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  1. 1. SURVEY ON THE MADICAL APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE MEMBER STATES September, 2005 Kabir Hossain Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS I. Introduction II. RCA and RCA Regional Office III. Survey Results on the Medical Applications of Radiation Technologies in the RCA Member States IV. Survey the Regional and International Development and Financial Organizations Related to Human Health Activities V. Concluding Remarks VI. Acronyms Related to Human Health 2
  3. 3. I. INTRODUCTION The mandate of the Regional Cooperative Agreement Regional Office (RCARO) is to increase RCA awareness and promoting partnerships for RCA programme. In order to carry out this mandate more successfully, it is needed to learn the status of current and potential end-users in radiation applications of the Member States (MSs). The studies on the status of human health related activities of the RCA Member States and regional & international development and financial organizations for the use as a database is a substantial notion of the RCARO. This will assist the Member States in pursuit of deriving medical applications of radiation technologies for the socioeconomic development of respective MSs. It will also be benefited for RCA project participants for maintaining close relationships with the end-users. Apart from the aforementioned, the invited staff from the RCA Member States to RCARO will also assist to (i) gather knowledge and experience on RCA management through the working in an institute of excellence in the region (ii) develop inter personal relationship through out the programme which will be beneficial for the strengthening of inter institutional cooperation (iii) enhance the understanding about the Korean experience on effective use of nuclear technology for its socioeconomic development. The applications of radiation technologies are widely utilized in MSs to meet the basic human needs and to enhance the capacity buildup in Thematic Areas viz., Agriculture, Health, Industry, Environment, Energy/Research Reactors/Waste Management, and Radiation Protection. For developing medical application, radiation technologies are used in the field of nuclear medicine, applied radiation biology and radiation therapy, dosimetry and medical radiation physics, and nutrition and human related environmental studies. Due to the proper utilization of radiation technologies in human health sector recently life expectancy has risen dramatically in the developing countries. The nuclear technologies are employed in numerous ways in the medical field. In developing countries; emphasis is placed on preventive medicine, early detection of 3
  4. 4. hepatitis and neonatal hypothyroidism, accurate evaluation of nutritional deficiencies and timely diagnosis of common hereditary diseases. The application of radiation technologies are span in many disciplines- such as radioimmunoassay, radiotherapy, radiopharmaceutical productions and sterilization techniques for transplantation and medical instruments. Radiation techniques are being adapted to treat cancer in the developing world. IAEA also give the priority for the establishment of quality assurance programme for radiation dosimetry and treatment of cancer. One of the treatments is for advanced cervical cancer, which is the most common female cancer. In the field of public health, RCA has supported projects on the measurement of the level of toxic elements in foodstuffs, treatment of cervix cancer by radiotherapy, management of liver cancer using transarterial therapy. The RCA has recognized the value of health care in the Southeast Asian region and has contributed establishing Human Tissue Banks to serve the region. Chemical compounds labeled with short-lived radioactive isotopes are useful for diagnostic purposes, especially to study how well an organ is functioning. The RCA programme has proven to be an effective mechanism for increasing regional self-reliance, fostering linkages and collaboration amongst its MSs through consensus. It has been able to produce tangible outputs from participation in well designed projects, despite the varying stages of development and diversity among Member States. The success of the RCA as a reliable regional framework for cooperation is linked to the unique benefits provided by the application of nuclear science and technology to address regional needs. To further develop and strengthen technical cooperation among the regional MSs and to achieve Millennium Development Goals for sustainability through regional cooperation in radiation technology, the RCARO has incepted in Daejeon, Korea for the overall benefit of the region. 4
  5. 5. The Human Health related IAEA/RCA projects for 2005-2006 cycle are-  Distant Assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians (EXTENSION)  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology (CONTINUATION)  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training (EXTENSION)  Improvement in QA for Brachytherapy of Frequent Cancers in the Region (NEW)  Prevention of Osteoporosis and Promotion of Bone Mass in Asian Populations using a Food-based Approach (NEW)  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes (NEW) 5
  6. 6. II. RCA AND RCA REGIONAL OFFICE A. REGIONAL COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT (RCA) RCA-a window to the future-acronym stands for Regional Co-operative Agreement for the co-operation with each other and with the IAEA to promote and co-ordinate co- operative research, development (R&D) and training projects in nuclear science and technology through their appropriate national institutions in East Asia and the Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA. It is an intergovernmental agreement. It was about 45 years ago (early 1960s), the IAEA, India and the Philippines came together under a three-way agreement to jointly operate an Indian neutron diffraction machine in the Philippines and was called the “India-Philippines-IAEA (IPA) Agreement”. Other inter-country activities on nuclear technology applications followed. Their success begged the question: why not develop a structure for promoting inter- country collaboration? This laid the foundation of the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) and was formalized in 1972, involving the Agency and ten government parties of the Asia and the Pacific region. The earliest signatories to the original agreement, according to the records we have seen were the following: India (7 June 72), Vietnam (12 June 72), Indonesia (16 Oct 72), Thailand (4 Dec 72), Philippines (17 April 73), Singapore (Sept. 74), Pakistan (6 Sept 74), Korea (9 Oct 74) Bangladesh (23 Oct 74) and Sri Lanka (9 Mar 76); now there are seventeen (17) in RCA which are as follows: Australia, Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia Republic of Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The newest members are Mongolia (1922), Myanmar (1994) and New Zealand (1994). The RCA agreement has the IAEA as a partner, not a party. It is one of four regional cooperative agreements under the aegis of the IAEA. The other three-a pioneering 6
