ICT, Health
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ICT, Health ICT, Health Presentation Transcript

  • ICT + HEALTH IN ETHIOPIA NATIONAL WORKSHOP 9-10 March 2006 UNECA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ICT, Health & AISI Aida Opoku-Mensah OIC, DISD
  • Background
    • The African Information Society Initiative (AISI)
    • a vision for ICT development in Africa
    • an implementation process, with evaluation of results & impact (Policy)
    • series of sector applications defined according to Africa’s priorities (Info+Know)
    • a tool where synergies are created through open partnerships
  • African Information Society Initiative (AISI)
    • launched in 1996 by the African Ministers in charge of planning and economic development
    • endorsed by the African Regional Telecommunications for Development Conference held in Abidjan in 1996
    • endorsed by the 1996 OAU (now AU) Summit
    • welcomed during the G7+1 Denver Summit in 1997
  • AISI Activities (1/3)
    • Policy – assisting countries to develop national e-strategies and raise awareness among policy makers (including parliamentarians) on issues related to ICT4D
    • Information and knowledge – building capacity of member States to develop and use information for development
  • AISI Activities (2/3)
    • Outreach activities – information dissemination on ICT4D activities –involvement of Women’s groups/CSOs, Media, Academia, MPs, etc
    • Partnership and networking – joint ICT programs with development and funding agencies working in Africa and voicing Africa’s position in global fora like WSIS
  • AISI Activities (3/3)
    • Regional ICT initiatives
      • - African Union - WSIS
      • NEPAD ICT cluster
      • Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
  • AISI+ Health (1/3)
    • … for ICTs to assist in improving healthcare delivery in Africa, and for addressing the issue in a comprehensive manner, countries need to develop and implement national e-health strategies
  • AISI+ Health (2/3)
    • The main challenges for Africa are :
    • Epidemics, spread of infectious diseases, AIDS
    • Highest infant and maternal mortality rate in the world
    • Lowest levels of life expectancy in the world
    • Lowest world ratio of doctors per capita.
    • The opportunities include :
    • Enhancement of health administration and management through medical information systems
    • Establishment of information “health profiles” and decision-support systems on regional, national, rural and district levels
    • Linking health centres, delivery services and medical transport to patients
    • Improving access to skilled diagnosis through tele-medicine
    • Improving distribution and reducing costs of medical supplies
  • AISI+ Health (3/3)
    • Health care objective: Achieve more efficient and
    • affordable health care
    • Beneficiaries: society, health care providers
    • Goals:
    • Establish and maintain databases on public and private medical centres, physicians and health care providers
    • Provide on-line access to national and international medical databases and expertise (telemedicine)
    • Link health administration for improving distribution of drugs and medical supplies
    • Link health care systems with centres for disease control for early warnings of plagues and infectious diseases
    • Link health care systems with insurance companies, medical practitioners, and the public
    • AISI + Health addresses MDGs:
    • 4. r educe child mortality
    • 5. improve maternal health
    • 6. c ombat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • Impact of ICTs on Health (1/4)
    • ICT revolution + medical technology = transformed health systems and services worldwide
    • Tremendous promise for services, health administration, finance, education, research and health-related markets
      • Technological developments - wireless and satellite systems, broadband communications, better access to services and increasing digital processing power and storage capacity
      • Health an information-intensive sector and transforming health information systems to knowledge-based systems (According to WHO, 40% of health is exchanging information!)
      • New opportunities for mobility of patients and trade in health (services)
  • Impact of ICTs on the Health Sector – Africa (2/4)
    • Medical information systems (administration and management):
      • Health profiles
      • Access to diagnosis
      • Effective medical planning
      • Health education and training
      • Drug supply and inventory tracking ( epidemics & contagious diseases)
      • Treatment procedures and protocols
      • Health care resource tracking and support in remote areas
  • Impact of ICTs on the Health Sector– Africa (3/3)
    • ICT in Health Research and Development
      • Networks
      • Applications
    • ICT in Health Education
    • Public/Community health information systems
      • Telecenters
      • Community Health Information Systems (CHIS)
    • Telemedicine systems
      • Remote clinical diagnosis and advice
      • Interconnections of users in the field, local clinics, regional health facilities and national hospitals, and the linkage with key international institutions
      • Disease-related centers of excellence – crucial to Africa considering the HR problem in medicine
  • ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa (1/7)
    • Handheld computers (PDAs) for:
      • Diagnosis
      • Medical reference
      • Billing
      • Patient management
      • Drug dosage calculations
      • Disease surveys
    Handhelds in Health
    • PDA projects in Uganda, Kenya
    • Uganda : t est use and usefulness by medical practitioners to
      • conduct an epidemiological survey on malaria
      • use medical reference tools and texts in their daily medical practice
    • Kenya : t est use and usefulness of PDAs by students to
      • collect field survey information
      • use medical reference tools and texts as part of their studies
    ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa/PDAs (2/7) Handhelds in Health
    • Key findings:
    • P roved to be useful and viable technology in Uganda and Kenya
    • Effective tool for collection of health data and information dissemination
