Council on Clinical Cardiology


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Council on Clinical Cardiology

  1. 1. Spring 2001 Spring 2001 Council on Clinical Cardiology
  2. 2. AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION WOMEN IN CARDIOLOGY NEWSLETTER MISSION STATEMENT The mission of the WIC Committee is three-fold: • to increase the participation of women in the council and the association, • to increase leadership roles of women in the council and the association, and • to encourage women to enter the field of cardiology. TABLE of Contents Chair’s Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Women in Academic Medicine: 2000 Statistical Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 AHA Sponsors Early Career Development Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Interview with Dr. Rose Marie Robertson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2000 Women in Cardiology Luncheon Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Women in Cardiology Travel Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Women and Minority Participation in the American Heart Association’s Research Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Committee of Women In European Cardiology — Update and Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Transplant Cardiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 ACC Women in Cardiology Committee Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Women’s Health Initiative — Current Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Women in Cardiology Travel Grant Program Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Mentoring Award Nomination Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Calendar of Upcoming Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Value of Scientific Councils to AHA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Council Membership Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 American Heart Association Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Scientific Sessions 2001 Call for Abstracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
  3. 3. MESSAGE Chair’s It is not uncommon for a cardiology fellow to be A s we continue the sole woman in her training program. To to work facilitate ongoing networking, we invite those to enhance the interested to forward their names, subspecialty area professional (if any), and e-mail addresses to Jonna Moody at development of This will be posted on our women in committee’s Web site cardiology, we Scientific/council/clinical/wic.html. We congratulate recognize the Dr Michael Crawford, the recipient of the 2000 importance of Women in Cardiology Mentoring Award. The networking and deadline for nominations for the 2001 award is mentoring in May 1. professional advancement. Our liaison relationship with the European Society During the of Cardiology (ESC) Women in Cardiology annual Scientific Committee continues to develop. It was an honor Sessions, we sponsor a networking reception prior to participating in the “Calling All Women” forum at our luncheon program. The Early Career the 2000 ESC meeting. As a result of this meeting, Development Forum affords networking the networking framework was buttressed by the opportunities for fellows and junior faculty. identification of individuals who will serve as local Fellowship trainees, who are the recipients of the contacts to enhance the involvement of women AHA/Wyeth-Ayerst Women in Cardiology travel cardiologists. Dr Maria Grazia Modena, chair of the grants, have additional opportunities for networking ESC Committee, expounds on this meeting and on during the presentation skills workshop and the the European history of women in medicine in an awards dinner. article in this edition. Beyond our differences, we share mutual challenges with our European We were honored by the participation of AHA colleagues. We look forward to a productive President Dr Rose Marie Robertson at the 2000 collaboration with the ESC committee as we have awards dinner. Dr Robertson’s participation given shared with the ACC Women in Cardiology her schedule as President, underscores her ongoing committee. commitment to mentoring. Dr Robertson shares her suggestions on professional advancement and We continue to encourage your participation in comments on programs which foster mentoring and achieving our shared goals. a successful academic career in an interview included in this edition. Roxanne A Rodney, MD Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 1
  4. 4. 2000inSTATISTICAL UPDATE Women Academic Medicine The Association of American Medical Colleges the proportion of women full professors reaches one- (AAMC) 1999–2000 Women in U.S. Academic half that of men currently at this rank (i.e., 15%). Medicine Statistics reveal that the proportion of There are 21 women and 161 men full professors on women applicants and new entrants to U.S. medical average per medical school. With regard to ethnicity, schools has increased to 45%. Women now 19% of faculty are non-white (12% Asian, 4% constitute the majority of new entrants at 36 schools. Black, 3% Hispanic). Of the total number of residents in internal medicine subspecialties, the percentage of women (25%) Data from the AAMC’s Project Implementation was stable. Committee on Increasing Women’s Leadership Benchmarking Survey indicates neither change in The distribution of faculty across the ranks shows the percent of tenured faculty who are women no major change in the percentage of women and (15%), nor in the percent of schools (30%) in which men. For women: 10.7% are full professors, 19.3% the proportion of women who departed exceeded are associate professors, 50.1% are assistant that of those newly hired. Eight percent of all professors, and 17.5% are instructors. For men, the department chairs are women, however, at least 23 percentages are: 30.9%, 24.4%, 35.9%, and 7.8%, schools have no women at this level. As of respectively. There is continued concern regarding September 2000, 7 schools have deans who are the slow growth in the proportion of women at the women, which includes 3 interim appointments. full professor rank. It is now estimated that at the current rate of growth (0.92% per year), which has Roxanne A. Rodney, MD not changed in 20 years, it will be 40 years before I am pleased to announce that Mr. Lonnie Willis has joined AHA as the new Director of the Scientific Councils’ Department. His prior position was as CEO, Lubbock State School, Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation. He has 25 years experience in organizational management, administrative function and staff supervision. He has also taught strategic planning at the university level. In his previous position, he had extensive interactions with volunteer oversight committees, and understands the important role volunteers have in the success of an organization such as AHA! — Kathryn A. Taubert, PhD Vice President Science and Medicine 2 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENT FORUM AHA Sponsors Early Career 9) Don’t waste time starting a biotech company outside I n its continuing effort to support young investigators in clinical and basic cardiovascular science, the of your laboratory. These ventures rarely pay off in AHA’S 2000 annual Scientific Sessions held a half- either money or new ideas. They tend to distract you day symposium for the newest members of our field. from your real scientific mission. Approximately 600 young investigators attended the 10) Do not get discouraged if you don’t succeed with symposium that began with an informal lunch prior to the your first attempts. However, do reconsider your didactic portion of the program. “This is yet another options if you have nothing to show for your efforts attempt by the AHA to reach out and support scientists in after 2–3 years of work. the earliest phase of their careers,” said C William Balke Dr Braunwald’s outstanding presentation was followed and Joseph S Alpert the 2 co-chairs of the session. by two lectures on mentoring, how to get one and how to Following welcoming remarks by Dr Robert Bonow, the separate from one. The two co-chairs of the symposium, current chair of the AHA’s Clinical Cardiology Council Drs C William Balke and Joseph S Alpert presented these and Chair of the Committee on Scientific Sessions talks. Important points that were made included the Program for the 2000 Scientific Sessions, Mr William following advice: Look for trustworthiness, intellectual Bryant, Chair of the Board of the AHA, encouraged the honesty and emotional intelligence in a mentor. Mentors young investigators to get involved with the AHA and to should help their mentees with advice concerning help support its mission. appropriate career paths as well as introduction to others working in the same field. The mentor should assist The keynote speaker for the formal segment of the his/her mentee in designing and carrying out the symposium was Dr Eugene Braunwald, Distinguished designated research training. The mentor should serve as Hersey Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical an appropriate role model and help the mentee to obtain a School, who presented a 10-point plan for success in career position following training. Finally, the mentor developing a career in cardiovascular science. The 10 should provide psychological support and encouragement points are: throughout the mentee’s training. In short, the mentor 1) Select a career in science only if you have a real desire should serve as a wise friend, counsel, and teacher for to answer scientific questions and love “the thrill of the mentee. the chase.” 