  7. 7. approach in the United Nations-has been replicated are ARCAL for Latin America, formed in 1984, and AFRA, for Africa, formed in 1990 and ARASIA for Middle East (formed in 2002). Of the four agreements the RCA can be considered the most mature, most committed, and enviable. It is the most mature being the longest, not necessarily the oldest, running regional agreement – in its 33rd year now; it is most committed since many member states are now not only participating actively in its activities but also contributing financially to support projects; it is enviable since it is a model for other regional projects and is a pioneering approach to Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) in the United Nations System. The functions of IAEA within the framework of the Agreement is: to perform the secretariat duties required under the agreement; to support the co-operative projects through technical assistance and other IAEA programmes, as resources allow; to administer the project funds; and, to prepare an annual report. The IAEA is not a signatory to the RCA. The vision of RCA is: Security and Safety of Food & Nutrient To produce cheap & nutritious food Health Care Good health care at affordable price for mass population Industrial Development To improve economy & provide employment Energy Fuel of the economy Depletion of conventional sources Environmental Care & Protection Efficient technology ensuring environmental integrity Since 1995, RCA has re-focused its activities to reflect the increasing ability of the developing states to support their own activities scientifically and the global trend 7
  8. 8. towards research that is more applied and focused upon the needs of end-users. The new mission of RCA is to be recognized as the source of regional competence in nuclear science applications, to ensure a problem-solving focus in its activities, and to widen the range of funding sources. During last three decades RCA has shown remarkable achievements in the following Thematic Areas: Agriculture:  Asian Regional Project on Radiation Preservation of Fish and Fishery  Food Irradiation of Food and Horticulture Products  Mutation Breeding (more than 500 varieties) Industry:  NDT :radiography, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing and Eddy current testing  NCS : Pulp & paper, coal and petro-chemical industries  Tracer Techniques Health:  Nuclear medical applications for diagnostics and treatment  Cancer therapy  Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts to improve tissue banking Radiation Protection:  To build radiation protection infrastructure  Waste Safety  Environmental monitoring  Radiation protection for workers and public Energy:  Tools for planning electricity expansion schemes  Plant management & operational safety  Radioactive waste management Technical Co-operation:  Expert missions 8
  9. 9.  Training programmes  Regional Resource Units (RRU) B. RCA REGIONAL OFFICE (RCARO) An RCA office that represents all Member States of the RCA is needed in order to make an orchestrated effort with the related department of the IAEA. There has been no such structure in the RCA history while the Agency has administratively supported RCA Member States for effective and efficient programme implementation. Although the Agency initiated the creation of the RCA, the real ownership of the RCA programmes is of the Member States. The RCA office will thus act as a bridge between the Member States and the Agency. Hence to enhance RCA ownership by MSs, it was recommended to establish RCA Regional Office at Yangon Meeting in 1997 The RCA National Representatives meeting held in Mumbai in 2000 was a significant year for the RCA family since the Government of Korea offered to host the RCA Regional Office in Korea, and the Member States have welcomed the offer. In 2001 Dhaka meeting of RCA National Representatives supported for the establishment of the RCA Regional Office in Korea and at that time a Task Force Group (Australia and Korea take Lead) is requested to prepare draft Working Paper. RCA 30th GC in 2001 in Vienna agreed in Principle the Establishment of RCA Regional Office in Korea for 2- year interim period to finalize Legal Provisions and other preparations. Thus RCA Regional Office (RCARO) has opened on March 2002, Wednesday, 17:00 at Nuclear Training Center Building at KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. The 31st RCA General Conference Meeting in Vienna in September 2002 adopted the ‘Working Paper on the Establishment and Operation of the RCA Regional Office in Korea’ that stipulated details of operation and management of RCARO. The Working Paper was amended by the 32nd RCA General Conference in Vienna in September 2003 that incorporated the adoption of a RCA Resolution on the Establishment of the RCA Regional Office. 9
  10. 10. III. SUERVEY RESULTS ON THE STATUS OF THE MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE RCA MEMBER STATES AUSTRALIA The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) is responsible for delivering specialized advice, scientific services and products to government, industry, academic and other research organizations as Australia's national nuclear research and development organization and the centre of Australian nuclear expertise. ANSTO's science has applications in a diverse array of areas including health, the environment and industry. Diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's and heart disease are some of the areas they work in within the health domain. Every Australian, for instance, will, on average, have a nuclear medicine treatment using a radiopharmaceutical produced at ANSTO in their lifetime. It is an active partner and founder member of the RCA. It’s a donor country for RCA activities and participates in the following active Medical Application related RCA projects as a valuable contributor for the regional development.  Strengthening Medical Physics Through Education and Training.  Improved Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Distance Learning in Radiation Oncology  Improvement of Research Reactor Operation and Utilization Phase II 10
  11. 11. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: AUSTRALIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Peter MacCallum Cancer St Andrews Place Services offer a multi-disciplinary approach to the Centre East Melbourne Vic 3002, Australia diagnosis/investigation, treatment and follow-up of cancers: Breast Tel: 61 3 9656 1111 Service, Gastrointestinal Service, Urology Service, Gynaecologic Oncology Service, Haematology Service, Head & Neck Service, Lung Service, Melanoma & Skin Oncology Service, Neuro- Oncology Service, Paediatric and Late Effects Service, Sarcoma Service etc. -Radiation therapy (including Brachytherapy), Chemo-radiation, Chemotherapy, Radio immunotherapy, and Hormonal therapy etc. Research within the broad framework of four research programs, namely Cellular & Molecular Biology, Stem Cell, Cancer Immunology and Cancer Genomics & Genetics VITA MEDICAL LIMITED PO Box 350, Menai Central, -Innovator, manufacturer and distributor of diagnostic medical NSW 2234, Australia products. Tel+61(0) 2 9541 0411 -Specializes in lung ventilation imaging in the field of nuclear Facsimile: : +61(0) 2 9543 0960 medicine High Flux Australian Reactor PMB 1 Menai NSW 2234 -Production of much needed radioisotopes for medical purposes (HIFAR) Australi and for industry Australian Nuclear Science and E-mail: Technology Organization -Production of gamma ray sources for Sterilization purposes, (ANSTO) Cancer therapy, Industry etc. ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals PMB 1 Menai NSW 2234 Preclinical and clinical radiopharmaceutical development and Industrials (ARI) Australia • Drug synthesis, particularly in oncology and neurology 11
