nuclear Singapore General Hospital Details of Services Medicine & PET Block 2 Basement 1 -To assess thyroid swellings including fine needle aspiration biopsy Outram Road (FNAB), and treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer with Singapore 169608 radioactive iodine-131. Tel : 6326 6040 -Bone scans for benign and malignant conditions of the bones/ joints Fax : 6224 0938 including stress fractures. http://www.sgh.com.sg/MedicalSpecialtiesnServic - Lipophilic agents such as HMPAO and biscisate are used to assess es/ClinicalSpecialties/AmbulatoryandClinicalSup brain perfusion in epilepsy and strokes, CSF studies for CSF leaks and portServices/NuclearMedicineandPET/ shunt function. - MUGA, anti-CEA, antibody and anti-granulocyte antibody, octreotide and MIBG scans in nuclear Oncology. - Carbon-14 breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection -Detection of metabolically active sites, e.g. tumours in the body using PET. This is used mainly in oncology, neurology and cardiology. - Full range of hormone assays for assessing metabolic functions Radionuclide Therapy includes: -Phosphorus-32 for effusion and polycythemia - Strontium-89 and Rhenium-188 HEDP for bone metastases - Iodine-131 for thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma - Iodine-131 MIBG for neuroblastoma and phaeochromocytoma - Iodine-131 Lipiodol and Yttrium-90 Microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma Research- -Adjunctive treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma 52
  • 53. -Sentinel node studies and scintimammography - Hepatic blood flow measurements using non-invasive radio isotopic techniques - Use of biochemical bone resorption and formation markers in the follow-up assessment of cancer patients. SRI LANKA Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka is the government agency responsible for the utilization of nuclear technology to its maximum potential with reference to quality and quantity in a cost effective manner, for socio-economic development of the country. The application of radiation technologies for development programme in Agriculture, Medicine, Industry, Radiation safety and facilitation of such applications through international cooperation has enable the AEA to gain recognition among other national institutions that use radiation technologies. Sri Lanka has actively participated in RCA programmes since its inception as a member in 1976. She believes that the RCA programme will continue to be useful and important in promoting peaceful applications of nuclear technology in the fields of industry, agriculture and medicine. The AEA and other recipient institutions of the country are carrying out the following RCA projects related to the radiation application technology in human health:  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region 53
  • 54.  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: SRI LANKA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Tissue Bank Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Various steps are involved in the use of tissues for grafting: Colombo, Sri lanka -Collection or harvesting of the tissue, cleaned and subjected to a regime of processing and sterilization by radiation to further eliminate any possible contamination -Tissue banks supply a wide range of tissues for grafting including musculo-skeletal tissues (bone, tendon, cartilage, ligament), soft tissues such as amnion and skin and others including cornea, brain and spinal cord membranes store skin, heart-valve, cardiovascular graft material and nerve tissues to public and private hospitals. -Capacity of Colombo tissue bank is to prepare, double package and irradiate amnion is about 350 pieces a month, while current local needs are estimated at 200 pieces. The rest is being sent abroad to meet urgent needs elsewhere End-users are the clinicians within the health care system of the countries, who currently suffer from the lack of a local supply of donor tissue and associated processing facilities also in overseas over the country demand. Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Nuclear Imaging Unit (NMU) -Diagnosis for static images such as scanning of liver, bone, kidney, Department of Radiology, brain, thyroid, tumors etc and dynamic images such as filtration of the Colombo 08 kidneys. Tel : 693711 -Diagnosis is performed by using the gamma camera installed with a Fax : 077 802939 donation of IAEA -Radioisotope used is Technetium-99m with respective organ specific 54
  • 55. pharmaceutical. National Cancer Institute Maharagama, Sri Lanka Tel : 850252-3 Atomic Energy Authority 60/460, Baseline Road, Development of nuclear medical application in accordance with (AEA) Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya national priorities, utilizing the technical assistance provided by Sri Lanka International Atomic Energy Agency. Tel: 94-11-2533427-8 Fax: 94-11-2533448 E-mail: srlaea@slt.lk http://www.naresa.ac.lk/aea/ The Radioisotope Centre Dept of Nuclear Medicine The University of Colombo www.cmb.ac.lk/temp/new_science/Nuclear_Scien ce/Granvil_info.htm National Hospital of Sri Lanka Regent Street, Colombo 8. Sri Lanka Imaging and Intervention Radiology Tel: ( 941) 691111 Fax ( 941) 698443 Navaloka Hospital Colombo 02, Sri lanka -Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning for Tel : +94 (0) 11 2 304444 ext. 220, 45 osteoporosis E-mail: <nawaloka@slt.lk> -General Radiography (X -ray) http://www.nawaloka.com/ -CT Scan (Multi Slice Sub Second Scanner), MRI Scanner (1.5 Tesla) THAILAND Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established by virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace and is entrusted with the responsibilities of undertaking research and development in nuclear technology including the operation of the national research reactor 55
  • 56. centre and Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC). OAEP research reactor has been mainly utilized for the production of radioisotopes for medical use, neutron activation analysis and radiation technology applications. They produces Radioisotopes for their 25 Nuclear Medicine hospitals but not capable to full-fill their country demand. They can produce only 50% of their needs. Thailand has been a member of RCA since 1972. In collaboration with UNDP, IAEA and all Member States, RCA projects have significantly accelerated the peaceful applications of nuclear technology in the fields of, medicine agriculture, industry and the environment, thus generation of a great deal of social and economic benefits to the welfare of the people in the country. Presently, Thailand involved in medical application related regional projects such as-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: THAILAND 56