2) Use your time carefully; don’t waste it on time- Mentor/mentee relationships often end naturally as the consuming committee work of marginal value. mentee becomes an independent investigator and obtains 3) Research is not a hobby; it demands your full attention his/her own grant support. The 2 investigators become and a great deal of time and effort. You should spend colleagues. However, rarely does the mentor/mentee at least 50–60% of your working hours in pursuit of relationship deteriorate because of personal animosity or your research. exploitation. The mentee may feel that the mentor is taking credit for work done by the mentee or that 4) Accept invitations to conferences and meetings only if inappropriate praise or criticism is being delivered. they are likely to enhance your research progress. Negative qualities in a mentor include tendencies to be Avoid boondoggles. exploitive, secretive, or dishonest. If a mentee feels that 5) Devote yourself to the study of a single question or he/she is being exploited or the mentor/mentee problem and stay focussed on it. relationship is becoming personally burdensome, it is 6) Do not become a slave of one technique. Rather, important to seek independent neutral advice from master whatever technique you need in order to answer someone who is not involved. Develop a plan for the the question you are pursuing. “divorce” and obtain an appointment with the mentor. 7) Choose your mentor carefully. A “big name” is not Discuss the problems openly and dispassionately and necessarily a great mentor. seek a friendly separation. Try not to be confrontational. Do seek to resolve any conflicts before the separation 8) Do not shun industrial support, however, do not occurs. Obtain legal advice beforehand if you feel that become too close to one company. Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 3
  6. 6. something unlawful or fraudulent has occurred. The AHA. He was followed by Dr Peter Spooner, of the NIH, mentor/mentee relationship can be one of the most who discussed the various funding tracks for basic satisfying connections in a scientist’s career. It is very cardiovascular science within the NIH extramural rare that drastic measures or “divorce” are required. program. Dr Spooner also discussed recent trends in career pathways that were being successfully employed The next speaker was Dr Edward Holmes, the Dean of by basic science cardiovascular investigators. Finally, he the medical school at the University of California at San emphasized the areas of cardiovascular science currently Diego. Dr Holmes is a distinguished rheumatologist with receiving the most funding and future trends in these areas. an extensive career in academic administration. He addressed the increasingly complex and distressing area Dr Judith Swain, Chief of Medicine at Stanford of intellectual property. What do you own versus what University, then discussed the vexing problem of conflict does your university own? The problem of intellectual of interest and maintenance of one’s commitment to the property and technology transfer is one of the most academic enterprise in a world where there are many challenging problems facing universities and independent economic inducements to do otherwise. Dr Swain gave a investigators today. Dr Holmes also addressed the number of examples of conflicts of interest that might problems of starting one’s own company. He and arise within the academic environment. Dr Braunwald agreed that this was rarely a successful venture for university faculty. In the breakout group dealing with clinical investigation, Dr Rose Marie Robertson presented a lucid picture of The last speaker of this first part of the symposium was grant funding opportunities within the AHA. Beth Dr Valentin Fuster, former president of the AHA. Dr Schucker, of the NIH. discussed the many different types Fuster addressed the interesting question of when and of NIH grants that are potentially available to clinical why a cardiology fellow should consider pursuing an cardiovascular investigators. Dr Holmes gave his second academic career. He pointed out that grant funding for presentation of the day, discussing the recent problems at research was at an all-time high and that the country’s Duke University and other institutions with respect to business and political leaders recognized the economic human subjects in research, proper usage, and the need to benefit associated with the performance of basic and adhere carefully to all federal guidelines for human clinical research. Dr Fuster described his vision of the experimentation. Dr Robert Roberts concluded the clinical investigator as a physician with the potential to session with an open discussion of ways to train and do research anywhere in the spectrum between basic succeed in clinical investigation. genetic research and the clinical use of products stemming from such investigation. Furthermore, he A brief refreshment pause and the Samuel A. Levine emphasized the need to make a personal commitment to Young Clinical Investigator competition followed the research as one progressed along the path of research breakout sessions. The competition featured 4 outstanding training, a point made earlier by Dr Braunwald. presentations with considerable audience interest. The meeting then broke into 2 groups, 1 for basic All in all, the first Early Career Development Forum was scientists and 1 for clinical investigators. In the basic deemed a success. Plans are underway for next year’s science breakout session, Dr Balke discussed career session using many excellent suggestions obtained from pathways for basic science investigators from dependence this year’s attendees. on a mentor to independent function with one’s own laboratory and grant funding. Dr Balke also emphasized Joseph S Alpert, MD the many opportunities for grant funding within the 4 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  7. 7. INTERVIEW with Dr. Rose Marie Robertson Conducted by Roxanne A. Rodney, MD RAR: What specifically do you think RAR: When did you specifically drew you more towards medicine instead decide to go into medicine? Was it of a teaching career? in college? RMR: I loved science as a young RMR: I was a biology major in college. student and always found it both I suppose I had always assumed that I relatively easy and intellectually would go into medicine. Mother was a appealing. I thought for a while that I doctor so it seemed like that was what might like a career in the basic sciences. you did when you grew up. Only in my On the other hand, I very much like senior year did I have a pretty typical working with people and putting those senior panic, well after I’d already been together was a good fit for me. I also accepted to medical school. I loved liked the detective work of medicine. English literature, and suddenly I Each individual presents their own thought maybe I should be an English mystery which needs to be sorted out. It teacher. Fortunately, I had a wonderful was fun, interesting, exciting to do and, English teacher who suggested I try in fact, it helped people as well. It had medicine and see if I liked it with the all these wonderful benefits. back-up that I could always go back and go to graduate school in English. So, I RAR: Did you have siblings? tried it out and never went back. RAR: Many women cardiologists RMR: No, but I had lots of certainly admire you for your years of neighborhood kids to play with. We RAR: What was it about cardiology service, not only to the AHA, but also lived in Detroit when I was little, and that made you decide to pursue it? the fact that you have a very successful moved about 25 miles north to live in RMR: Even in medical school, I loved cardiology career. I know your mother the country when I was in the 4th or 5th physiology. I especially liked the logic was a physician. How did you become grade. I joined the 4H club, raised of cardiovascular physiology. I suppose interested in medicine? sheep, rode my horse, and had a Dr. Guyton made me a cardiologist. RMR: I grew up in Michigan where my wonderful time growing up on a farm. And, of course, I had wonderful teachers mother was a general practitioner. For a in cardiology. When I was a student, Ed while, she had an office in the house, so RAR: That must have been a really Haber was leading Cardiology at the I got to see her medical practice close- strong bond that you had with your Mass General, and Mike Weisfeldt, Jim up. I often spent afternoons doing my mother and also with your aunt. Willerson and Suzanne Oparil were all homework in a back room in the office, RMR: It really was wonderful. In there. It was really a remarkable time to and sometimes we went on house calls addition, we had 2 cousins who came to be there. together. Although I didn’t think about it live with us. And I had an aunt and specifically then, I’m sure I was uncles in the neighborhood. There was RAR: Did you do your influenced by the wonderful relationship family around all the time. Even though fellowship there? she had with her patients. my mother worked pretty long hours, I RMR: No, I went to Hopkins as a always had people around me that cared fellow. Mike Weisfeldt had gone to RAR: What about your father? about me. Actually, we’ve done that with Hopkins as a faculty member and he RMR: My father, an attorney, died our daughter having had both our said that it was a great place. It certainly when I was very young. My aunt, who mothers live with us and cousins close- was, and I had a wonderful time there. was a schoolteacher, came to live with by, as well. It has certainly been a nice Richard Ross was chief of cardiology us, so I saw teaching and medicine as way to bring up a child. and actually, in my second year, he was two career options as I was growing up. serving as president of the AHA. I I could tell that my aunt really enjoyed learned how little you get to be home teaching when she would talk about her when you are doing that job. work with her students. I think those influences were subliminal and I didn’t realize I was putting them together until much later on. Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 5
  8. 8. RAR: So, you had that early faculty, and had then become chief of order of $35,000 a year debt forgiveness exposure then? cardiology at Vanderbilt about 1970–71. for 3 years, for people who are training RMR: That’s right. Actually, I’ve been He was a wonderful chief and a great to be clinical investigators. The AHA so fortunate to be exposed to a leader by example. He was always there worked hard to get that passed, as did remarkable number of people who have before and left after the rest of us. He many other organizations. A few years been president of the Association. And was a wonderful clinician, a scholarly ago there was a real exodus of both places I trained [Hopkins and Mass person with a never-ending curiosity. I investigators. Very bright people were General] were warm, friendly think the tradition at all the places I leaving academic medicine. When that institutions that did a terrific job of trained was one of being sure you really happened, I remember thinking I training house officers. They gave you sought the truth and was not just shouldn’t be asking why they were satisfied with “this is leaving, I should be wondering why the the way we’ve always rest of us were staying if these very done it.” bright people thought that an academic career just wasn’t worth it. What I You just have to decide that you’re RAR: Evidence- concluded was that those of us who based medicine before were staying had grown up in academic going to not just survive change, it was given that medicine with an expectation of success, name. and that pulls you through tough times. you’re going to thrive on change! RMR: Exactly. That doesn’t mean you get every grant you apply for. Anybody who has funded RAR: Now, I know grants had a drawer full of unfunded you are Vice Chair of grants or at least grants which ultimately just the right amount of supervision and academic affairs. got funded somewhere else. It doesn’t independence and got you ready for the RMR: Actually, this year, I’ve cut back mean that every paper gets into the next step. a little since I’m away so much. I’m journal you want the first time. But it Vice Chair for Special Projects in the does mean that this is an exciting and RAR: Were there other women training Department of Medicine. extraordinarily gratifying and very in the cardiology program at the time? viable career and if you work at it, you RMR: Actually, Jeannie Wei, Patricia RAR: What would you suggest will be able to make it happen. Those of Come, and Bernadine Healy were all at women focus on to have a successful us who aren’t in the running for the Hopkins and Dr Ross was very pleased academic career? Nobel Prize still can have successful that he had as many women as he did in RMR: I think it’s important to take a careers and make contributions over a his program. He really was a great long view and not get too worried about long period of time. The fact that in any supporter of women in cardiology. We transient changes. I always tell new given year it might not be exactly the had a remarkable number of women in fellows that if there is one thing we can way you would like it to be doesn’t the program at a time when there guarantee them, it’s change. Rules mean you should give it up. weren’t so many because people thought change, the funding environment that it was a tougher kind of specialty to changes, and you just have to decide that RAR: I think that, particularly junior put together with anything else you you’re going to not just survive change, faculty found it very frustrating and might want to do with the rest of you’re going to thrive on change! I’ve difficult because the healthcare system your life. been through eras when funding was changed but many institutions didn’t easier to get and others when it was adjust as quickly in terms of how faculty RAR: Can you identify anyone who tougher to get. Hopefully, we are now in were reviewed in terms of their progress. specifically guided you as a mentor an era when more reasonable funding RMR: Absolutely. I don’t think we along the way or have you had a series levels will make careers in research have all the problems solved by any of individuals? attractive again. We’ve gotten the first 3 means. I think it still is very difficult. RMR: When I finished my fellowship yearly installments toward the doubling The pressures of managed care have and began to look for positions, I talked of the NIH budget, a job begun in 1998. made a huge difference.You don’t have to Dr Ross about it. His first suggestion We’ve gotten the Clinical Research as much time with patients despite some was that I talk to his former fellow down Enhancement Act passed, which will be recent suggestions to the contrary. Or, if atVanderbilt. Bud Freisinger had been at a big help for fellows who want to have you do, you have so many more things Hopkins for about 20 years having a career in research. This federal to cover in that very brief period. And of begun his training there, had been on the program will provide something on the course, one of the great problems has 6 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  9. 9. been the loss of discretionary funds at have NIH funding but it was also good people would often stay longer. When medical centers. Physician payments to have other sources of funding. During everyone had left, my husband and I that we kept at the academic medical tough times it’s especially important to would very commonly look at each center to grease the wheels of research look at what multiple funding agencies other and say: this is great, this is what disappeared to a point of more than $2 to see if what you do has some relation it’s all about. The intellectual fun of the billion dollars per year. That was the to that. You have to be creative. Another group. Thinking together. Figuring money that let you support young really fortunate aspect for me, but one things out together. Finding a group that investigators and protect their time while that I think people should deliberately you really enjoy working with is a they wrote those first grants. It let you seek out, is that I had the great good terrific thing. Another area that I think buy equipment without having to wait fortune to work with a wonderful group helps in the flexibility of your funding for the next grant to get funded. This of people. First, I’ve worked with my base is to think about options that aren’t had a tremendous impact on young husband on a number of projects, which the obvious ones. For example, the people. That’s why the Clinical I’ve really enjoyed. We both do things Department of Defense sometimes gets Research Enhancement Act was such a independently but we do a lot of our interested in funding biomedical focus for us. People were not having the work together. That’s offered us research in an area. If it’s in an area kind of protected time they needed, even considerable additional flexibility in relevant to you, it’s fair game. Find the to get trained, and they were starting out many ways, and it means that you know possible ways to do the things you want with enormous debt that made it very that your collaborator is your supporter. to do. difficult to choose an academic career. We’ve also been lucky to have But I think that things are clearly better. colleagues who have worked with us for RAR: As you look back on your I think that doubling the NIH budget many years. I enjoy their intellectual and career, do you think that you have almost certainly will happen if we keep personal company so much that it’s experienced any gender bias? the pressure on. And American Heart always a pleasure to interact with them, RMR: I think it hasn’t been much of an Association funding increases every and a group is much more flexible than issue for me. The