  12. 12. Tel: + 61 (02) 9717 9502 applications Fax: + 61 (02) 9543 6511 • Non-invasive imaging of the drug delivery process for specificity E-mail: and targeting • Assessment of drug delivery with visual evidence of deposition profiles • 'Proof-of-concept' studies to evaluate drug delivery and disposition in patients with targeted therapeutics. • Access to the full range of reactor and cyclotron produced radioisotopes. Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. PET Centre, -All types of radiation injected diagnosis using PET and SPECT Sydney, Australi imaging techniques which rely on cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals. -Specially LEUKOSCAN STUDY, for use in diagnostic imaging of the long bones and feet in patients with suspected osteomyelitis and where patients do not have access to ex-vivo WBC scanning National Medical Cyclotron ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals and Industrials (ARI) -Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes used in SPECT include: (NMC) PMB 1 Menai NSW 2234 Gallium-67 used to diagnose soft tissue tumors and some Australia inflammatory lesions, Thallium-201, used to assess heart Tel: + 61 (02) 9717 9502 conditions, Iodine-123, used to diagnose certain thyroid diseases, Fax: + 61 (02) 9543 6511 Iodine-123 labeled tracers commonly used to monitor neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, Thallium-201 as thallous chloride used in nuclear medicine for assessing the firmness of the heart etc. .-Currently developing an Indium-111 production system for use in SPECT for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease. Further development in PET based pharmaceuticals include F-18 Dopa and Carbon-11 labeled compounds which will be used at the PET Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospitals. -ANSTO's manufacturing arm, dispatches the cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals to hospitals and nuclear medicine practices across Australia 12
  13. 13. -Development of new radiopharmaceuticals has designed and built automated production systems for SPECT radiopharmaceuticals so they will be available to hospitals across Australia - Expand production for the overseas market End-users are the medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working in different hospitals and nuclear medicine across Australia and in the overseas markets. Radio Pharmacology Dr Nabil Morcos -Various radiobiological studies Laboratories Leader, Research and Development -Applications of radioisotopes in autoradiography, drug bio- ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals and Industrials distribution, drug metabolism, and receptor and transporter binding Telephone + 61 (02) 9717 9242 under physiological or pathological conditions Fax + 61 (02) 9543 6588 -Nuclear medicine Pre-clinical research into new radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostics or therapeutics -Pharmacokinetics and Toxic kinetics Evaluation of stability, distribution and clearance of drugs or toxicants in vivo -Functional Imaging and quantitative assessment of biological responses to internal or external stimuli in the model system Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry ANSTO Radiopharmaceuticals and Industrials Radiopharmaceutical preparation, organic synthesis, biological Laboratories Telephone + 61 (02) 9717 9242 evaluations, and handling of short lived radioisotopes. Fax + 61 (02) 9543 6588 SIRTeX Medical -Developing a biocompatible radioactive micro-sphere treatment for liver cancer sufferers, with fewer side-effects than alternative treatments such as chemotherapy -More than 800 000 new cases of primary or secondary liver cancer are diagnosed each year, with life expectancies varying from months to years, worldwide. Global Medical Solutions John Hodder -Provides a wide range of radiopharmaceuticals and associated Managing Director, products and services for nuclear medicine applications that include diagnosing heart disease, treating thyroid conditions and detecting tumors. Austin & Repatriation Medical Dept of Nuclear Medicine -The Department boasts comprehensive "Hot" and "Cold" 13
  14. 14. Centre Level 1, Harold Stokes Block, Studley Road Laboratories and manufactures many of the pharmaceuticals Heidelberg, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3084 (99mTcS/C, 99mTcMAA, 99mTcDTPA, 99mTcMDP, 99mTcRBC, Tel: (+61 3) 9496 5718 99mTc HMPAO etc.) and used for diagnosis (Liver, Spleen, Bone Fax: (+61 3) 9457 6605 Marrow, Lung, Brain, Kidney, and Thyroid Scan etc.) routinely, in- E-mail: house. -The most commonly used radio nuclides within Nuclear Medicine includes: 32-P, 51-Cr, 67-Ga, 89-Sr, 90-Y, 99m-Tc, 111-In, 131-I, 201-Tl amongst others. Centre for Positron Emission Austin Hospital, Austin Health, Studley Road, -The tracers/radiopharmaceuticals routinely produced in the centre Tomography Heidelberg, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3084 are: [15O] oxygen, [15O]carbon monoxide, [15O]water, Tel: (+61 3) 9496 5669 [13N]ammonia, [18F]FDG, [18F]FMISO, [18F]MPPF, , [18F]FLT, Fax: (+61 3) 9457 6605 [11C]flumazenil, [11C]PIB, [11C]choline etc. E-mail: -Appropriate amounts of the four positron emitters commonly used radio nuclides in this PET centre are: 15O, 13N, 11C and 18F and can ml be obtained with 10 MeV protons and 5 MeV deuterons. The WA PET/Cyclotron 1st Floor, G Block -The most common radioisotope produced by the cyclotron Services Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, located at the Hospital is Fluorine-18 or 18F and used in Phone: 61 8 9346 2656 their PET as 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG Fax: 61 8 9346 3610 (radiopharmaceutical). It is used extensively in tumor, brain and heart imaging studies. -Researchers are striving for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals e.g., C-11 methionine, F-18 FLT and F-18 fluorocholine. BANGLADESH Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority and pioneer research organization for the introduction and 14
  15. 15. promotion of the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology in the country. BAEC and other research organizations in the country are working during the last four decades in the area of medicine, food and agriculture, industries and environment for the socio- economic development using nuclear technology. BAEC has one Nuclear Medicine Institute and 13 Nuclear Medicine Centers (NMCs) located in different regions in the country and three private clinics also are established and rendering nuclear medicine services for public demand. A dozen of Tele-therapy units (Co-60), 2-Linear Accelerators, 6-Brachytherapy units (Cs-137) and a number of Deep therapy X-ray units are located at different government & private hospitals in the country. All such irradiation facilities are presently being used for the treatment of cancer patients. There are 11 active regional projects for the enhancement and development on the medical application of radiation technologies in Bangladesh-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes 15
  16. 16.  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: BANGLADESH NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib - Developing and upgrading the Nuclear Medicine in the country. Ultrasound (INM&U) Medical University (MSMMU) - Investigated for diagnosis of thyroid, kidney, bone, brain and liver/spleen etc. Shahbagh, Dhaka-1000 disorders. Tel: - Treatment for thyroid cancer. Fax: - Tc-99m, I-131 solutions and capsules etc. isotopes are being used for diagnosis E-mail: and therapeutic purposes -Analysis of thyroid hormones such as-T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, Prolactine, etc. in RIA laboratory -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis Institute of Nuclear Science & Radioisotope Production Division - Production and supplies Tc-99m generator and I-131 to the end users are in Technology (INST) AERE, Ganakbari regular basis. P.O. Box # 3787 - Scandiam-46, Irridium-192, Holmium-166 are also produced on request. Savar, Dhaka - Presently, the laboratory is capable to produce only 32% isotopes of the country Tel:880-2-7701816 demand. End-users: The direct end-users are medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working in nuclear medicine. Research activities: Research and development on Tc-99m generator columnmatrix other than alumina. -Investigation on the development on diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals. 16