  • 57. NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Bangkok Biomedical Centre Faculty of Medicine -Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts and supplies bone and soft Mahidol University tissue allograft to 46 hospitals in Thailand. End-users are the medical doctors in different hospitals in Thailand. Ramahidol Hospital Dept of Radiology -Radiation therapy includes cancer treatment with gammaray, photon- Faculty of Medicine ray, electron-ray and isotopic materials. Pharam 6 Phayathai, Bangkok , Thailand 10400 -Provides the services of intraoperative irradiation, total body http://www.ra.mahidol.ac.th irradiation for marrow transplantation, sterotactic radio surgery and stereotactic radiotherapy Siriraj Hospita Department of Orthopaedic Surgery -Soft allograft such as fascia lata, dura mater, tendon and amniotic Faculty of Medicine membrane have been procured and used in reconstruction operations Mahidol Uviversity http://www.si.mahidol.ac.th/eng/ Office of the atomic Energy for Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, -Production of radioisotope for medical use with the utilization of Peace Chatuchak District Bangkok, 10900, Thailand Research Reactor. Isotope Production Division http://www.oaep.go.th/english/ End-users are the medical physicists working in radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine in different region of the country. VIETNAM Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) a state body for formulating directions, strategies, planning for research and development in the field of atomic energy in Vietnam. The VAEC is the national representative of Vietnam in the RCA programmes. There are 28 hospitals having Nuclear Medicine facilities in Vietnam. They produce Radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine diagnosis and treatment only 50% of their country demand rests are to import. It considers international cooperation as 57
  • 58. an extremely important activity for the development of nuclear fields in Vietnam. Vietnam has become a member of RCA family in June 1972. To acquire radiation technologies and to develop existing activities, VAEC participates in the medical application related following active RCA/TC projects:  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Use of Radiosynovectomy in the Management of Patients Suffering from Painful Joint Disorders  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: VIETNAM NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES 58
  • 59. Vietnam Atomic Energy 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Supplies of radio isotopes and radio-pharmacies such as I-131, P-32, Commission (VAEC) Hanoi, Vietnam Tc-99m generator and radiation protection services for medicine. Application in Medicine and http://www. vaec.gov.vn/About/amrp.htm Radioisotope Production group Vietnam Atomic Energy 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, -Diagnosis for thyroid gland, liver, kidney, and brain diseases Commission (VAEC) Hanoi, Vietnam -Therapy apparatus for thyroid Departments of nuclear medicine Center for Nuclear Techniques 217 Nguyen Trai, District 1, -Sterilization of medical products with Co-60 source of 400 kCi in Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City, Viet nam Tel.:84 8 8356568 FAX:84 8 8367361 Email:ttkthn@hcm.vnn.vn Operation and Utilization of 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, -Production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine & industry and other Research Reactor group Hanoi, Vietnam researches Vietnam Atomic Energy -Training and education in order to meet requirements for human Commission resource development Institute for Nuclear Science P.O. Box 5T-160, Hoang Quoc Viet, Carry out research and development for peaceful uses of nuclear and Technique Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi power and nuclear techniques in different branches of the National Tel: 84-4-7564926 * 84-4-7564825 Economy of Vietnam. Fax: 84-4-8363295 59
  • 60. IV. SURVEY THE REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS RELATED TO HUMAN HEALTH ACTIVITIES AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICIST IN MEDICINE (AAPM) Website: http://www.aapm.org Headquarters: American Center for Physics, College Park, MD The AAPM is a scientific, educational, and professional organization formed in 1958 of more than 4,700 medical physicists with annual budget is over $5M. Mission Statement: The mission of the Association is to advance the practice of physics in medicine and biology by encouraging innovative research and development, disseminating scientific and technical information, fostering the education and professional development of medical physicists, and promoting the highest quality medical services for patients. Objectives for Accomplishing the Mission:  Research and Development  Dissemination of Information  Education of Medical Physicists  Professional Development of Medical Physicists  Promotion of High-Quality Medical Services Important Function/Activities:  Work with physicians, institutions and medical societies to ensure that time and resources are provided for physicists to investigate new ideas and technologies.  Provide information and assistance to physicists about resources of, and techniques for, obtaining research and development funding.  Provide research awards for medical physicists.  Develop and distribute through electronic media (e.g., internet bulletin 60
