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Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
 

Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition

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    Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9 Urinary System
    • Multimedia Directory
      • Slide 11 Urinary System Animation
      • Slide 23 Kidney Animation
      • Slide 26 Kidney Labeling Exercise
      • Slide 63 Kidney Stone Video
      • Slide 66 Renal Failure Video
      • Slide 71 Urinalysis Video
      • Slide 77 Catheterization Video
      • Slide 81 Peritoneal Dialysis Video
    • Urinary System at a Glance
      • Functions of Urinary System
        • Maintain stable internal environment
        • Remove waste products
        • Adjust water and electrolyte levels
        • Maintain correct pH
    • Urinary System at a Glance
      • Organs of Urinary System
        • Two kidneys
        • Two ureters
        • One urinary bladder
        • One urethra
    • Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Urinary System Combining Forms
      • azot/o nitrogenous waste
      • bacteri/o bacteria
      • cyst/o bladder
      • glomerul/o glomerulus
      • glycos/o sugar, glucose
      • keton/o ketones
    • Urinary System Combining Forms
      • lith/o stone
      • meat/o meatus
      • nephr/o kidney
      • noct/i night
      • olig/o scanty
      • pyel/o renal pelvis
    • Urinary System Combining Forms
      • ren/o kidney
      • ur/o urine
      • ureter/o ureter
      • urethr/o urethra
      • urin/o urine
      • vesic/o bladder
    • Urinary System Suffixes
      • -lith stone
      • -lithiasis condition of stones
      • -ptosis drooping
      • -tripsy surgical crushing
      • -uria condition of the urine
    • Anatomy and Physiology
      • Also called genitourinary system
      • Consists of
        • Two kidneys
        • Two ureters
        • One urinary bladder
        • One urethra
    • Urinary System Animation Click here to view an animation of the urinary system. Back to Directory
    • Function
      • Main function is to filter and remove waste products from blood
      • Metabolic processes produce waste
      • Blood becomes toxic if waste builds up
      • Waste materials are called urine
      • Urine is then removed from body
    • Homeostasis
      • Responsible for homeostasis
        • Maintain proper balance of water and chemicals in body
      • Regulate levels of electrolytes
        • Sodium
        • Potassium
        • Chloride
        • Bicarbonate
      • Maintain pH
    • Waste Removal
      • Waste is removed through system of blood vessels and tubules
        • Called the nephron
        • More than 1 million make up each kidney
        • Produce urine
      • Urine drains from kidney through ureters to bladder, into urethra, and then out of body
    • Kidneys
      • Located behind peritoneum
        • Retroperitoneal
      • Concave area on edge of center called hilum
        • Renal artery enters
        • Renal vein leaves
        • Ureter leaves
      • Figure 9.1 – Kidney structure. Longitudinal section showing the renal artery entering and the renal vein and ureter exiting at the hilum of the kidney.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Internal Structure of Kidneys
      • Cortex
        • Outer portion
      • Medulla
        • Inner portion
      • Pyramids
        • Triangular shaped structures in medulla
      • Papilla
        • Tip of each renal pyramid
      • Figure 9.2 – Longitudinal section of a kidney illustrating the internal structures.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Internal Structures of the Kidneys
      • Calyx
        • Small open area that receives urine from each papilla
      • Renal pelvis
        • Large open area that receives urine from each calyx
        • Empties into ureter
      • Figure 9.2 – Longitudinal section of a kidney illustrating the internal structures.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Nephron
      • Functional unit of kidney
      • Microscopic
      • More than 1 million nephrons in each kidney
      • Consists of
        • Renal corpuscle
        • Renal tubules
    • Renal Corpuscle
      • Two parts:
        • Glomerulus
        • Glomerular or Bowman’s capsule
      • Blood flows through glomerulus
      • Substances filtered from blood and enter glomerular capsule
    • Kidney Animation Click here to view an animation demonstrating renal blood flow. Back to Directory
    • Renal Tubules
      • Four sections:
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
        • Collecting tubule