  17. 17. Institute of Nuclear Science & Neutron Activation Analysis group - Analysis of trace especially essential and toxic elements in different varieties of Technology (INST) RNPD, AERE, Ganakbari imported food items for the protection of human health. P.O. Box # 3787 -Determination of arsenic in Human hair/nail samples for arsenic affected patients. Savar, Dhaka Tel:880-2-7701829 E-mail: Tissue Bank Unit AERE, Ganakbari -Collection of amnion membranes & bone grafts and sterilized with 50-kCi P.O. Box # 3787 gamma radiation source and supplied to the different hospitals/clinics for the Savar, Dhaka treatment of burn, orthopedic and dental patients. Tel:880-2-7701679 End-users are medical physicians across the country.. Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Bangladesh Atomic Energy - Investigated for diagnosis of thyroid, kidney, bone, brain and liver/spleen etc. Centers (NM&UCs) Commission (BAEC) disorders. 4, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue - Treatment for thyroid cancer. P.O. Box # 158 - Tc-99m, I-131 solutions and capsules etc. isotopes are being used for diagnosis Ramna, Dhaka-1000 and therapeutic purposes Tel:+880-2-8619000 -Thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH etc.) analysais in RIA lab. Fax:+880-2-8613051 -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis Dhaka Medical College and Radiotherapy Department Treatment of cancer patients through Linear Accelerator (LINAC), Hospital Dhaka Medical College and Brachychytherapy units and Co-60 teletherapy units. Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh Popular Diagnostic Centre Ltd. House#11/A, Road# 2 -Diagnosis of Brain, Bone, Kidney, Liver, GFR, whole body scan & Dhanmondi R/A SPECT,thyroid with Tc99m labeled with respective kits. These isotopes and Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh labeled compounds are imported from abroad. Tel: +880-2-9669480, 9661491-2 -Analysis of thyroid hormones such as-T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, Fax : +880-2-8611634 Prolactine, etc. in RIA laboratory. -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis. LABAID LIMITED House No. 1, Road No. 4, -Diagnosis of Brain, Bone, Kidney, Liver, GFR, whole body scan & Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 SPECT,thyroid with Tc99m labeled with respective kits. These isotopes and Tel:880-2- 8610793-8 labeled compounds are imported from abroad. Fax: 880-2-8617372 -Analysis of thyroid hormones such as-T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17
  18. 18. Email: Prolactine, etc. in RIA laboratory. -Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement for osteoporosis. Delta Medical Center Mirpur-1, Dhaka, Bangladesh Treatment of cancer patients through Linear Accelerator (LINAC), Brachychytherapy units and Co-60 teletherapy units. PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA China accepted the RCA agreement following its admission to the IAEA in 1984. Since then it has actively participating in all sorts of RCA activities and co-operative research projects. In a few years after its acceptance to the agreement, the Chinese government started its voluntary donations in finance to RCA activities. For the familiarization of radiation technologies in China, China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) is the pioneering and responsible organization since 1950s. In medical application technology in China, it has 7 bases producing Radioactive Medicine, maintaining the momentum of rapid development of nuclear appliance. There are over 1000 hospitals applying nuclear medical technology, which make considerable contributions to the improvement of public health level. China actively participated in the ongoing nuclear development projects related to human health are-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radio conjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy 18
  19. 19.  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES China Atomic Energy Authority A8, Fuchenglu, Haidian District, -More than 40 units are engaged in R&D and production of radioisotopes (CAEA) P.O. Box 2102 Beijing 100 822 China and radiopharmaceuticals for medical and industrial applications. In Tel: 00 86 10 8398 3381 respect of radiography sources, Mo-Tc99m generator is available in every Fax: 00 86 10 8398 3516, 00 86 10 8858 1516 week. e-mail: - With the rapid evolution of modern nuclear medicine, the application of advanced nuclear medical devices (such as SPECT and PET) the radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of difficult and complicated cases, e.g. tumor, has developed at a quick pace. -4 tissue banks in different areas of China and its products in line with ISO quality standard have been utilized in over 150 different hospitals for clinical practices solved and cured patients. -End users of these radioisotopes and bone/tissue grafts are the medium and small ranking hospitals all over the country Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Panjiayao Zuoanmenwai, Therapy. Beijing 100021, China 19
  20. 20. E – Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Application of Nuclear Medicine Fudan University Tel: 86 21 64041990 ext2507 Fax: 0086 21 640238472 e-mail: China Institute for Radiation Xuefu Street 270, Taiyuan, China 030006 - To develop tissue banking practice and promote the technique of Protection Tel: 86 351 2203513 radiation sterilization for tissue grafts. Fax: 86 351 7020407 -Bone allograft have been distributed to hospitals. E-mail: Dept of Nuclear medicine and Shanghai Nuclear Medicine Quality Control PET Centre Centre Hua Shan Hospital Fudan University Shaghai 200040 P.R China Tel:86-21-62489999 ext. 6478 Zhong Shan Hospital Dept of Radiology -Malignance diagnosis and treatment services such as nasopharyngeal 180 Fenglin Road Shanghai carcinoma, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, breast carcinoma, rectum China cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, brain tumors etc and diagnostic Tel:86-21-64041990 radiology, interventional radiology through single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Linear Accelerator (LINAC), magnetic resonance scanner, computed tomography (CT) etc. Cancer Hospital Dept. Of Medical/Radiation Oncology -Systemic control and treatment of a variety of malignancies, such as Medical Center of Fudan University breast cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, gastric P.R.China cancer, nasopharynx carcinoma, liver cancer, thyroid carcinoma, carcinomas of mouth cavity (lingua cancer), lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, choriocarcinoma, ovary cancer, hysterocarcinoma, testicles tumors and soft tissue sarcoma etc. with high and low energy linear accelerator, 60Co machine, interstitial radiotherapy equipment, X knife, several types of X-ray machine, GE digital mammogram and Stereo tactic 20
  21. 21. Aspiration System, helix CT, SPECT, etc. Prince of Wales Hospital Dept of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ This center performed manifold Nuclear Medicine Activities such as: Imaging Myocardial Perfusion Scan, MUGA Scan, Radionuclide The Chinese University of Hong Kong Lymphangiography, Haemangioma Study, Technetium Thyroid Scan, Gastric Emptying Study, Gastrointestinal Bleeding Study, Gallium m labelled WBC Study, Dynamic Renal Scan, Radionuclide Cystography, I-131 MIBG Scan, SND, Brain perfusion studies, Whole body bone scan, Bone Marrow Scan etc. INDIA The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India was set up on August 3, 1954 and involved in RCA agreement in 1972. DAE play the key role for the development of radiation technologies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry and basic research. During the last couple of decades, remarkable progress in India has been achieved in the application of radioisotopes and radiation technology. India is participating in a number of projects on Medical Application of radiation technology-  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Quality Assurance for Treatment of Cervix Cancer by Radiotherapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach 21