  • 61. boards, video tapes and compact disks) information concerned with scientific and educational medical physics endeavors and the activities of the AAPM.  Organize and sponsor local and regional workshops and symposia on medical physics topics, including implementation of new techniques.  Address socioeconomic issues pertinent to the clinical practice of medical physics and work with related societies in representing the professional interests of medical physicists.  Promote and participate in the development of procedures and guidelines for the safe, efficacious implementation and encouraging the utilization of state- of-the-art equipment/ technologies and procedures in clinical practice.  Publications include a scientific journal ("Medical Physics"), technical reports, and symposium proceedings. AAPM Education and Research Fund:  To support Fellowships for Ph.D. students in Medical Physics. The original goal was $500,000 for this purpose.  To support clinical Residencies, including seed money for research. The original goal was $1.5 million for this purpose. AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE (NZSNM) http://www.anzsnm.org.au/ Headquarters: St. George Hospital, Australia The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine (NZSNM) is a non- profit multi-disciplinary organization of physicians, physicists, chemists, radio pharmacists, technologists, nurses and others interested in the practice of Nuclear Medicine in Australia and New Zealand. It has seven branches: New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and Western Australia. 61
  • 62. Objectives of the Society are to:  Promote: (a) the advancement of clinical practice of Nuclear Medicine in Australia and New Zealand; (b) research in Nuclear Medicine: (c) public education regarding the principles and applications of Nuclear Medicine techniques in medicine and biology at national and regional levels; (d) co-operation between organizations and individuals interested in Nuclear Medicine; (e) the training of persons in all of the fields of Nuclear Medicine.  Provide opportunities for collective discussion on all or any aspects of Nuclear Medicine. Major Activities/Programmes: a) Technical Documents prepared by the ANZSNM: i. Calibration of Dose Calibrators for I-123 and other Low Energy Photon Emitters ii. Effective Dose at Various Ages from a Selection of Radiopharmaceuticals iii. Effective Dose to Infants from Activity Administered to Mothers iv. Guidelines for the Administration of Radiopharmaceuticals v. Guidelines for Good Radiopharmacy Practice vi. Interim Recommendations for PET Accreditation (Technical Aspects) vii. Minimum QC Guidelines viii. Typical Administered Activities for Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine b) Provide fund for research, continuing professional education to full financial members of the ANZSNM c) Arranged scientific workshop/meeting in every year for exchanging view about the latest development of Nuclear Medicine technologies. d) The Society sets Accreditation board for standardizing the training and practice of nuclear medicine technology and recommends the issue of accreditation certificates 62
  • 63. to those technologists who attain the minimum standards of proficiency in nuclear medicine. The Society is the only accrediting body for nuclear medicine technologists in Australia and New Zealand. THE ASIAN REGIONAL COOPERATIVE COUNCIL FOR NUCLEAR MEDICINE (ARCCNM) Website:http//www.arccnm.org Headquarters: Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea The Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was officially founded at the 1st Executive Board Meeting in Hong Kong, China in February 2001. In the primary stages of the ARCCNM, the number of member states amounted to fifteen, but later increased to eighteen. The ARCCNM was divided into three chapters according to the various regions of Asia: Southeast Asia, South Asia and Far East Asia. The countries constituting each of the chapters are as follows: (1) Southeast Asia Chapter member states include Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam while the Southeast Asia Chapter non- member states include Brunei, Cambodia and Laos; (2) South Asia Chapter member states include Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka while the South Asia non-member states include Maldives, Bhutan; and (3) the Far East Asia Chapter member states include China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan while the Far East Asia Chapter non-member states include Macao, North Korea. It is a non- profit body and does not levy membership fees. The philosophy of the council is cooperation between physicians and scientists who are working in the field of nuclear medicine in Asia. Objectives of ARCCNM:  To foster Asian regional cooperation in promoting nuclear medicine in Asian countries, particularly in developing and less developed countries.  To establish liaisons with the official national governing bodies of nuclear medicine of the member states of the Asian Region.  To encourage research collaboration in nuclear medicine among member states of the Region. 63
  • 64.  To administer to training programmes for nuclear physicians practicing in the member countries.  To establish liaisons with international organizations devoted to the promotion of research, development and clinical application of nuclear medicine including, but not limited to: -The World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). - The Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB) - The European-Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) - The Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) - The International Atomic Energy Agency-(IAEA)  To enhance regional scientific activity by means of conferences, seminars and educational programmes.  To facilitate the exchange of programmes for experts, trainees and fellows.  To organize Task-Force Groups in Nuclear Neurology, Cardiology, Oncology, Basic Sciences, Radionuclide Therapy and General Nuclear Medicine. Major Activities/Achievements  Nuclear medicine professionals from all over Asia participate in numerous symposia, lectures and workshops. Such activities have emphasized the importance of nuclear medicine activity and educational advancement and have thus significantly contributed to the progress of nuclear medicine in Asia.  ARCCNM has made tremendous efforts towards the promotion and development of nuclear medicine in the region of Asia through the utmost dedication of the Council. Substantial global recognition of the ARCCNM has been made possible through the successes of the Annual General Meetings.  Foundations for constructing an Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM). The main objective of the ASNM, as such, is to contribute in the enhancement of academic activities and advocate the benefits of innovative 64