      • Filtrate flows through renal tubules to complete urine production process
      • Figure 9.3 – The structure of a nephron.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Kidney Labeling Exercise Click here to review kidney internal structures in a labeling activity. Back to Directory
    • 3 Stages of Urine Production
      • Urine is produced as filtrate moves through renal tubules
      • Three stages:
        • Filtration
        • Reabsorption
        • Secretion
    • Filtration
      • Between glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule
      • Filtrate is produced
        • Water
        • Glucose
        • Amino acids
        • Wastes
      • Filtrate enters renal tubules
    • Reabsorption
      • As filtrate moves through renal tubules
        • Water & desirable molecules are reabsorbed
        • Returned to blood in peritubular capillaries
        • Waste & undesirable molecules remain in renal tubules
    • Secretion
      • As filtrate moves through renal tubules
        • Additional waste products removed from blood in peritubular capillaries
        • Added to filtrate in renal tubules
      • Figure 9.7 – The three stages of urine production: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Ureters
      • Urine drains from renal pelvis into ureters
      • Extend from renal pelvis to urinary bladder
      • Lined with mucous membranes
      • Figure 9.4 – The ureters extend from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Urinary Bladder
      • Elastic muscular sac
        • Smooth muscle tissue
        • Lined with mucous membrane
        • Folded into rugae
      • Lies in base of pelvis
        • Behind pubic symphysis
      • Figure 9.5 – The structure of the urinary bladder.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Urinary Bladder
      • Receives urine from ureters
      • Stores urine
        • Holds 250 mL of urine
      • Excretes through urethra
      • Involuntary muscle action causes:
        • Bladder to contract
        • Internal sphincter to relax
      • Voluntary muscles control external sphincter
    • Urethra
      • Tubular canal lined with mucous membrane
        • 1½ inches long in females
        • 8 inches long in males
      • Carries urine from bladder to outside of body
      • External opening is called urinary meatus
      • Releasing urine from body is called
        • Micturition
        • Voiding
        • Urination
      • Figure 9.6A – The male urethra extends from the urinary bladder in the floor of the pelvis through the penis to the urinary meatus.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
      • Figure 9.6B – The much shorter female urethra extends from the urinary bladder to the floor of the pelvis and exits just in front of the vaginal opening.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Urine
      • Normally straw colored to clear
      • 95% water
      • Contains:
        • Excess water
        • Excess electrolytes
        • Toxins
        • Nitrogen wastes
      • Normal 24-hour output 1,000 to 2,000 mL
      • Acidic, specific gravity varies
        • 1:001 to 1:030
    • Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Word Building with cyst/o bladder stone cystolith – lith bladder inflammation cystitis – itis pertaining to bladder cystic – ic record of bladder cystogram – gram excision of bladder cystectomy – ectomy bladder pain cystalgia – algia
    • Word Building with cyst/o new opening in bladder cystostomy – ostomy incision into bladder cystotomy – otomy instrument to examine inside bladder cystoscope – scope rapid bleeding from bladder cystorrhagia – rrhagia surgical repair of bladder cystoplasty – plasty surgical fixation of bladder cystopexy – pexy
    • Word Building with lith/o incision to remove stone lithotomy – otomy surgical crushing of stone lithotripsy – tripsy
    • Word Building with nephr/o kidney softening nephromalacia – malacia kidney specialist nephrologist – logist kidney stone nephrolith – lith inflammation of kidney nephritis – itis record of kidney nephrogram – gram removal of kidney nephrectomy – ectomy
    • Word Building with nephr/o kidney enlargement nephromegaly – megaly new opening into kidney nephrostomy – ostomy drooping kidney nephroptosis – ptosis abnormal condition of the kidney nephrosis – osis kidney tumor nephroma – oma
    • Word Building with nephr/o surgical fixation of kidney nephropexy – pexy condition of kidney stone nephrolithiasis – lithiasis kidney hardening nephrosclerosis – sclerosis kidney disease nephropathy – pathy incision into kidney nephrotomy – otomy
    • Word Building with pyel/o surgical repair of renal pelvis pyeloplasty – plasty inflammation of renal pelvis pyelitis – itis record of renal pelvis pyelogram – gram