people who’ve been year. That certainly provides additional an individual can be. And I’ve been important in my career have been very resources. The fact that we had so many lucky to be at a university that is an supportive of women being involved in people come to the Early Career extraordinarily collaborative place. medicine and cardiology and have been Investigator Forum in November at our There are very good feelings between careful about details specifically annual Scientific Sessions was a basic scientists and clinical scientists. important to women’s careers. I wonderful example of renewed That’s a real strength. remember a conversation with Bud enthusiasm. We’re paying attention to the need to mentor young faculty and RAR: For young fellows and get them linked with an academic individuals who can tell them how to career, I think that doubling the work their way through the system. flexibility, having a NIH budget almost certainly will happen RAR: How have you managed your broad academic career to mitigate some of funding if we keep the pressure on. those effects, such as the change in the base, and the healthcare system? collaborative RMR: I was around people who had a aspect of the program are very Freisinger when my husband David and broad, flexible approach. My chairman important. I were early in our careers. We were of medicine for most of the years of my RMR: Right. Working in a doing a fair amount of research together career (15 of my 25 years here) was collaborative group, even if it’s not but also had separate projects. Bud John Oates. John was a skilled clinical necessary, certainly makes it a lot more pointed out that when I eventually came pharmacologist and cardiologist who fun. For many years we had weekly lab up for promotion, I would have to be made important contributions to our meetings in our home. On Monday able to say, “This is the part I did as an understanding of prostaglandins and the nights we would get together for 1 1/2 independent investigator.” It was a small autonomic nervous system which were hours over coffee and cookies or chips. but very helpful point. Again, overall, quite important to current therapy. He We would have outside speakers or the people around me have been was terrific at protecting young faculty, would just go over an area one of us extraordinarily supportive, so gender and he encouraged faculty to be broad in wanted to explore a little further. We bias hasn’t been much of an issue for their funding base. It was important to always tried to stop promptly at 9, but me. And, in general, we’ve not had Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 7
  10. 10. much difficulty here with those issues. there’s not just the faculty member and can straighten things out so much more I do think that more often than men, their division chief, as good as those easily. And of course, it’s wonderful to women may not understand how people are. We make certain that there is be able to help young colleagues. systems work or know “the rules of the someone who specifically is designated game” or how to play the game, whether to be the mentor of that person and in a corporate or academic environment. there is a committee designated to Women are maybe not inherently as review progress. good at those games, but actually now, One thing we’ve done is there are enough of us that in many RAR: A departmental committee? areas, we’re changing some of the rules. RMR: Yes. The mentor/trainee to have a specific relationship is a wonderful thing, most RAR: I think a part of that might be of the time, just like the parent/child mentoring committee for that there’s a sense of isolation and relationship. But both those relationships perhaps a sense of not knowing what the have the potential to be dysfunctional, young faculty. rules are. In every institution there are and you have to have an advocate for the unwritten rules. Unless you have trainee or young faculty member to deal someone who knows what those are and with issues if they come up. Sometimes will share that with you it can be a people get stuck and need help. It helps RAR: How have you been able to challenge. It’s related to that sense of to have, for many reasons, an external balance your personal and professional isolation and not having access. For group to look at it. goals with your family responsibilities? many women in institutions, there’s no RMR: Well, I certainly married the access to the real power base. RAR: Is an annual review done? right person, to start with! Not that my RMR: That’s right. I remember a RMR: It’s annual but maybe more husband isn’t busy in his own right — session we did for the women’s group of often, depending on what the he’s a clinical pharmacologist, and runs the Robert Wood Johnson Minority circumstances are. During the period our MSTP program (Medical Scientist Medical Faculty Development Program. when the person is working towards Training Program), our General Clinical That was one of the issues: what the tenure, that group is responsible for Research Center, and is the PI on our rules of the game are, and how you tracking the progress. We have a group’s PPG. He’s key to most of my don’t necessarily learn those as you departmental committee on endeavors, both at work and at home. grow up. A number of these young appointments and promotions which Between him and my daughter, Rose, women during their training felt reviews everyone. I think it’s a now 18, I have a wonderful family who extremely isolated. Sometimes they good system. puts up with a whole lot. I think that were the only woman or they were the Stephen Covey has it about right. You only minority woman. Four years in a RAR: Yes. The more that one can can’t really have it all, all at the same lab where you really feel all alone is a formalize these kind of processes rather time. There will be times when you need long time. The guys would socialize but than it being ad hoc, the more helpful it to be at your kid’s soccer game and you the woman was not invited. is to young faculty. just can’t leave that patient in the CCU. RMR: That’s absolutely right. If you There will be times when you need to be RAR: It’s that lack of informal access just assume it’s going to happen, it may at an AHA meeting and both your that so many women don’t have. well not. And then if you need to patients and your family get RMR: Networking happens during that intervene, people may feel that there’s shortchanged a bit. I remember being time and you’re not part of that. There something wrong with them. If the invited speaker at a lunch with our are more of us now, and I think people everybody has a committee, in fact, it’s women medical students on a day when try to be more aware of it. It probably is good for everyone. Having it be formal my daughter was home with the chicken still an issue to some extent. is useful, and it is important to have pox and I really wanted to be home, access. One advantage of having a Vice- being Mom. All you can hope for is that RAR: At Vanderbilt, are there specific Chair in the Department is that a young when you are with each one, you focus mechanisms that have been put in place faculty person can come and talk about on them and you’re intent enough, care to help? issues and have informal access. It enough about them that they know that. RMR: Yes, one thing we’ve done is to didn’t mean that they were going to And that they know that sometimes they have a specific mentoring committee for complain to the department chair or that get to come first. I’ve been able to say to young faculty, particularly those who are something major needed to happen. a patient: I really would like to talk on a research scientist track, so that Sometimes minor, early interventions about this more, but I have to go to do 8 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  11. 