  • 65. scientific and technical knowledge such as PET/cyclotron technology in the developing and less developed nation in the Asian region to notably increase the number of young physicians specialized in nuclear medicine. The IAEA too welcomed plans for establishment of an ASNM, citing its essentiality, and pledges its support. Finance: All expenses concerning attendance of the Annual General Meetings of the Council, and other meetings such as Delegate Assembly, Organizing Committee Meeting, Task-Force Group Meeting, which may be convened as deemed necessary, shall be the responsibility of the attending member. Donation from various governments and companies shall be solicited for the purpose of achieving the activities of the council. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY (ASNC) www.asnc.org Headquarters: Georgetown Road, Bethesda, Maryland The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) is a professional medical society. It was founded in 1993 by a group of nuclear cardiology specialists who sensed the need for a professional society dedicated solely to the needs of those who perform these procedures. Currently there are over 4,500 ASNC members in good standing. ASNC is an individual member society and its members are physicians (primarily cardiologists, nuclear medicine and radiology specialists), scientists, technologists, computer specialists and other personnel who work in the Nuclear Cardiology field. ASNC is truly international in scope with some 16% of its members coming from countries outside the United States. Organizationally, the Society is governed by a 22-member Board of Directors. The majority of the work of the Society is carried out by over 20 committees and task forces. The ASNC headquarters staff is made up of eight individuals Mission Statement: 65
  • 66. The mission of the Society is to foster optimal delivery of Nuclear Cardiology services through professional education, leadership in the establishment of standards and guidelines for training and practice and the promotion of research. The association is composed of physicians and scientists of goodwill in high standing, who are dedicated to the following goals: 1. To define and disseminate standards for optimal clinical performance of Nuclear Cardiology studies. 2. To develop guidelines for high quality training programs in Nuclear Cardiology. 3. To foster comprehensive and innovative continuing education programs of high quality for professionals in Nuclear Cardiology. 4. To foster basic and clinical research in Nuclear Cardiology. 5. To increase understanding of the role and contribution of Nuclear Cardiology to cardiovascular health care. 6. To assess the safety and effectiveness of new and established technologies, and to develop guidelines for their application in Nuclear Cardiology. 7. To provide advice regarding standards for competency in Nuclear Cardiology. 8. To represent the discipline of Nuclear Cardiology in various health care related forums. 9. To act as a liaison between other professional organizations. 10. To maintain an organizational structure as a professional society which will enable the effective implementation of the defined goals. Major Programmes/Activities: The educational programmes of ASNC include:  Annual Symposium and Scientific Session in Nuclear Cardiology;  Multi Day Nuclear Cardiology Tutorials for Technologists;  Nuclear Cardiology Tutorials for Fellows and Residents;  A biennial International Conference of Nuclear Cardiology (co-sponsored);  Self Study/Self Assessment Programs on the internet, covering Nuclear Cardiology subjects featuring case studies; 66
  • 67.  Online educational courses for technologists and physicians; and  Co-sponsorship with other professional organizations on courses in nuclear cardiology, ACC Spotlight Sessions and more. This newest line of activities is entirely Web-based and includes a Nuclear Cardiology Knowledge Self Assessment Program, designed in particular for those studying for board-type examinations. Several short (<1 hour) activities are available for physicians and technologists. ASNC also co-sponsors the ACC Nuclear Cardiology Learning Center, Extramural and Spotlight sessions. Publications: The principal publication of the Society is the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, a bi-monthly journal which publishes manuscripts of original investigation and has a subscription base of more than 6,300. ASIAN SCHOOL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE (ASNM) Website: http://www.arccnm.org/asnm/asnm.html Headquarters: Seoul, Korea The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) as the parent body. The ASNM works towards a formal certification of training courses in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM is in the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed countries in the Asian region. The ASNM could give credit hours for training courses conducted in the various countries and electronic courses and examinations could be held by the ASNM. Aims of ASNM:  To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed region.  to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 67
  • 68.  to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes.  to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. Major Activities:  Continuing medical education (CME) points and Certificate awarded by ASNM for KOICA/ KIRAMS course in PET and Nuclear Medicine, Seoul in October 2003;  ASNM Certificate and CME points for IAEA/ASNM workshop on liver cancer treatment with radio nuclides, Manila in December 2003;  Certificate and CME points for ASNM training course in PET and Cyclotron, Singapore (participants from Thailand, Pakistan and Bangladesh) in February 2004. Projects:  Distance learning programme for the Nuclear Medicine Physicians Finances:  Grant from Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM);  Donations from different private companies like-Siemens and Nycomed- Amersham;  Some International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) funding. EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE (EANM) http://www.eanm.org/ HQ: Vienna, in Austria The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) was founded on September 68