  22. 22.  Tumour Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: INDIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Dr. E Borges Road, Parel -Devoted for diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and education for Cancer Cancer Care Center Mumbai - 400 012, India with an objective to provide the highest standard of patient care. Tel. +91-22- 24177000, 24146750- 55 -Over 16,000 cancer patients are seen every year at this hospital. Fax: +91-22-24146937 Research: Low Dose Rate (LDR) versus High Dose Rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy for carcinoma cervix. -Fractionation study in Head and Neck Cancer Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) Dr. E Borges Road, Parel -Deliver both external beam therapy and Brach therapy for Cancer patients. Dept. of Radiation Oncology Mumbai - 400 012, India -Research: Oesophageal cancers: Treatment by high dose-rate Intraluminal Brachytherapy. -High Dose Rate and Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Carcinoma Cervix. -Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Tata Memorial Hospital Dr. E Borges Road, Parel -Offer a viable alternative to expensive imported grafts bringing allograft within Tissue Bank Mumbai - 400 012, India easy reach of all. -Training staff and providing technical assistance at various hospitals in the country like Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur, Sancheti Hospital, Pune, Government Medical College & Hospital, Nagpur. -The direct beneficiaries will be medical physicists working in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine. Advanced Centre for Treatment, Sector 22, Kharghar, Research investigations currently focus on molecular mechanisms responsible Research & Education in Cancer Navi Mumbai - 410208, India. for causation of major human cancers (ACTREC) Tel:+91-22-2741 2919 Facsimile No: +91-22-2741 2894 Email: 22
  23. 23. Satyam Hospital and Trauma 392 Adarsh Nagar Centre 144001 Jalandhar City, India Tele:+91 (for India) - 181 - 247 02 00 Telefax:+91 (for India)-181-220 47 10 The Radiation Medicine Centre Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India) -Involve research and development in nuclear medicine and allied sciences as a (RMC) Tel:+91-22-25505050 / 25505010 major activity followed by patient services as well as human resources Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Fax:+91-22-25505151 / 25519613 development in nuclear medicine. (BARC) -Diagnostics investigations related to almost all organs of the body like thyroid, heart, bone, kidney, lungs, GI bleed, hematology, etc. with the help of PET scanner and 16.5 MeV medical cyclotrons. Department of Atomic Energy Anushakti Bhavan, -To set up Nuclear Medicine Centers and Radioimmunoassay (RIA) centers in (DAE) Chatrapathi Shivaji Maharaj Marg, areas away from the metropolitan cities by providing gamma cameras and RIA Mumbai 400 001 India counters for in-vitro and in-vivo diagnostics studies. Tel: + 91 22 283 6901 -Equipments, diagnostic kits and radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured Fax: + 91 22 204 8476 indigenously and supplied for medical applications, Irradiation facilities etc to e-mail: the centers. -Necessary training is also provided to end-users. -Promotional activities related to peaceful medical application of radiation technology. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India) Conduct various training courses in radiation medicine for doctors, for medical (BARC) technologists, in radiation therapy for medical physicists, in RIA and its clinical applications concerned with safety aspects in the use of ionizing radiation in Medicine, Industry and Research applications and to work as Medical Physicists / RSO in radiotherapy/ radio-diagnosis centres. Rotary Cancer Centre 117/K/11, Gutaiya, G.T.Road 208002 Kanpur, India Tel:+91- 512 - 543 887 Telefax:+91- 512 - 543 887 23
  24. 24. Isotope Production Division Vashi complex, 400 705 Mumbai, -Production of radiopharmaceuticals: 99m Tc-Phy, 99mTcS/C, 99m Tc-mebro, 99mTc- Board of Radiation and Isotope India MDP, 99mTc-RBC, 99mTc-MIBI, 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-EC, 99m Tc-GHA, 99mTc- ECD Technology (BRIT) Tel: +91-22-27887014 for the clinical use of Liver imaging, Liver and spleen imaging, Hepatobilliary E-mail: function, Bone Scan, Cardiac Function and Blood Pool Scans, Myocardial Perfusion study, Renal Function , Renal tubular function, Kidney imaging, Brain Scan and Scans for Infection -Produces and supplies sealed radiation sources of Cobalt-60 and Iridium-192 and Blood Irradiator for use in cancer hospitals, Cs-137 Brachytherapy sources for intracavitary treatment of cancer. -Produce the fission molly (Mo-99m) and Tc-99m generator for use in across the country and overseas. -Production of labeled compounds: 32P-Labelled nucleotides, 33P-Labelled nucleotides, 35S-Labelled amino acids & alpha-35S-dATP, 14C-Labelled compounds including custom synthesis, 3H-Labelled compounds including T- Labelling service. -Production of RIA kits for HGH, HLH, HCG, T3, T4, insulin, TSH etc. and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits for various hormones End-users are the medical physicists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiation technologists working in different hospitals and nuclear medicine of India.. Amala Cancer Hospital & Amalanagar P.O., Thrissur - 680 553, -Diagnosis, treatment and management of Cancer through Chemotherapy, Research Centre Kerala, India Radiotherapy and Cancer Surgery Phone: 91-487-211240 / 211751 -Radiotherapy systems include: Cobalt 60 Tele-therapy, Caesium137 tubes, Fax: 91-487-711020 / 712191 ridium192 etc. Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Idgah Hills, P.B. No. 32, -Investigation and different nuclear medicine study includes- Renal functions, Hospital Bhopal - 462 001 (M.P.) GFR estimation, Myocardial perfusion scan, thyroid uptake, brain scan, bone Dept of Nuclear Medicine Ph. 2665 720, 2666 374 scan etc. with gamma camera, thyroid uptake system, RIA laboratory etc. Fax: (0755) 2738 325 -Treatment of thyrotoxicosis, CA thyroid, thyroid neoplasm etc. Email: -Radiation therapy treatment of cancer patients with Tele therapy, Brach therapy, Website: LINAC etc. MNJ Institute of Oncology & Red Hills, Hyderabad - 500 004 24
  25. 25. Regional Cancer Centre India Tel:+91- 40 - 233 184 14 Telefax :+91- 40 - 233 140 63 Website: INDONESIA The National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) is assisting the nation to harness the radiation technology for the national development since its inception in 1958. BATAN has research and development facilities in nuclear fields located at five working regions called Nuclear Energy Research Centers. It transfer radiation technology to end-users through the number of national institutions and provide services of radiation technologies to the general public. BATAN involved in most of the RCA projects being implementing in the region in the field of application of radiation technologies for socioeconomic development. Apart from BATAN and its institutions, number of private sectors are also involved in the application of radiation technologies in the field of medicine, industries etc. Indonesia has 17 Nuclear Medicine hospitals and rendering service country-wide. Radioisotopes/radiopharmaceutical for Nuclear Medicine hospitals are produced internally and also exports sometimes like fission molly for Tc99m generator, I-131, I-125, Ir-192 etc over their country demand. Indonesia attached with RCA in 1972 and working as an active participant. Presently, Indonesia has a number of human health related RCA projects;  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians 25