11. something with my daughter. Can I call an extended family of cousins and council database — not enough people you tonight and we can talk about it? grandmothers. Over the years, it was a have their names listed. That’s a place And my daughter has been really very positive thing. people go to look for help when they wonderful about the time I spend doing need it. I think it’s also fine just to drop other things. Of course, it’s been easier RAR: What suggestions would you people a note or e-mail and indicate as she’s gotten older. I was so pleased give to women with regard to leadership your interest. You don’t know people are one day this year when she said, “You roles within the AHA and professional interested unless they tell you. In any know Mom, I hate it when you’re away, advancement? organization, tracking and finding but you’re really working to try to make RMR: To paraphrase, just don’t say no. people who really want to do things and things better in the world — a lot of There just always seemed to be help is never done well enough. I people talk about that, but not very something else that needed to be done, initially got involved with the AHA at a many really do it.” Talk about bringing a and I’ve gotten to be involved in many community level, getting involved in tear to the Mom’s eye! My husband, of different areas that I never would have research review and continuing course, is incredibly supportive. We thought about at the beginning. And the education, and saying “yes” when they cover for each other in lots of different AHA has given me the chance to learn asked me. ways and that helps. We can both cover things and meet people and have oppor- some of each other’s clinical activities tunities I never would have imagined. I RAR: What about the logistics of and take care of things at home for each didn’t really think about volunteer career serving as AHA president? Is it any other. That’s made it much easier for us. tracks as I grew up with the AHA. I do different from what you imagined it think about how we can attract and would be? RAR: When your daughter was develop volunteers now because I want RMR: You get to see directly how younger, did you have full-time to make sure people understand the much people love and respect the AHA. assistance? terrific opportunities that are available as If you are representing it, people are RMR: Well, we had two grandmothers. they get involved with the Association. eager to see you because they know that We had full-time assistance right there at There are unending opportunities for we are doing a critically important job home. I know it’s not a perfect solution people to be involved and to make working for the health of the American for everybody. But it was great for us important contributions. You know, it’s public. I don’t think I was prepared for and was wonderful for our daughter. I such a great thing to be a physician. You the impact you can have when you’re in had no living grandparents when I was have a wonderful relationship with this role.You can walk into the Surgeon little and these years have made me people. They tell you their secrets, all General’s office, for example, and he aware of the wonderful role the great joys and woes of their lives. cares about what you have to say. grandparents play. I’m certainly not You get to help people in important, Individuals and organizations know that meaningful ways. You even get paid we have a big impact on the public. well and get societal affirmation for Another wonderful aspect of the job is something that is surely the most the potential for bringing people The AHA has given me gratifying and interesting job there can together, for finding connections be. It seems that if the community and between groups that might not have the chance to learn society does that for you, it really is thought about collaborating, and for important to give something back to it. getting them to do things they might not things and meet people The AHA is a wonderful way to do that have done otherwise. As for the logistics and to interact with people that you of doing it, you have to have a lot of and have opportunities I otherwise wouldn’t meet. The chance to very generous people helping you back never would have meet bankers, lawyers, business people, home. I have wonderful colleagues in all of the different people who volunteer cardiology and in my research group imagined. for AHA. There are a lot of reasons why who have done a lot of extra work this it’s great to do it. How do you move year because there’s a substantial along in it? I think it really is just a amount of out-of-town time. And, even matter of being available and looking to when you are in town, there’s a major quite ready to try that role on yet, but I see if something needs to be done and commitment to deal with the media and think at some point it will be a lot of volunteering to do it. You can come up to communicate with other organizations fun. We did, on occasion, have a little bit through the councils and by volunteering for the AHA. of outside help, but we relied mostly on for committees. Put your name in your Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 9
  12. 12. RAR: Have you developed any new RAR: How do you, in general, handle RAR: What do you yet want to techniques or strategies with regard to setbacks? accomplish? handling your schedule and all the RMR: My husband says that I just RMR: I want to see and help my communications? don’t even notice it. I guess I’m an daughter grow up to be a happy person RMR: What did we do before palm optimistic person and while that who finds satisfaction in her life and her pilots? The difference this year is that I certainly doesn’t mean that things interactions with society. Certainly, do feel a need to be instantly connected always have gone the way I would like that’s the most important thing to me, to much more of the time. Again, the AHA them to go, I think it’s not usually worth be a good mother. It’s very important to and my group at home make that pretty wasting a lot of emotional energy on me on a day-to-day level to be a good setbacks. If doctor. I get a great deal of personal it’s something satisfaction from my patients. And you didn’t do there’s no question that there are many well, you can ways in which I would like to work to It’s important to have more than one do it better the improve the health of people in this next time. If country. That’s clearly a lifelong thing that makes you happy. it’s something endeavor.You work at it in specific ways that someone while you are president of the AHA. But else did, then my commitment to that certainly doesn’t it wasn’t your end at the end of June. I understand easy. The AHA staff I work with are fault. My general approach is, let’s those problems better now than I did wonderful about communicating and figure out how to fix this. So, if I don’t when I began my career at the AHA. I I’ve become a convert to voice mail. get a grant funded, I moan for a few think this year, in particular, gives me minutes, and then I figure out where else insights into how we might do better and RAR: Is there any down side that you to send it. I just don’t worry about it. certainly my commitment to making didn’t anticipate during your David Rogers said that having more than those things better will continue. presidency? one thing that you are passionate about RMR: No, I think, it’s a wonderful makes it easier. I’m sure if I have a RAR: I’m sure the AHA will definitely learning experience. One especially setback in a research project, the fact be calling you. Many more opportunities interesting thing is that you do get a that I’m doing something with the AHA to say “yes.” At this point in your life, sense for how intriguing and interesting that I’m pleased about, is a source of how would you want to be remembered? it is to try to affect change at a broader comfort. If something isn’t perfect at RMR: I would like to be remembered level. The only real downside is the time work, my family is more important than as a good mother, a good wife, a good away from my family, and there we did that. It’s important to have more than doctor and somebody who gave back to an interesting thing that has helped. My one thing that makes you happy. their community some small part of the daughter had several friends who had wonderful things they received. home schooled and she had been RAR: The balance. interested in being more of an RMR: Yes. I think that balance RAR: I know it’s a different time, but autodidact. For me to be gone a lot of does help. that exposure you had growing up with her senior year didn’t seem ideal to your mother’s practice, is yours what either of us so we decided to home RAR: What are your other passions? you hoped it would be? school this year. She doesn’t travel with RMR: I love hiking, travelling, and RMR: Yes. I had no idea what it would me all the time but if I’ve got a trip to reading. I used to paint watercolors, but be like. It’s been wonderful. I think, very some place educational or interesting, I haven’t taken time to do that in years. often in life, the things that most please she can come along and not be missing My family is my main passion. us are not the things we thought would. school. We have a wonderful time I don’t think I would have envisioned travelling together, and it’s fun to be a RAR: I met your husband and the things I do now. It certainly has been high school teacher on the side. My daughter.You had additional enthusiasm wonderful. French has gotten better and I’ve read when they were there. more modern American novels. It’s been RMR: I’m sure that’s right. And the RAR: Great. Thank you so much. a lot of fun and has been a nice, AHA is another home for me, another stabilizing factor for us this year. family. I enjoy those interactions and people so much. 10 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  13. 13. LUNCHEON SUMMARY 2000 Women in Cardiology A t the American Heart Association’s Council on Clinical Cardiology Women in Cardiology Luncheon on November 14, 2000, Patricia E Steinbach gave a presentation entitled, “Your Financial Future — WhatYou Need to Know.” Ms. Steinbach is a Senior Trust Consultant with TIAA-CREF Trust Company. The luncheon provided a forum to network with other cardiologists and to gain useful financial planning information. Ms. Steinbach pointed out that 9 out of 10 women will be in charge of their own financial affairs at some point in their lives; yet, women often are unprepared to assume this responsibility. The central theme of her presentation was that it is essential to actively review all aspects of your financial situation including the 3 phases of 5. Retirement Planning. “Have I defined my goals and financial planning: wealth accumulation, retirement, and approach?” distribution phase. 