  • 69. 6, 1985 in London as the result of a merger between the Society of Nuclear Medicine Europe and the European Nuclear Medicine Society. The EANM is the largest organization dedicated to nuclear medicine in Europe. Membership now exceeds 3,000 and comprises physicians, scientists, technologists and other persons working in nuclear medicine or related fields. It is a voluntary, professional and non-profit making medical association that facilitates communication world-wide between individuals pursuing clinical and research excellence in nuclear medicine. The association simultaneously acts as a-forum for individual members (who convene annually at the Members’ Assembly) and as an umbrella for the nuclear medicine societies of Europe (which convene at the Delegates’ Assembly). This twin-track approach guarantees that the EANM not only serves the needs of individual members but also has a good awareness of the challenges facing nuclear medicine in European countries. Objectives and Means: The goals of the EANM for the purposes and using the means to reach these purposes set out in the followings:  To advance science and education in nuclear medicine, including radiation protection, for the benefit of public health and humanity.  To promote and co-ordinate throughout Europe and beyond the discussion and exchange of ideas and results on problems associated with the diagnosis, treatment, research and prevention of diseases by making use of unsealed radio-active substances and the properties of stable nuclides in medicine.  To provide a suitable medium for the dissemination and discussion of the latest results in the field of Nuclear Medicine, and related subjects.  To convene a regular European Association of Nuclear Medicine Congress to help to meet the objectives of the EANM.  To represent with one voice all European Nuclear Medicine activities in the field of science, education and the promotion of good and safe practice by providing information, reasoned comment and argument vis-à-vis European Authorities, the UEMS/EBNM, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the 69
  • 70. World Health Organization, the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, and other appropriate organizations.  To promote appropriate professional training in Nuclear Medicine through a training centre. Major Activities/Achievements:  Introduction of Marie Curie award (1990) to the author of the work which is, in terms of scientific quality, the best contribution at the annual EANM Congress and Marie Curie travel grant (1999) for the promotion nuclear medicine research in Europe in every year.  For scientific exchange as well as for business and personal networking and up to date the knowledge regarding Nuclear Medicine the EANM arranges annual congress in yearly basis.  To provide a forum for the exchange of clinical and scientific information for the nuclear medicine community and allied professions involved in the functional, metabolic and molecular investigation of disease. The EANM published the official Journal named the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular -Imaging (EJNMMI). In coming years the association will strive to continue to develop the field of nuclear medicine and to publicize its unique investigative and therapeutic benefits. INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION (IFC) Websites:http://www.ifc.org Headquarters: Washington, DC Established in 1956, IFC (member of World Bank group) is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. It has 178 member countries , which collectively determine its policies and approve investments. IFC operates on commercial terms, targeting profitability. The corporation has made a profit every year since its inception. IFC has over 2,200 staff, of whose 58% work in its Washington, DC, headquarters. About 42% of IFC staffs 70
  • 71. are stationed in over 86 IFC field offices. Mission Statement IFC's mission is to promote sustainable private sector investment in developing countries, helping to reduce poverty and improve people's lives. Major Activities/Programmes: A. Sustainable private sector development primarily by: i. Financing private sector projects located in the developing world. ii. Helping private companies in the developing world mobilize financing in international financial markets. iii. Providing advice and technical assistance to businesses and governments. B. IFC's particular focus is to promote economic development by encouraging the growth of productive enterprise and efficient capital markets in its member countries. C. IFC projects: IFC finances projects in all types of industries and sectors, for example: manufacturing, infrastructure, tourism, health and education, and financial services. Projects in the Asia and the Pacific region related to Human Health care are: i. Beijing United Family Health (UFH) Center- China Objectives: Upgrade of existing facilities and management system; and establishment of a medical training program targeted at hospital administrators and nurses. ii. Apollo equity-India Objectives: Through a number of joint ventures programmes improving the clinical and diagnostic services, medical business process outsourcing and insurance services. iii. Max Healthcare-India 71
  • 72. Objectives: Raising the overall standards for health care delivery in the region. iv. Franco-Vietnam Hospital-Vietnam Objectives: The project will increase supply of high quality hospital service in Vietnam, and on the whole, improve the quality of hospital services in the country. In doing so, the project will help relieve some of the burden placed on the public health system and channel their resources to increase service to lower income segment of the population. v. Asian Eye Institute (AEI)-Philippine Objectives: The project will establish AEI, which will provide a complete range of services for diagnosis and management of eye diseases. In addition to providing clinical services, AEI aims to build a specialized training and research ophthalmology facility that could serve the South East Asia region. AEI also plans to play an active role in the delivery of ophthalmological care to underserved populations. vi. Wanjie Cancer Hospital - China Objectives: To provide long-term world-class cancer treatment facility that would serve the growing needs of the Chinese population. vii. Asian Hospital, Inc.- Philippine Objectives: To design a world-class acute care hospital complex having state-of-the art facilities for inpatient and outpatient care, as well as a doctors’ office building housing specialist clinics and diagnostic  facilities. viii. Apollo Sri Lanka Hospital-Sri Lanka Objectives: Establish a modern private hospital in Colombo that will serve both as a general hospital as well as offering tertiary acute-care services in disciplines such as cardiology, cardiothoracic surgery, neurology and neurosurgery, renal care, nephrology and urology, obstretrics and gynecology, general and minimal invasive surgery and internal medicine. 72