  26. 26.  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism, Phase II MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: INDONESIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Center for Research and JL. Cinere Pasar Jumat Production of radioisotopes-201Tl, 153Sm, 86Rb, 89Sr, 166Ho, 131I etc. for nuclear Development of Isotopes and PO.Box.7002 JKSKL, medicine diagnosis and treatments- leukemia treatment, Bone cancer, Radiation Technology Jakarta 12070, Indonesia prostate cancer, breast cancer treatment, Cervic cancer therapy, Osteoblastic Tel. 62 021 7690709, therapy etc. Fax. 62 021 7691607-7513270, E-mail : End-users are medical physicists, radiation technologists, physicians working with radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine etc. in different hospitals of Indonesia. National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang -Radioisotopes produced by BATAN include: I-201, m-153, Sr-89, Rb-86, (BATAN) - 15310 Au-198 etc Center for Development of Tel. : 021.756.3141; 021.758.72031 -Production of labeled compounds- MIBI for detection of heart perfusion, Radioisotopes and Fax : 021.756.3141 HMPAO for detection of brain perfusion; 131I-Lipiodol for brain therapy, Radiopharmaceuticals E-mail : <>; 131I-MIBG diagnose and therapy, Sm-EDTMP for therapy of bone cancer, <> MAG-3 for tracing of kidney function, 26
  27. 27. Http :// -Radiopharmaceuticals/Radioisotopes produced by BATAN have been marketed and used for medical purposes in different Indonesian hospitals, nuclear medicine etc. (end user) National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Kuningan Barat, Mampang Prapatan To conduct research, development, and design in nuclear science and (BATAN) Jakarta, 12710 technology that can be usefully promoted for increasing the welfare of the Phone: +62 -21 5251109 people E-mail: PT. BATAN TEKNOLOGI PUSPIPTEK COMPLEX, Building 70, -Production of radioisotopes for medical, industrial, research and other SERPONG, nuclear technology application purposes TANGERANG 15310 P.O. Box : 343 CIPUTAT 15400 INDONESIA Tel. : (62-21) 7560555, 7560211,7563317,7560196, 7563357 Fax : (62-21) 7560118, 7560928, 7566646 e-mail : Division for Radioisotope PUSPIPTEK COMPLEX, Building 70, -Producing a wide variety of isotopes for medical purposes, like isotopes and Production SERPONG, TANGERANG 15310 labeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy. PT. BATAN TEKNOLOGI P.O. Box : 343 CIPUTAT 15400 -Producing more than 20 kind of radioisotopes, including Mo-99, I-125, INDONESIA I-131, P-32. Tel. : (62-21) 7560555, -Producing labeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy such as Tc99m 7560211,7563317,7560196, 7563357 generator, Na-I131, I131 labeled compound and DTPA, MDP Fax : (62-21) 7560118, 7560928, 7566646 - Produces sterile radio pharmaceutical kits (cold-kit) ready for use of e-mail : preparation of various Technetium-99m radio pharmaceuticals. End-users are medical physicists, radiation technologists, physicians working with radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine 27
  28. 28. etc. in Indonesia. University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine -Radiodiagnosis and Radiotherapy (External radiation) for cancer patients Dept. of Radiology Jl. Salemba Raya no 6 with Cobalt 60 (CGR), PO Box # 1358 -Research for radiation response in nasopharyngeal cancer with Jakarta 10430, Indonesia hyperfractionation compare to conventional fractionation Tel:+ 62-21-335006 Fax : +62-21-3915001 E-mail:, University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Research and medical service with Tc 99m radioisotope (Tc 99m Generator Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Jl. Salemba Raya no 6 supplied from BATAN). PO Box # 1358 Jakarta 10430, Indonesia Tel;+ 62-21-3148627 E-mail:, Dharmais Cancer Hospital JL. Letjend. S. Parman Kav 84-86 Slipi Investigation, prevention, treatment and management of cancer in Indonesia. National Cancer Center Jakarta Barat Indonesia Tel:+62 21 5681570 Fax:+62 21 5681579 e-mail JAPAN Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (AEC), act as a guardian-deliberating long term program of research, development and utilization of atomic energy, checking the progress along the program and making advice them. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, 28
  29. 29. Inc. (JAIF) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization incorporated under the auspices of the industry to promote peaceful utilization of nuclear energy for the benefit of Japanese nationals in consideration of the importance of the peaceful use of radioisotopes and radiation in a wide variety of fields. JAIF contribute to the development of a healthy and quality human life through the application various nuclear techniques in industry as well as in daily life i.e., its play a pivotal role for the familiarization of application of radiation technologies in Japan. Application of radiation technologies are well established in Japan. Since Japan is highly industrialized, technological and economical wealth is far exceed the other regional member states other than Australia, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, India, Singapore, and China, it provide financial assistance to RCA programme. It does not use IAEA technical assistance rather it donates. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: JAPAN NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Research Center for Charged Department of Medical Physics -This institute performs many medical physics service in heavy-ion therapy Particle Therapy Chiba, Japan clinical studies, nuclear medicine studies for tumor detection with 3-PET National Institute of scanners, 2- SPECT scanners and 3-Radioisotope producing Cyclotrons Radiological Science (NIRS) -Developing the 4D X-ray CT system and the next-generation PET system and conducting basic research in collaboration with other departments of the Center. -Basic research covers three themes in heavy ion therapy (e.g. "Highly- accurate irradiation method"), one theme in diagnostic imaging ("Spiral CT Examination System for Lung Cancer"), and one in medical exposure. End-users: Nuclear medicine physicians. 29
  30. 30. Cancer Research Institute 13-1, Takara-machi, Research focuses on the molecular basis of generation, differentiation, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, invasion proliferation and metastasis of cancer, as well as the development of 920-0934 JAPAN new therapeutic methods for hard-to cure diseases including cancer based on controlling apoptosis Kanazawa University 13-1, Takara-machi, Promote research and education in the safe and smooth use of RI (Research The Radioisotope Center Kanazawa, Ishikawa, using radioisotopes), to supervise the safety of RI as a facility for education 920-0934 JAPAN and research for common use in the university, and to provide related teaching staff with opportunities to use the facility jointly. Japan Atomic Energy Research Tokai Research Establishment -R&D for production and application of radioisotopes.. Institute (JAERI) 2-4 Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Department of Research Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 Reactors Tel: +81-(0)29-282-5111 Fax:+81-(0)29-282-6111 Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Radiation Application Research with -Study for radioisotope (RI) productions and labeled compounds for cancer Research Establishment Charged Particles and Radioisotopes diagnosis and cancer therapy. (TRCRE) 1233 Watanuki-cho, Takasaki-shi, -Development of pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium (186Re, 188Re) for Gunma-ken 370-1292, Japan cancer therapy. Tel:+81-(0)273-46-1211 -Development of glass micro-spheres of radioactive yttrium (90Y2O3) for Fax:+81-(0)273-47-2561 treatment of liver cancer. National Cancer Center 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, -Clarifying the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer promotion and Chemotherapy Division Tokyo 104-0045, Japan progression using the innovative proteomic and transcriptomic techniques E-mail: National Cancer Center 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, -Researches include cloning of genes involved in carcinogenesis, biological Cancer Medicine and Biophysics Japan and structural analysis of proteins, analysis of animal model, and Division E-mail: development of new strategies for cancer therapy Gunma University Hospital Faculty of Medicine Radiation Therapy two Linear Accelerators (LINAC) and a Tele cobalt Dept. of Radiology and 4-2 Aramaki-machi, Maebashi City, machine are operating for cancer treatment. Low-dose rate and high dose rate 30