6. Estate Planning. “Have I reviewed my will?” The starting point for financial security is to perform a Ms. Steinbach emphasized estate planning and noted that careful financial evaluation by rating each area as many individuals procrastinate about this aspect of satisfactory, neutral, or needs improvement. Ms. financial planning. She defined the following 4 Steinbach identified 6 domains of financial planning, and approaches to estate planning: 1) Do nothing (needless to suggested key questions you should ask in each area. say strongly discouraged as your estate is then distributed by state law, and wealth is not conserved); 2) Joint ownership (drawbacks to this approach include if your spouse becomes incapacitated or simultaneous death occurs); 3) Will; and 4) Revocable living trust. Currently you are allowed to give any individual $10,000 per year without paying gift taxes. In addition to these annual gifts, you are allowed to make gifts (during your lifetime or at death) free of gift or estate tax up to the amount of the established tax exclusion amount (currently $675,000 and scheduled to increase to $1 million by 2006). Ms. Steinbach underscored that for successful estate planning, it is critical to work with an attorney and/or individual at a financial planning institution that you Patricia Steinbach, Luncheon Speaker trust. You also need to do your homework and provide accurate information about all your assets (including property, savings, CDs, pensions, life insurance, 401Ks, 1. Insurance. “What do I really need?” IRAs and potential inheritance). Finally, she noted that 2. Systematic Savings. “Is investment needed to you should update your estate planning every 3 to 5 years supplement my pension’s benefits?” to ensure that you account for changes in your finances, 3. Investment Results. “Are my assets performing personal circumstances and tax laws. adequately?” 4. Tax Planning. “Have I taken prudent steps to Emelia Benjamin, MD minimize taxes?” Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 11
  14. 14. TRAVEL GRANT Women in Cardiology presenting at the conference; they were able to practice and improve their presentations with the help of an expert. The awards dinner was an exciting and memorable occasion. It gave the trainees a chance to mix and mingle and provided a casual environment to have one on one conversations with some high profile leaders in cardiology. Dr Rose Marie Robertson, the president of the AHA, made a special appearance. In addition, Dr Robertson and Dr Rodney, Chair of the Women in Cardiology Committee, were available for individual pictures with each of the fellows. Finally, the women in cardiology luncheon gave many of us an early introduction to financial planning as Patty Steinbach, a senior trust consultant with TIAA-CREF Trust Company, discussed financial issues and estate planning. Thousands of people attend the AHA’s Scientific Sessions each year. The Women in Cardiology programs allowed us to Dr Rose Marie Robertson, Monica Colvin, and Roxanne A. Rodney experience the AHA in a more personal fashion. Because of the contacts we made, there were more familiar faces. We were even acquainted with some of the speakers. The programs I n November 2000, 25 women cardiology fellowship provided some of us with the opportunity to meet our role trainees were presented with the AHA/ Wyeth-Ayerst models in person and for others to develop role models. For Women in Cardiology Travel Grant, which provided funding to attend the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions and the Women in Cardiology Luncheon. I was honored to have been one of the recipients. Because of the travel grant, we were able to attend the Scientific Sessions as well as several informative and instructive events that provided an opportunity to meet with other female trainees and physicians. Many women fellows are one of the few, if not the only woman, in her cardiology training program. Therefore, the chance to meet other trainees as well as established physicians and scientists who might share a common experience was a welcome opportunity to establish contacts, mentors, and a support network. Perhaps the most popular event was the speaker’s forum, a program designed to enhance presentation 2000 Women in Cardiology Travel Grant Recipients skills. After an informative discussion with our instructor Bobbie Lawrie, a medical communications specialist, several brave fellows who had agreed to be many of us, these interactions continue to provide support and videotaped and critiqued gave presentations in various formats. inspiration. In addition, the travel grant and the Women In While the description of the program was somewhat Cardiology events provided a forum for mentoring and intimidating, our fears proved to be unwarranted; the audience networking, for enhancing our professional skills and for was gracious and the instructor was helpful and inspiring. Ms. improving our personal lives. We are grateful for having been Lawrie showed us how to improve the organization of our chosen and encourage other women to apply for the grant so presentations, our speech pattern, even our body language that they may also partake in this highly rewarding experience. using examples from the media and from our own presentations. The program was an extra bonus for those Monica Colvin, MD 12 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  15. 15. AHA/Wyeth-Ayerst Travel Grant Awards Dinner. Left to right: Drs Rose Marie Robertson, Philip de Vane (Wyeth-Ayerst), Roxanne A. Rodney AHA Scientific Sessions November 2000 Council on Clinical Cardiology, presentation of Women in Cardiology Mentoring Award. Left to right: Drs Roxanne Rodney (Chair, Women in Cardiology Committee), Michael Crawford (Award Recipient), Robert Bonow (Council Chair) AHA Women in Cardiology Committee. Left to right: Drs Pamela Ouyang, Marian Limacher (Chair, ACC Women in Cardiology Committee), Rose Marie Robertson (2000–2001 AHA President), Roxanne A. Rodney (Chair, AHA Clinical Cardiology Women in Cardiology Committee), Linda Gillam, Emelia Benjamin Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 13
  16. 16. RESEARCH PROGRAM Women and Minority Participation in the AHA’s The American Heart Association Graph 1: Women & Minority Volunteer Involvement is committed to being an Percent (Number) of All Research Volunteers inclusive organization. This article will discuss the strategies employed within the Association’s national and affiliate research programs to promote inclusiveness and the impact of those efforts on women and minority participation as applicants, awardees and volunteers. Volunteer Recruitment Volunteers are involved in the AHA research program in an oversight role in determining the types of research programs that an affiliate or the National Center • Research Program and The selection of RPEC members will offer, in reviewing research Evaluation Committee is made with careful attention to funding proposals, and in the (RPEC) — This committee is geographic, constituency, allocation of funds to support the oversight committee for all institutional, gender and ethnic research projects. The volunteer AHA research programs. RPEC balance. For 1999–2000, the inclusiveness efforts focus on is responsible for number of women on this 20- recruiting women and minority recommending research policy, member committee was 4 (20%) committee members so that there ensuring high quality peer and the number of minorities was is representation on each review, maintaining the AHA’s 3 (15%) — one African- committee. The proportions vary Portfolio of Research Programs, American, one Hispanic, and one by year and by committee, but and program evaluation. It is a Asian member. This level of each year a specific effort is made committee of the Board of involvement has remained quite by staff and committee chairs to Directors, therefore, member- stable over the past five years. identify and recruit women and ship is drawn from nominees • Each affiliate and the National minorities. Graph 1 shows the from affiliates and the Scientific Center has a research percentage of AHA affiliate and Councils via the annual committee whose role is to national research volunteers who nominating process managed determine the types of research are women or minorities in by the National Office of the programs that will be offered selected years from 1994–95 to Executive Vice President and to allocate funds to support 1999–2000. (deadline for nominations: these programs. For example, December 1 annually). Affiliates an affiliate research committee The following gives a closer and Councils are encouraged to might decide to offer a look at the involvement of nominate women and minorities Postdoctoral Fellowship, women and minorities in research for positions on RPEC. Scientist Development Grant volunteer roles: and Grant-in-Aid, to split its 14 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  17. 