  • 73. ix. Duncan Geneagles Hospital Limited-India Objectives: Establish a modern private hospital in Calcutta. This will serve both as a general hospital as well as offer tertiary acute-care services covering disciplines such as cardiology, cardiothoracic surgery, neurology and neurosurgery, renal care, nephrology and urology, orthopedics, obstetrics and gynecology, general and minimal invasive surgery and internal medicine. x. PIIF MedCan Samoa Limited-Samoa Objectives: To serve 24 hour outpatients center, pathology service, community clinic and screening service for breast and cervical cancer. xi. Siloam-Geneagles Hospital-Indonesia Objectives: Project is aimed at providing high-quality hospital care to residents of Greater Jakarta seeking private health care. D. IFC Financial Products; IFC offers a wide variety of financial products to private sector projects in developing countries: i. Loans for IFC’s own account: A-loans ii. Equity Finance iii. Quasi-Equity Finance: C-loans iv. Syndicated Loans: B-loans v. Risk Management Products vi. Intermediary Finance E. Technical Assistance: IFC offers a range of technical assistance and business advisory services in support of private sector development in developing countries. These efforts are funded by 73
  • 74. donor countries and from IFC’s own resources. These activities serve many of IFC’s objectives: for example, supporting small and medium enterprises, improving the regulatory environment in developing countries, broadening access to finance, assisting in restructuring and privatizing state-owned enterprises, and promoting public-private partnerships. Many projects are closely connected to IFC’s commercial investments. Other services are provided on a stand- alone basis. NUCLEAR MEDICINE RESEARCH COUNCIL (NMRC) Websites:http://www.cbvcp.com/nmec/ Headquarters: Rickland, Washington The Nuclear Medicine Research Council (NMRC), a nonprofit organization is devoted to the beneficial applications of radioisotopes for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Such medical applications span many professions and require partnership between government, educational institutions, and industry. Volunteer members of the NMRC include scientists, engineers, government officials, educators, physicians, cancer survivors, and other concerned individuals. Membership is open to anyone interested. The NMRC Working Group meets weekly on Thursdays at the Tri-Cities Branch Campus of Washington State University in Richland, Washington. The meetings are open to the public. Major Functions/Activities:  The isotope program office of NMRC provides information to patients and other interested persons about the latest radioisotope-related treatments. Research and Clinical Trials are currently addressing the following cancers and conditions: Rheumatoid arthritis, Bone cancer, pain Breast cancer, Children's cancer, Immune disorders, Hodgkin's disease, Endocrine cancers, Colon cancer, Meningitis, AIDS & others, Prostate cancer, , etc  The NMRC brings together professionals and citizens from government, education, and industry. It provides opportunities for growing understanding 74
  • 75. and partnership so that the most promising nuclear medicine technologies can be effectively delivered to the people who need it most.  The NMRC promotes the general field of nuclear medicine and other beneficial isotope applications such as food irradiation (for enhanced shelf life) and the sterilization of medical supplies (to prevent infection). It believes that with modern technology and techniques, the benefits of radioisotopes can be safely and effectively realized  The NMRC seeks to promote the development of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for the treatment of cancer. SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE (SNM) Websites: www.snm.org Headquarters: Reston, Virginia The Society of Nuclear Medicine is an international scientific and professional organization founded in 1954 to promote the science, technology and practical application of nuclear medicine. Its 16,000 members are physicians, technologists and scientists specializing in the research and practice of nuclear medicine. It is a volunteer, not-for-profit entity. As a world leading society, it maintains strong relationships with international societies of nuclear medicine, universities, independent laboratories and suppliers of both equipment and radiopharmaceuticals. It plays an important role in creating forums within which medical professionals from all medical disciplines collaborate on improving patient care Mission Statement: It is the Mission of the Society of Nuclear Medicine to be the recognized world leader in providing knowledge that advances and promotes the use of nuclear medicine Major Functions/Activities:  The society published books, news letters, Society’s Journal of Nuclear Medicine (JNM), etc. the premier international journal of nuclear medicine, 75
  • 76. reaches over 15,000 individuals each month  Sponsoring international meetings and workshops designed and online activities that provide continuing education credits to increase the competencies of nuclear medicine practitioners and to promote new advances in the science of nuclear medicine. Councils: There are eight councils within the Society, each of which is formed around a specific nuclear medicine specialty. Councils publish newsletters, sponsor educational sessions and Society meetings, serve as resources to the policy-making process and otherwise serve to enhance the quality of nuclear medicine. Academic Council- (1) to promote medical education, research, and patient care related to nuclear medicine; (2) to develop better methods of undergraduate and graduate teaching of nuclear medicine; and (3) to provide a forum for discussion of problems of mutual interest and concern, as well as an informal exchange of ideas and programs. Brain Imaging Council- was established to bring together those SNM members with an interest in brain imaging using radiopharmaceuticals. The Council provides a forum whereby information relating to brain imaging may be discussed and disseminated and also provides a mechanism for the promotion and encouragement of basic brain imaging research and development. Cardiovascular Council-seeks to provide a forum for discussion and development of cardiac scintigraphic methods in an effort to realize the most beneficial applications. The Council actively seeks individuals who share this goal. Computer and Instrumentation Council-provides a source of information relating to computer and instrumentation science to the Society through meetings, seminars, and publications as well as promoting the advancement and dissemination of knowledge in this area. Correlative Imaging Council-provides a structure in which clinicians and scientists 76