  31. 31. Radiation Oncology Gunma, 371-8510 Japan brachytherapy are mainly performed for patients with head and neck tumors Tel: 027-220-7111, 027-220-7727 and gynecologic tumors. -Radioactive iodine therapy is also performed for patients with thyroid disease. Diagnosis and treatment for neoplasm malignant neoplasm include: brain, head & neck, lung & mediastinum, esophagus, breast, digestive system, skin, bone & soft tissue, urinary organs, genital organs, malignant lymphoma etc. -Diagnosis for malignant tumors is carried out by various kinds of X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Nuclear medicine including Positron Emission Tomography (PET) etc. Tohoku University Cyclotron Radioisotope Center -Cyclotron-produced positron emitters nuclides (C-11, F-18, O-15) and Division of Nuclear Medicine 6-3Aoba, Aramaki, corresponding radiopharmaceuticals ( [11C]Methionine, [11C]Doxepin, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578, [11C]Benztropin, [18F]FDG, [18F]FDOPA, [18F] Fluorodeoxyuridine, JAPAN [15O]Oxygen, [15O]Carbon dioxide, [15O]Carbon monoxide, [15O]Water) Tel.+81 022-795-7800 are used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine. -Whole body imaging of glucose metabolism has been routinely carried out for cancer diagnosis using 3D-PET Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Dai-ichi Chojiya Bldg. 5th fl -Promote peaceful utilization of nuclear energy for the benefit of Japanese Inc. (JAIF) 1-2-13, Shiba-daimon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, nationals in consideration of the importance of the peaceful use of 105-8605, JAPAN radioisotopes and radiation in a wide variety of fields. Tel: +81-3-5777-0750 -JAIF Annual Conference and Japan Conference on Radiation and Fax: +81-3-5777-0760 Radioisotopes -Promote the research, development and utilization of radiation and isotopes Japan Radioisotope Association The Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center -Produces positron emitting -11C, 13N, 15O, 18F by the cyclotron. (JRIA) -Nuclides are synthesized to radiopharmaceuticals which are administered to patients for disease diagnosis and research work. Ministry of Health, Labour and 1-2-2 Kasumigasek Chiyoda-ku Promotional activities for the application of Radiation and Radioisotopes for Welfare (MHLW) Tokyo, 100-8916 Japan Medical use. E-mail: l 31
  32. 32. Japan Radioisotope Association The Koka Laboratory Activities include radiation sterilization of disposable medical devices such as (JRIA) surgical gloves, syringes and dialyzers, radiation reforming of high polymer substances, gamma-ray irradiation service and training of technical personnel in the related fields. Research: studies on the properties of microorganism against gamma- radiation and determination and measurement of the optimum dose for sterilization. Kyoto University Research Division of Nuclear Engineering Science -Studies concerning the production of isotopes using Kyoto University Reactor Institute Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Reactor and their various applications. Isotope Production and Kumatori-cho Sennan-gun Research activities: Production and chemical separation of isotopes Application Group Osaka 590-0494, Japan -Methodology and application of neutron activation analysis Tel:+81-724-51-2300 Fax:+81-724-51-2600 REPUBLIC OF KOREA In Korea, nuclear-related activities are planned and carried out by various organizations such as-the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), and the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE). The Atomic Energy R&D Program, so called the "National Mid- and Long-term Atomic Energy R&D Program", is implemented mainly by KAERI, KCCH and KINS. The R&D Program covers fields as follows: i) nuclear reactor & 32
  33. 33. nuclear fuel, ii) nuclear safety, iii) radioactive waste management, iv) safety regulation and radiation protection, v) radiation/radioisotopes application and production, and vi) basic nuclear technology. There are 130 hospitals (including 35-PET Centers) having Nuclear Medicine facilities including Gamma Camera, CT, PET, CT-PET, SPECT etc in Korea. For rendering services in these hospitals, Korea is capable to produce Radioisotopes/ radiopharmaceuticals as their country demand and also export some radiopharmaceuticals to the Philippine, South Africa etc. Korea plays an active role in promoting peaceful nuclear technology corporation among the countries in Asia and Pacific region since it’s inception in RCA family in 1974. The RCA’s contributions to Korea’s nuclear technological development and economic growth can be seen in such fields as food and agriculture, medicine and health, industry and others. Many regional activities particularly the various regional training courses are organizes by the Korea. Korea has been participating in a number of RCA projects actively. At present, the projects related to the medical application of radiation technologies are:  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Preventing Osteoporosis and Promoting Bone Mass in Asian Populations Using a Food-based Approach 33
  34. 34.  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: REPUBLIC OF KOREA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Seoul National University College of Medicine, Improve the clinical management of cancer patients by radionuclide (SNU) imaging techniques with Single Photon Emission Computed Department of Nuclear Tel: +82-2-2072-3805 Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for Medicine, Fax: +82-2-745-7690 cancer detection Korea Atomic Energy Research Center for application of radioisotope and -Development of radioisotopes-Tc-99m, I-131, Au-198, Cr-51, P-32, Institute (KAERI) radiation Ir-192 etc. for medical and industrial use. Radioisotope Production P. O. Box 105, Yusung-gu, -Development of radio labeled compounds-Hipuran MIBG, Phytate Facility Daejeon, 305-600, Korea MDP, DISIDA DTPA, PTP, Sn colloid, HAS, MAA, ASC, DMSA, Tel: +82 42 868-8120 HMPAO, HMA, MA, DTPA, CHICO etc. for medical use. Fax: +82 42 868-8448 -Development of cyclotron for medical use -Enhancement of RI handling technologies -Production of fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator -KAERI recently developed radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes are Holmium-166 chitosan complex (166 Ho-CHICO), 166Ho-patch, radioactive stent and balloons for the treatment of liver cancer, skin cancer and cystic brain cancer, and Iridium-192 sealed sources for Brachytherapy. -Producing Iodine-131 solution of specific activity of 2~4 Ci/ml and therapeutic capsules of 30 to 200 mCi for the treatment of thyroid cancer and supplies to domestic users. The maximum capacity of I-131 production will be 60 Ci/week. -Medical radioisotopes, such as I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166, are routinely 34