    • Word Building with ren/o and ur/o urine blood condition uremia – emia urine specialist urologist – logist pertaining to the kidney renal – al
    • Word Building with ureter/o ureter stone ureterolith – lith narrowing of ureter ureterostenosis – stenosis ureter dilation ureterectasis – ectasis pertaining to ureter ureteral – al
    • Word Building with urethr/o inflammation of urethra urethritis – itis urethra pain urethralgia – algia instrument to view inside urethra urethroscope – scope narrowing of urethra urethrostenosis – stenosis rapid bleeding from urethra urethrorrhagia – rrhagia pertaining to urethra urethral – al
    • Word Building with urin/o pertaining to urine urinary – ary instrument to measure urine urinometer – meter
    • Word Building with –uria difficult or painful urination dysuria dys– bacteria in the urine bacteriuria bacteri/o blood in the urine hematuria hemat/o ketones in the urine ketonuria keton/o sugar in the urine glycosuria glycos/o condition of no urine anuria an–
    • Word Building with –uria frequent urination polyuria poly– scanty urination oliguria olig/o pus in the urine pyuria py/o protein in the urine proteinuria protein nighttime urination nocturia noct/i
    • Urinary System Vocabulary increased formation and secretion of urine diuresis involuntary discharge of urine; also called bed-wetting at night enuresis complete lack of urine production and lack of urine excretion anuria flexible tube inserted into the body; commonly through urethra into bladder catheter stone formed within an organ from mineral salts calculus nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream azotemia
      • Figure 9.8 – Sectioned kidney specimen illustrating extensive renal calculi.
      • (Dr. E. Walker/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
      • Figure 9.9 – Healthcare worker draining urine from a bladder catheter bag.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Urinary System Vocabulary pain caused by a kidney stone renal colic narrowing of a passageway in the urinary system stricture greater urge to urinate; no increase in total volume of urine frequency diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the kidney nephrology another term for urination micturition decrease in force of urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow hesitancy
    • Urinary System Vocabulary diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the urinary system urology another term for urination voiding accumulation of waste products in the bloodstream uremia inability to fully empty the bladder urinary retention involuntary release of urine urinary incontinence feeling the need to urinate immediately urgency
    • Kidney Pathology damage to renal tubules due to toxins in the urine; results in oliguria acute tubular necrosis (ATN) distention of renal pelvis due to accumulation of urine in the kidney hydronephrosis inflammation of the kidney; more permeable to protein and blood cells glomerulonephritis damage to glomerular capillaries due to high blood sugar of diabetes mellitus diabetic nephropathy
    • Kidney Pathology presence of calculi in the kidney; solidification of salts in the urine nephrolithiasis formation of multiple cysts within the kidney; destroys normal kidney tissue polycystic kidneys downward displacement of the kidney; floating kidney nephroptosis damage to glomerulus; protein appears in the urine nephrotic syndrome (NS)
    • Kidney Stone Video Click here to view a video on the topic of kidney stones. Back to Directory
      • Figure 9.10 – A polycystic kidney on the left compared to a normal kidney on the right.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Kidney Pathology inflammation of renal pelvis and kidney; common type of kidney disease pyelonephritis malignant kidney tumor; most often found in children Wilm’s tumor inability of kidneys to filter wastes; results in uremia renal failure cancerous tumor of renal tubule cells renal cell carcinoma
    • Renal Failure Video Click here to view a video on renal failure. Back to Directory
    • Urinary Bladder Pathology cancerous tumor arising from cells lining bladder; symptom is hematuria bladder cancer protrusion of the urinary bladder into wall of vagina cystocele blockage of bladder outlet; often caused by enlarged prostate gland bladder neck obstruction (BNO)
    • Urinary Bladder Pathology inflammation and irritation of bladder interstitial cystitis infection of any organ of urinary system; usually from bacteria; begins with cystitis and may ascend into ureters and kidneys urinary tract infection (UTI) loss of nervous control; leads to retention neurogenic bladder