  • 77. can develop and disseminate information on the medical and physiological applications of various imaging modalities as they correlate to nuclear medicine. Nuclear Oncology Diagnosis and Therapy Council-provides knowledge that advances and promotes the use of radiotherapuetic agents, devices and radiopharmaceuticals in molecular imaging, and which vigorously supports the expansion of clinical trials for such agents, devices, and/or radiopharmaceuticals. The initial goals of the NODTC include: i. To foster and encourage the scientific interchange of ideas among nuclear medicine professionals in imaging that utilizes radiopharmaceuticals, radiotherapuetic agents and related devices and who have an interest in expanding the use of radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes ii. To promote both basic and clinical research in the therapeutic uses of radiotherapuetic agents, devices, or radiopharmaceuticals. iii. To serve the SNM and the global nuclear medicine community as the source of all research activities and clinical applications of radiotherapuetic agents and devices. Pediatric Imaging Council-provides a conduit for the sharing and dissemination of information unique to pediatric nuclear medicine. Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Council-has been set up for the purpose of providing a forum to; discuss and disseminate information relating to radiopharmaceutical sciences, promote and encourage basic research and applied technology in the radiopharmaceutical sciences, and provide the Society of Nuclear Medicine information relating to the radiopharmaceutical sciences. Center of Excellence: SNM's PET Center of Excellence is an organizational component within the Society of Nuclear Medicine dedicated to all aspects of the development and utilization of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and PET/CT in the detection and management of disease. Two primary focuses of the Center are educational programmes and 77
  • 78. practical issues directly related to PET and PET/CT, including clinical practice and procedure guidelines, as well as reimbursement. SNM’s Molecular Imaging Center of Excellence is an organizational component within the Society of Nuclear Medicine that is dedicated to all aspects of molecular imaging in the detection and management of disease. The primary focal areas of the Center are educational programmes, professional and intersociety networking, and serving as a resource for development and implementation of SNM policy in this specialized area. Grants, Awards and Scholarships The Education and Research Foundation for the Society of Nuclear Medicine supports education and research in nuclear medicine through the provision of grants and awards. A. For Physicians and Scientists Awards: i. Alavi-Mandell Awards ii. Mark Tetalman Memorial Awards Fellowships: SNM Student Fellowships. Research Grants: i. SNM Pilot Research Grants. ii. The Mitzi and William Blahd Pilot Research Grant and the William L. Ashburn Pilot Research Grants. iii. Mallinckrodt Seed Grants. B. For Nuclear Medicine Technologists: Awards: 78
  • 79. i. Outstanding Education Awards. ii. Outstanding Technologist Awards iii. SNMTS Best Paper Awards Research Grants PDEF Pilot Research Grants Scholarships: i. Paul Cole Scholarships ii. PDEF Mickey Williams Minority Student Scholarships iii. PDEF Professional Development Scholarships WORLD FEDERATION OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY (WFNMB) Websites:http://www.wfnmb.org Headquarters: Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul Korea In 1970, at the third world Congress of the Association of the Latin American Societies of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (ALASBIMN) in Mexico City, the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) was founded. The First World Congress of Nuclear Medicine was held in 1974 in Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan. This meant that new links were now forged between all Americas, Europe and Asia and Oceania, and these were gradually strengthened in subsequent years. The Objectives of the Federation are: a) To develop co-operation between groups, societies and associations formed on a national level and active in the role Nuclear Medicine and Biology. b) To promote the development of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. c) To organize whatever commissions and meetings are necessary to attain such objectives, in particular convening specialists in Nuclear Medicine and Biology in a Congress of the Federation. d) To prepare and recommend the organization of a unified programme of 79
  • 80. teaching and training in the field of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. e) To facilitate the exchange of scientists between the member groups, societies and associations and to set up a body this will centralize and help such exchange. f) To represent with one voice all Nuclear Medicine activities to the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other appropriate organizations. Major Activities/Programmes: To enhance the activities of WFNMB three committees is responsible- International Coordinating Committee: Working for the promotion of nuclear medicine in global level through the re- evaluation of the role of the WFNMB and to redefine its functionality as an organization. International Scientific Committee: a) To plan and develop the basic framework of the WFNMB World Congress scientific program b) To advise decisions regarding topics for the WFNMB World Congress and the selection of the invited speakers Global Networking Group: a) To effectively administer the policy issues of the WFNMB by conducting systematic reviews and manage the activities of the task-force groups b) To develop successful policies and programs utilizing data and research collected by the task-force groups The Federation shall organize an international Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology in every four years and every member of a national society of group may participate. 80