  35. 35. produced and supplies to end users. End-users- are medical physicists, medical oncologist, nuclear medicine physicians, and radiation technologists working in nuclear medicine, different government and private hospitals in Korea.. Korea Radioisotope Association 14-5, kaepo-dong, kangnam-gu, Promotion of radioisotope utilization and mutual cooperation among (KRIA) Seoul, Korea Radioisotope users Tel:82-2-3411-6494, Fax:82-2-445-1014 The Korea Cancer Center 215-4 Gongneung-dong -Treatment and services for both cancerous and non-cancerous patients Hospital (KCCH) Nowon-ku, Seoul 139-706, Korea using state-of-the-art medical equipment such as a PET, SPECT, MRI, Tel:82-2-974-2501, Linear Accelerator (LINAC), Cyber Knife, Spiral CT, and an NT50. Fax:82-2-978-2005 -Advancement of cancer treatment and nuclear medicine by producing homepage: and distributing medical radioisotopes in Korea. -Enhance public health by conducting research on cancer, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and clinical medicine. Seoul National University Seoul, Korea -Major study : Brain SPECT, Whole Body Bone SPECT, GET, Hospital (SNUH) Myocardium SPECT, Thyroid scan ,Thyroid uptake, 131I-Whole body Dept of Nuclear Medicine scan, Renal scan, Lymphangio scan, Lung perfusion scan, Other thyroid function test, etc -Developed and standardized of Rhenium-188 lipiodol and being used for liver cancer treatment. Seoul National University 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Research Activities: College of Medicine Korea -Clinical focus is the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis and Department of Nuclear Tel: +82-2-760-3805 therapy of cancers with the up-to-date imaging modalities, PET and Medicine E-mail : monoclonal antibody. -Development of new radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis or therapy. -Design new molecules and synthesize organic and inorganic compounds and labeled with radioisotopes such as 99mTc, 188Re, 123I, 18F, 11C, 13N, or 15O. After labeling, the new compounds are radio chemically analyzed and applied to animals to investigate their in vivo behavior. 35
  36. 36. The Institute of Radiation Tel : +82-2-740-8944 Major activities of Radiation Medicine are to – Medicine Fax: +82-2-762-8935 -Diagnosis and treatment of human diseases by using radiation Medical Research Center e-mail: -Medical application of radiation and radioisotopes Website (Korean/English) -Development of human resources related to radiation medicine College of Medicine Tel : +82-2-3668-7009 To conduct research in both basic and clinical fields of cancer study Cancer Research Institute Fax: +82-2-766-4477 Homepage (Korean Only) Seoul National University 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Research activities: College of Medicine Korea -Combination effect of Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) and Dept. of Radiation Oncology Tel: +82-2-760-3805 radiation. Tel: 82-2-760-2524 -Significance of apoptotic cell death compared to total cell death after Fax: 82-2-742-2073 g-ray irradiation in human H&N cancer cell. E-mail: -Role of Membrane Transfer Sequence (MTS) in radiation sensitization effects of COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. -Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on radiation sensitivity of head and neck cancer cell lines and its mechanism Korea Institute of Radiological 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-ku, -Treated spine oncology, spine vessel diseases, lung cancer, liver and Medical Sciences Seoul, Korea 139-706 cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreas cancer, prostate cancer, and (KIRAMS) other diseases that are not treatable with radiation treatment equipment, as well as brain tumours, brain vessel disease, tertiary neuralgia, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy through the Cyber Knife Centre. -Provide cancer patient care, cancer prevention and diagnosis in early stage, cancer genetic consultative service through the Cancer Prevention Centre equipped with CT, MRI, PET/CT, Gamma camera etc. -Production and distribution of Radioisotopes for diagnosis and treatment. Research include-Development of cancer diagnosis and treatment. -Usage of radioisotopes and accelerator. 36
  37. 37. Laboratory of Tissue 215-4 Gongneung-Dong, Nowon-ku, On-going research development of Bio-artificial skin Engineering Seoul, Korea 139-706 -Development of Tissue Engineered Cartilage Korea Institute of Radiological Tel:82 2 970-1317, 1319, 1373 -Development of Bio-Vascular Graft and Medical Sciences Fax:82 2 949 3809 -Bioreactor for tissue Engineering (KIRAMS) MALAYSIA Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a premier R&D based organization in nuclear science and technology, continues to play an active role and contributes to the implementation and realization of national science and technology policies to ensure that she remains to be a relevant public research institute. The scope and coverage of MINT research technology development is focused to the major sectors of national and economic development, which among others include the industry, medical and health care, manufacturing, environment etc. Among the products which have been successfully marketed include radioisotopes and radiopharmaceutical kits, radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex and mutants of ornamental plants, whilst the technical services include irradiation services, secondary standard and personal dosimetry, non-destructive testing (NDT), radioactive waste disposal, quality assurance in medical physics, neutron activation analysis (NAA), radiochemical analysis, microbiology test and nuclear instrumentation maintenance. MINT is the one and only licensed government radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facility in Malaysia and is instrumental to the development of nuclear medicine in Malaysia through fund-sourcing, training, infrastructure development and the product development and supply of radiopharmaceutical. Malaysia also co-ordinates and participates in regional co-operation projects comprising RCA, FNCA and IAEA research contracts as well as it’s involvement as host to a number of international 37
  38. 38. activities such as meetings, workshops and training courses. Malaysia became a member of RCA in 1975. Malaysia is participating in a number of regional projects regarding medical application of radiation technologies.  Distance-assisted Training for Nuclear Medicine Technicians  Regional Screening Network for Neonatal Hypothyroidism  Distance Education in Radiation Oncology  Quality Assurance Programme for Molecular-Based Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases  Management of Liver Cancer Using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy  Strengthening Medical Physics through Education and Training  Improvement in Quality of Radiotherapy for Frequent Cancers in the Region  Tumor Imaging Using Radioisotopes MEDICAL APPLICATIONS COUNTRY: MALAYSIA NAME OF INSTITUTION ADDRESS MAJOR ACTIVITIES Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Bangi, 42000 Kajang, -Technology commercializes and transfers the research findings to the Technology Research (MINT) Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia companies and hospitals. Tel : (603)-8925 0510 -Expert services (training) - in the field of radiation safety and human Fax : (603)-8925 8262 health care, NDT, technology management and medical X-ray. E-Mail : Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Bangi, 42000 Kajang, In collaboration with nuclear research reactor and isotope production 38