    • Clinical Laboratory Tests blood test to evaluate kidney function by measuring level of nitrogenous waste (urea) in the bloodstream blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test of kidney function; amount of creatinine in bloodstream is compared to amount in the urine creatinine clearance urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary meatus and collecting sample in midstream clean catch specimen (CC)
    • Clinical Laboratory Tests physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine urinalysis (U/A, UA) test for bacterial infection; attempt to grow bacteria on a culture medium in order to identify it; then determine which antibiotics it is sensitive to urine culture & sensitivity (C&S)
    • Urinalysis Video Click here to view a video on urinalysis. Back to Directory
    • Diagnostic Imaging contrast dye is placed in bladder and then X-ray is taken; outlines bladder cystography injecting a dye into a vein and then taking an X-ray to outline the renal pelvis intravenous pyelogram (IVP) dye is injected into bloodstream; X-ray traces the dye as it moves through organs of the urinary system excretory urography (EU)
    • Diagnostic Imaging abdominal X-ray showing the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; does not use dye kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB) dye is placed in the bladder; X-ray taken to visualize the urethra while patient is voiding voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis retrograde pyelogram (RP)
      • Figure 9.11 – Color enhanced retrograde pyelogram X-ray. Radiopaque dye outlines urinary bladder, ureters, and renal pelves. (Clinique Ste. Catherine/CNRI/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Endoscopic Procedures visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope cystoscopy (cysto)
    • Medical Treatments use of artificial kidney machine to filter the blood hemodialysis (HD) insertion of a tube through urethra and into the urinary bladder catheterization (cath) removes wastes using chemically balanced solutions placed into peritoneal cavity peritoneal dialysis use of ultrasound waves to break up renal calculi extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
    • Catheterization Video Click here to view a video on catheterization. Back to Directory
      • Figure 9.12 – Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, a non-invasive procedure using high frequency sound waves to shatter kidney stones.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
      • Figure 9.13 – Patient undergoing hemodialysis. Patient’s blood passes through hemodialysis machine for cleansing.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
      • Figure 9.14 – Peritoneal dialysis. Chemically balanced solution is placed into the abdominal cavity to draw impurities out of the bloodstream. It is removed after several hours.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Peritoneal Dialysis Video Click here to view a video on peritoneal dialysis. Back to Directory
    • Surgical Treatments incision to directly remove stones from the kidney nephrolithotomy crushing a stone in the bladder or urethra lithotripsy surgical placement of a donor kidney renal transplant incision into the meatus meatotomy
      • Figure 9.15 – Figure illustrates location utilized for implantation of donor kidney.
      Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
    • Urinary System Pharmacology Lasix, Aldactone increases volume of urine diuretics Ditropan, Prostigmine prevent or reduce bladder muscle spasms antispasmodic Cipro, Macrobid treats bacterial infections antibiotic
    • Urinary System Abbreviations catheterization cath blood urea nitrogen BUN bladder neck obstruction BNO acute tubular necrosis ATN acute renal failure ARF acute glomerulonephritis AGN
    • Urinary System Abbreviations clean catch urine specimen CC continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD culture and sensitivity C&S cystoscopy cysto end-stage renal disease ESRD chronic renal failure CRF chloride Cl –
    • Urinary System Abbreviations water H 2 O input and output I&O hemodialysis HD bicarbonate HCO 3 – genitourinary GU excretory urography EU extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy ESWL
    • Urinary System Abbreviations intermittent peritoneal dialysis IPD nephrotic syndrome NS sodium Na + milliliter mL kidney, ureter, bladder KUB potassium K + intravenous pyelogram IVP
    • Urinary System Abbreviations voiding cystourethrography VCUG urinary tract infection UTI urine culture UC urinalysis U/A, UA specific gravity SG, sp.gr. retrograde pyelogram RP acidity or alkalinity pH