  • 81. V. CONCLUDING REMARKS In the memory of its past years, RCA has gained fruitful results and high reputation as a model in technical co-operation within the IAEA. Looking forward to the future, the burden is still heavy and the road goes on. There is still endless need and desire for the techniques socially and economically. Under the two subjects of peace and development, peaceful applications of nuclear energy and techniques will be prosperous. Every body, for instance, will, on average, have a nuclear medicine treatment/diagnosis using a radiopharmaceutical in their lifetime. So its demand is unlimited. The largest group of nuclear medicine personnel are technicians 81
  • 82. responsible for the routine performance of clinical studies. But unfortunately, in many member countries where good training facilities are not available and do not usually have the opportunity of overseas training. RCARO may arrange distance assisted training; provide up-dated study material for increasing/improving the number and quality of trained nuclear medicine technologists in the RCA Member States. Hence quality of healthcare in the region will be enhanced by the upgraded and standardized educational qualifications and resultant higher motivation of nuclear medicine technicians. Medical physicists play an important role in the safe applications of radiation in medicine. This includes the development of safety procedures, maintenance of technical standards, teaching and training of medical staffs, development and implementation of QA and QC protocols. RCARO may provide those well documented materials to the member sates. This will not only improve the quality of service available but will also enhance their professional status. Some countries (e.g, Myanmar, Vietnam etc.) are far behind to maintain quality in health care though it’s most important. RCARO as platform of RCA may initiate special training for Medical technician, technologist, oncologist etc for ultimate development of patient outcomes through improved diagnosis and/or treatment. The RCA regional Office now has several new programmes like-Post-doctoral Fellowship Training Programme, KAIST Master’s Degree Course, KOICA Nuclear Medicine Internship Training Programme. These will enhance to support the RCA Member States in their nuclear capability building as well as their nuclear knowledge preservation endeavours. Apart from the aforementioned programmes RCARO may also take initiatives for arranging the Ph.D. programme together with KAIST Master’s Degree Course. 82
  • 83. VI. ACRONYMS RELATED TO HUMAN HEALTH AHF-Accelerated Hyperfractionation Radiotherapy ALND-Axillary’s Lymph Node Dissection ARBR-Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy ASO-Applied Sciences of Oncology BMD-Bone Mineral Density BMT-Bone Marrow Transplant CC-Cervix Cancer 83
  • 84. CH-Congenital Hypothyroidism CHICO-Chitosan Complex CRT-Chemo-radiotherapy CSF-Cerebro Spinal Fluid DEXA-Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry DHF-Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever DISIDA-Di-isopropyliminodiacetic Acid DIT-Diiodo-tyrosine DLT-Dose Limiting Toxicities DMSA-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid DM-Diabetes Mellitus DMRP-Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics DRS-Dynamic Renal Scintigraphy, DSA-Digital Subtraction Angiography DTPA Diethyline Triamine Penta-acitic Acid ECD- Ethyl Cystienate Dimer EDTA- Ethylene Diamene Tetra Acetic Acid EDTMP-Ethylene Diamine Tetramethylene Phosphonic Acid EIA-Enzyme Immunoassay ESRD-End Stage Renal Diesease FDG-Fluorodeoxyglucose FIA-Fluro-immunoassay FSH-Follicle Stimulating Hormone FT3-Free Triiodothyronine FT4-Free Thyroxine GFR-Glomerular Filtration Rate GHA- Glucoheptonate HAS-Human Albumin Serum HBV-Hepatitis B Virus HCC-Hepatocelluar Carcinoma HCG-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 84
  • 85. HDACI-Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors HDR-High-Dose Rate HEDP-Hydroxy Ethylidene Diphosphonate HGH -Human Growth Hormone HIDA-Dimethylimino Diacetic Acid HLH-Human Luteinizing Hormone HMDP-Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate HMPAO- Hexa Methylene Propylene Amine Oxide HPI-Helicobacter Pylori infection IMRT-Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy IRMA- Immunoradiometric assay LDR-Low-Dose-Rate LH-Luteinizing Hormone LINAC- Linear Accelerator MA-Micro-albumunuria MAA- Macro Aggregated Albumin MAG-3- Mercapto-Acetyltriglycine MDP Methyl Diphosphonate MEVVA-Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc Ion Source MIBG-Meta-iodobenzylguanidine MIBI-Methoxy-isobutylisonitrile MIT-Monoiodo-tyrosine MLC-Multi-leaf Collimators MRI-Magnetic Resonance Imaging MTS-Membrane Transfer Sequence MUGA-Multi Gated Acquisition NAHRES-Nutritional and Health Related Environmental Studies NCS-Nucleonic Control System NPC-Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma NUMDAB-Nulear Medicine DataBase PCR-Polymerase Chain Reaction 85
  • 86. PET-Positron Emission Tomography PRL-Prolactine PZC-Inorganic Polymer Adsorbent QA-Quality Assurance QC-Quality Control RBC- Red Blood Cells RD-Recommended Dose RTRT-Real-time Tumor-tracking Radiotherapy RIA- Radioimmunoassay RO- Radiation Oncologist RPA Renal Parenchymal Scintigraphy RSS-Restriction Site-Specific RT-Reverse Transcription SC- Sulphur Colloid SLL-Sentinel Lymph node Lymphoscintigraphy SLN-Sentinel Lymph Node SPN-Solitary Pulmonary Nodules SPECT-Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography SRS-Stereotactic Radio surgery SRT-Stereotactic Radiotherapy SSCP-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism TAS -Triple Axis Spectrometer TcG-99mTc Column Generator TSG-Tumor Suppressor Gene TSH- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone T3-Trioidothyronine T4- Tetraiodo-thyronine UCC-Uterine Cervix Cancer USG-Ultrasonogram VUR-Vesico-ureteric Reflux 86
  • 87. REFERENCES (1) RCA Member States Websites (2) IAEA/TC Pride Websites (3) IAEA-Livelink Websites (4) RCA Regional Homepage (5) RCA Regional Office Homepage 87
  • 88. (6) Regional/International Development Organization Related Homepages. (7) IAEA/RCA Annual/Technical Reports (8) Coordination and Discussion with RCA Stakeholders in Korea (9) Coordination and Discussion with RCA Working Level Staffs of the Member States (10) Reports Submitted by the Participants after Attending the IAEA/RCA Training Programmes (11) Reports Submitted by the Participants after Attending the IAEA/RCA Meetings. 88