    • M edical reference materials available on the PDA helped improve the provision of healthcare
    • A ppropriate technology for use in the African context
    • I nexpensive alternative to PCs in terms of computer power per dollar
    • S imple to use, easily integrated into the daily routines of the healthcare professionals
    ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa/PDA Findings (3/7) Handhelds in Health
    • Key lessons:
    • Training is needed for users and p roject managers
    • PDA use changes the way that survey s should be designed and conducted
    • Technical support is critical
    • Content must be locally relevant
    • Power supply must be appropriate to the situation: battery-powered units would only be the first choice in situations where a ready electricity supply is unavailable
    • Synchronizing onto a central data system must be simple and convenient
      • Video clip on PDA use in Uganda >>
    ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa/PDA Lessons (4/7) Handhelds in Health
  • ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa (5/7)
    • Telemedicine
      • Mali – Kènèya Blown project (the pilot telemedicine project seeks to provide an online network for all hospitals and health districts in Mali
      • Mozambique - probably one of the first telemedicine link in Africa in 1999 -between the central hospitals of Beira and Maputo
      • Uganda - The service includes exchange of data, audio consultation, and showing of diagnostic images led by Telemedicine National Steering Committee
  • ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa (6/7)
    • Ghana - Stimulating Local Digital Health Content by using video
      • The health information (on breastfeeding) was developed by the local communities themselves in local languages and presented to five communities
      • Survey confirmed that the use of local languages to deliver health messages has tremendous impact when sound and image is combined.
      • More than 350 people from five communities benefited from the education, 800 mothers were targeted
      • Success in the sense of being pioneering in producing local content with the assistance of participating communities.
  • ICTs and Health – Best Practices in Africa (7/7)
    • Ghana - CHIM (Community Health Information Management)
      • Data collecting system at district level
      • Tool for decision making in the Ministry and government
      • Complimentarity with the EU GIS project EMMSDAG ( Establishing a Mapping and Monitoring System for Development Activities)
  • ICT in Health Sector Reforms (1/2)
    • Benefits
    • Facilitates decentralisation efforts linking national medical centers to district health facilities in other cities, towns and rural/remote access
    • Standardise data collection (access/retrieval)
      • Enable patient information to be stored where in some cases hospitals in Africa have manual records dating back 40 years.
      • Enable quick sharing of information and catching epidemics contagious diseases at early stages
  • ICT in Health Sector Reforms (2/2)
    • Benefits
    • Collection of accurate health statistics for health workers, governments and donors who rely on such information to allocate resources during and after sector reforms
    • Access to consistent and reliable health information allow health workers to access real time data, leading to better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases
    • Therefore Health Sector Strategic Plans in Africa could make use of ICT as a tool for rollout
  • National e-Health policies and strategies
    • Rationale
    • Strategies and policies to support effective and equitable e-health systems
    • Facilitate collaborative approach to e-health development in addressing common areas of concern and collaboration with other sectors in ICT policy, standards, and technical and infrastructure development
    • Monitor internationally-accepted goals and targets for e-health
    • Strengthen ICT in health education and training in countries
    • Important that ICTs used to maximise the use of scarce health resources rather than divert resources from basic health needs of countries
  • Role of ECA in e-Health Strategies + Policies
    • Technical assistance and capacity building - development of assessment methods, standards and tools to guide best use of ICT to improve access, quality and economy of health
    • Link technical assistance to facilitate health sector reforms
    • Strengthen Health Sector decentralisation efforts
  • Challenges/Considerations for e-Health Strategies and Policies (1/2)
    • Ethical issues
      • Maintaining confidentiality of information and the privacy of patients
      • Safeguarding integrity of information systems present continuing challenge
    • Legal issues emerging and many e-health applications currently unregulated, unlike other aspects of health systems
    • Legislation covering confidentiality, privacy, access and liability is necessary with the transfer of information across national borders. Conflicts between domestic and international law need to be resolved
  • Challenges/Considerations for e-Health Strategies and Policies (2/2)
    • Capacity building essential for successful use of ICT in health systems where health personnel need skills and knowledge
    • Policy makers need to shape ICT policies to promote equity, best practice, quality of care and data as well as safety. Other skill areas include legal, policy and technical
    • Awareness of convergence of information, technology, education and health for health knowledge in the right language for people
    • Infrastructure/infostructure – connectivity, content, applications to support e-Health initiatives
    • Support for e-Health strategies (Uganda)
      • Partnership – WHO on e-Health strategies
    • Capacity building for policy makers (vLAC) (eg. workshop for medical practitioners (Aug 2004) – partnership with AAU, ETC, ITU in Telemedicine in Ethiopia
    • Research and innovation – eg. AAU VarsityNet project on health applications
    • Advocacy
      • creating e-Health leaders/champions
      • Building e-Health stakeholdership (PPPs)
    The way forward – Role of ECA
  • Thank You ! http://www.uneca.org/aisi/ [email_address]