17. funds evenly between all 3 Graph 2: Participation History of Women Applicants programs, and to fund only the for the Past 10 Years best 35% of applications to these programs. Once applications have been reviewed and scored, the committee determines which applications will receive funding based upon a rank- ordered list from peer review. The committee may request approval from RPEC to fund down its list to ensure that a certain percentage of its allocation funds applications from underrepresented minorities. Membership on the 18-member National Research Committee included 4 women (22.2%) in 1999–2000 and 3 African- Strategies for Minority Access to Research Americans (16.7%). Membership Encouraging Women and Careers & Minority Biomedical on affiliate research committees Minorities to Apply to Support Program, Society for totaled 204, with 42 women the AHA Advancement of (20.6%) and 23 (11.3%) minority Chicanos/Native Americans in members. The Association actively Science, and the Association of encourages women and minorities • Peer review committees provide Black Cardiologists. to seek research funding from the expert scientific review for all AHA. These efforts include the Although it has never offered applications for funding following: special research programs for submitted to the American women, the AHA’s National Heart Association. In • Statement on promotional Research Program offered a 1999–2000, there were 22 peer material (posters, Web site, research award for minorities review committees reviewing e-mails) that applications from underrepresented in science National Research Program women and minorities are between 1992 and 1996. Called applications and 36 committees encouraged. the Minority Scientist reviewing affiliate research • Promotion to organizations of Development Award, the program program applications. Of the women & minorities in science assisted promising scientists to 317 members of national peer and medicine, including develop independent research review committees, 80 (25.2%) American Medical Women’s programs. Its audience was junior were women and 32 (10.1%) Association, Association of faculty who were members of were minority members. This is Women in Science, Association ethnic/racial groups under- similar to the composition of of Academic Minority represented in the cardiovascular these committees in 1994–95: Physicians, Association of research field. Four or five awards 23.9% women and 8.9% Black Nursing Faculty in were funded each year. However, minorities. Higher Education, Association response to the program was of Minority Health Professions limited (10–16 applications/year) Schools, Indian Health Service, Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 15
  18. 18. Graph 2 shows the history of Graph 3: Participation History of Minority Applicants participation of women applicants for the Past 10 Years over the past 10 years (1991 to 2000) for both affiliate and national programs. The higher percentage for affiliate programs reflect an increased number of women in science as a whole. The affiliates offer more junior awards (predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships, beginning grants), so they have experienced the increase in women in science first. Their percentage tend to exceed that of the national program. Graph 3 shows the history of and the program was In lieu of these targeted participation of minority discontinued in 1996. programs, the National Research applicants over the past 10 years Program made the commitment to (1991 to 2000) for both affiliate Another effort to encourage dedicate at least 6% of its annual and national programs. Again, the minority participation in cardio- research funding commitment to higher percentages for affiliates vascular science was the funding support underrepresented suggest an increase in of Minority Medical Student minorities. Since 1996, the 6% participation beginning with entry Research Fellows through the minimum goal has been achieved into cardiovascular and stroke national Medical Student each year. research careers. However, the Research Fellowship, an award increases over the past 10 years given to medical schools to encourage promising medical Graph 4: Participation History of Minority Applicants: students to embark on careers in Ethnic Minority Status — Detail cardiovascular disease or stroke. Between 1993 and 1996, institu- tions received additional fellow- ship funding if they recruited minority participants. The Medical Student Research Fellowship was discontinued in 1996. In fact, both of these programs ended in 1996 when the Association revamped its menu of research programs. The new Portfolio of Research Programs emphasized AHA support throughout the research career path from predoctoral fellowships to grants-in-aid for independent scientists. 16 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  19. 19. have not been uniform for all Graph 6: Representation of Minorities in Awardee Pool minority groups. Graph 4 (for the National Research Program) shows that the vast majority of minority applicants are Asian and that the increase in participation over the past 10 years reflects primarily the increase in Asian applicants. This same pattern is true for affiliate programs. The AHA encourages applications from underrepresented groups — Hispanics, African-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. Funding experience of women and minorities Women or minority applicants who seek funding from the AHA are competitive with the applicant pool as a whole. Graph 5 shows The same experience holds for programs, there is still work to be the representation of women in minority awardees (Graph 6). done. Positive changes have the awardee pool from 1991 to occurred in the past 10 years, but 1999. The percentages are Conclusion the number of underrepresented consistent with the percentage of minority applicants, in particular, Although the AHA encourages women in the applicant pool has shown little increase in the women and minorities to (Graph 2). past 10 years. The increases in participate in our research participation seen for women and Graph 5: Representation of Women in Awardee Pool Asians is not evident for His- panics and African-Americans. To address this concern, the Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee (SACC) has commissioned a task force to identify and examine successful strategies to recruit individuals into research careers and provide the support needed for success. The task force is chaired by Shiriki Kumanyika, PhD. Pat Hinton Director, Research Administration and Information Services Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 17
  20. 20. COMMITTEE ON WOMEN in European Cardiology Update and Historical Perspective As previously reported by Professor Jane Somerville, 2. When the list is completed, it will be transmitted to the past-Chair, this Committee was formed in 1998 due to ESC, and the ESC will be asked to include the mailing ESC President, Professor Lars Ryden’s brave initiative in list in the Web site of WEC in order to facilitate intra- response to mutual concerns about “where are the country and inter-country communication and women”. This was the first time there was any expressed information. interest in the Women in European Cardiology (WEC). In 3. The major program for the next year may be that of Italy, a survey has shown how few women in cardiology organizing a surveillance committee to monitor for reach the position of head of the Department or high equal opportunities for women in cardiology in academic posts. The same has been found in Sweden Europe. We would first explore the laws that govern where, in 1997, prejudice against women applicants was equal opportunities for women in different countries (if proven in the Swedish Research Council. New surveys by any). Then compare and list them in a document to be Dr Jadwiga Klos, in Eastern Europe, and by new submitted to the ESC Board of the common, major committee member Dr GA Derumeaux, in France, are in rules which should be officially accepted and observed progress. by the Society. 4. Creation of a Web site for WEC that provides reports The goals of our committee were/are: and updates on the History, Progress, Members, and • to find the facts about women in Cardiology within the Ongoing Survey. ESC and in Europe Finally, I would like to include part of the article published • to improve the representation of women on higher by our member, Dr IC Ennker: The Disproportion of committees and working groups within the ESC Female and Male Surgeons in Cardiothoracic Surgery†, • to establish an ESC award to recognize contributions to published in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon the field by women cardiologists 1999:131–135, which is very significant for its historical • to increase the numbers of women Fellows in the ESC background of female doctors in Europe. • to increase the number of women investigators in Only seldom do female doctors succeed in reaching important clinical trials superior positions in medicine although more female students start a medical career than male ones. Especially Some of those goals have been developed after contact among heads of the department, consultants and with the AHA Women in Cardiology Committee. This specialists, women are always in the minority. An contact has been achieved through the active participation extreme situation can be found in the field of cardio- of Dr Roxanne Rodney, Chair of the AHA’s Women in thoracic surgery. To underline this situation, this work Cardiology Committee. She gave a great contribution to deals with the historical as well as with the present state the second “Calling All Women in Cardiology” program of female doctors in the fields of cardiac and cardio- realized at the last ESC meeting in Amsterdam. Dr thoracic surgery. Rodney’s suggestions have helped us increase our goals and programs. She spoke on the initiative in the US Historical Perspective of Women where women cardiologists appear to be making more in Medicine and quicker progress commensurate with their abilities. After that meeting, a new program of WEC has been Women in the medical profession were not at all rare in planned with the following proposals: antiquity and their presence was known in historic Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, Rome and in pre- 1. Each National Society of Cardiology should have a Columbian America. member to interact with WEC. The list of the National Society representatives should be completed before † Adapted from: Ennker, IC, Schwarz, K, Ennker J. The Disproportion spring 2001. of Female and Male Surgeons in Cardiothoracic Surgery. Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon. 1999:131-135. Georg Thieme Verlag, Fax +49 711 8931 258, Tel. +49 711 8931, March 02, 2001. 18 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter
  21. 21. 18th centuries. The Church declared that a woman, “who take it upon herself to heal, without studied, is a witch and must die.” Nevertheless, some women were allowed to enjoy a medical education. Thus, Dorothea Christine von Encleben (1715–1762) was the first German woman to obtain her doctorate in medicine, in 1754, at the University of Halle-Wittenberg, with special permission from Frederick the Great. Representative of the “male” opinion, the arguments of many professors around 1872 against female doctors were: • lack of physical endurance and resistance • smaller brain capacity • typical female emotional nature • effect on male students During the first half of the 19th century, the Harvard students explained their opposition to women colleagues in a series of public resolutions: Resolved, that no woman of true delicacy would be 2000 European Society of Cardiology, Calling All Women willing in the presence of men to listen to the Meeting. Dr. Rodney and members of the ESC Women in discussion of the subjects that necessarily come under Cardiology Committee. Left to Right: Drs. Karin Schenck the consideration of the student of medicine. Gustafsson, Roxanne Rodney, Ludwiga Klos, Maria Grazia Modena, Chair, ESC Committee Resolved, that we object to having the company of any female forced upon us, who is disposed to unsex The Gallo-Roman tombstone provides evidence that herself and to sacrifice her modesty by appearing with women practised medicine during Roman times. Medical men in the medical lecture room. practice during the European Middle Ages into the 13th century was the domain of “wise women and midwives.” After their admission to the universities, the women Their medical knowledge was based on the traditional based their arguments on the need for female doctors folk medicine together with the magical forces of nature. for female patients as well as the special capabilities of To an extent they had great success and were highly women for the medical profession. Also, in their regarded in the community. However, medicine was opinion there was a special need for female doctors for established as an academic subject with the grounding of female patients since their bashfulness often prevented the first European universities in the 12th and 13th them from seeking early medical attention from a male centuries. Women were not admitted to the universities doctor, thus delaying possible treatment, if not making and therefore, were unable to legally practise the it altogether impossible. profession. The argument regarding the lack of strength and endurance on the part of female surgeons was In the 14th century, many cities passed a law prohibiting sarcastically countered with the question whether it women from practising medicine. In the 15th century, wasn’t rather the fear of competition and whether regulations were passed which also limited the midwives. hands which so easily accomplish the most In the 16th century, they were forbidden to use complicated and finest of female tasks would not just medication. In rural areas, the “wise women” were as well be able to handle a surgical instrument which mostly exterminated by the witchhunts of the 14th to also requires a sensitive touch. Only a few male Women in Cardiology Newsletter Spring 2001 19
  22. 22. colleagues acknowledge the fact that the shortage of medical students to 5%. The social pressure and female surgical specialists was attributable to the promotion, or rather repression, of working women as lack of positions in hospitals for female doctors “buffers to structural transformation” clearly had an and assistants. effect on the lot of female doctors of that time. The USA was the first to open its universities to women. This article continues about specific problems for Women In 1849 after qualifying, Elisabeth Blackburn set up a Doctors in Germany. I strongly recommend it in order to training facility for female doctors in NewYork. About understand the history which may explain the delay for the same time, Emilie Lehmus of the new times had to women in the medical profession in Europe. emigrate to Zurich in order to complete her studies. Germany was last. In 1891, a mass petition from the Finally, I personally think that joining our efforts and general German Women’s Organisation was submitted to sharing our problems with the AHA Committee will be a Parliament, with 60,000 signatures requesting that real source of pleasure, help and progress. Our problems admission of women to medical school be allowed. It was are the same everywhere we are. The experience of the rejected, but at least it contributed to the general Old and New Continents should be complementary. As amusement. In 1898, single women were admitted as reported in the previous newsletter by Prof. Jane guest listeners, and in 1899 were admitted to the board Somerville, we must be wise, patient and persistent and examinations, without official enrollment, based on their success will be inevitable. certificate of attendance. General permission for women in all German universities was at last granted in 1908. Dr Maria Grazia Modena Nevertheless, this did not mean that they were accepted Chairman of WEC by all universities, or that upon completion of their degrees they were guaranteed a further place to specialize. This was limited in Prussian universities, whereby paragraph 3 granted the professor special rights: “For special reasons with the permission of the Minister, women may be excluded from certain lectures.” This Call for Fellowship paragraph was valid until 1918. Applications In April 1908, the success of an outpatient clinic of female doctors led to the opening in Berlin of a clinic of female Fellowship in the Council on Clinical Cardiology surgeons with 19 beds. Under the supervision and later recognizes excellence, innovation, and leadership leadership of the surgeon, Agnes Hacker (1860–1909), in clinical cardiology in private practice or the operation statistics demonstrated that this clinic was academic setting. Fellowship is generally reserved comparable with the most renowned hospitals. for physicians and medical scientists who are board-certified in cardiovascular disease. Candi- By 1918, 10% of all medical students were female. The dates should be able to demonstrate active most important influence on the increase in the number involvement in activities that reflect the mission of of women as medical students, and practising doctors, the AHA. Board certification and competence in was the war, with its increased need for medical clinical practice are necessary, but not sufficient, specialists. This had led to some extent to a reduction in for election to fellowship. Fellowship is a the prejudices against female doctors. At the end of the requirement for serving on Council first world war, with the increasing number of returning subcommittees. Fax your request for Council on soldiers, however, interests changed and women were Clinical Cardiology fellowship applications and once again “unwanted.” Studentship and work positions instructions from the Credentials Secretary at were made available to men returning from the war to (214) 373-3406. The deadlines for application are facilitate their reintroduction. Women were relegated to January 15 and June 1. the duty of bearing children in order to compensate for population losses. By 1932, the German Medical Society was demanding a reduction in the quota of female 20 Spring 2001 Women in Cardiology Newsletter