ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction; 2004 (Part II) Ahmad Aslam, M.D...
Summary of Initial Management <ul><li>Prehospital Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Initial ER Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Targete...
Initial Recognition and Management in the ED <ul><li>“ Hospitals should establish multidisciplinary teams (including prima...
Step II: Determine whether fibrinolysis or invasive strategy is preferred Step I: Assess time and risk - Time since onset ...
TIMI Risk Score for UA/NSTEMI Historical  Age > or = to 65  > or = to 3 CAD Risk Factors  Known CAD (> or = to 50% stenosi...
TIMI Risk Score for UA/NSTEMI Antman et al., JAMA 2000;284:835-842
TIMI STEMI Risk Score Applies to patients with chest pain >30 min, symptom onset <6 hrs, ST elevation History Age > or = t...
TIMI STEMI Risk Score Morrow et al. Circ. 2000;102:2031-2037
Fibrinolytic Therapy <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>STEMI patients presenting to a facility without the capacity for ex...
Fibrinolytic Therapy <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of contraindications, it is reasonable to administ...
Fibrinolytic Therapy <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrinolytic therapy should not be administered to asymptomatic p...
Contraindications and Cautions for Fibrinolysis use in STEMI Absolute Contraindications - Any prior ICH - Known structural...
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>If immediately available, primary PCI should be perfo...
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Primary PCI should be performed for patients younger ...
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>Primary PCI is reasonable for patients >75 yrs who ...
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>PCI should not be performed in a non-infarct artery...
Acute Surgical Reperfusion <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Failed PCI with persistent pain or hemodynamic instability in...
Acute Surgical Reperfusion <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of surgical repair of post-infarction ventricular...
Ancillary Therapy: UFH <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Patients undergoing PCI or surgical Revascularization should be g...
Ancillary Therapy: UFH <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>UFH should be given intravenously to patients treated with nonsel...
Ancillary Therapy: LMWH <ul><li>Class IIB </li></ul><ul><li>LMWH may be acceptable alternative to UFH for patients <75yrs ...
Ancillary Therapy: Bivalirudin <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>In patients with known HIT, it is reasonable to conside...
Ancillary Therapy: Thienopyridines <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>In patients who have undergone diagnostic LHC and for...
Ancillary Therapy: Thienopyridines <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>Clopidogrel is probably indicated in patients recei...
Ancillary Therapy: GP IIb/IIIa Inhibitors <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable to start therapy with abcix...
Ancillary Therapy: Inhibition of RAAS <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of hypotension (SBP <100) or other ...
Ancillary Therapy: Inhibition of RAAS <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of hypotension (SBP <100) or othe...
Strict Glucose Control During STEMI <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>An insulin infusion to normalize blood glucose is re...
Magnesium <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable that documented Mg deficits be corrected, especially in pat...
Calcium Channel Blockers <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable to give verapamil or diltiazem to patients i...
Calcium Channel Blockers <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>Diltiazem and verapamil are contraindicated in patients with ...
Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>STEMI patients should be admitted to a quiet and comfortable en...
Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>The ongoing need for oxygen therapy should be assessed by monit...
Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Care of STEMI patients in the CCU should be structured around p...
Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>It is not an effective use of the CCU environment to admit te...
Hospital Management: Stepdown <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>It is a useful triage strategy to admit low-risk STEMI pat...
Hospital Management: Stepdown <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable for patients recovering from STEMI who ...
Hospital Management: Stepdown <ul><li>Class IIb </li></ul><ul><li>Patients recovering from STEMI who have clinically signi...
Summary <ul><li>Targeted History </li></ul><ul><li>Physical (include neuro) </li></ul><ul><li>ECG (RV, Posterior) </li></u...
Summary ICH Limited access / time Systemic bleeding Expertise required Disadvantages Probably superior to fibrinolysis ove...
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  • Early Invasive Strategy – all patients catheterized within 48 hours of admission FRISC II Early Conservative Strategy Only high risk patients and patients with ongoing ischemia receive a catheterization TIMI IIIB VANQWISH
  • ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients with ST ...

    1. 1. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction; 2004 (Part II) Ahmad Aslam, M.D. Prasantha Bathini, M.D. Robert Smith, M.D. Cardiac Cath Conference July 20, 2004
    2. 2. Summary of Initial Management <ul><li>Prehospital Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Initial ER Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted History </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Physical Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>ECG </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates </li></ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul><ul><li>ASA </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Blockers </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Reperfusion Strategy </li></ul>
    3. 3. Initial Recognition and Management in the ED <ul><li>“ Hospitals should establish multidisciplinary teams (including primary care physicians, emergency medicine physicians, cardiologists, nurses, and laboratorians) to develop guideline-based, institution-specific written protocols for triaging and managing patients who are seen in the prehospital setting or present to the ED with symptoms suggestive of STEMI.” </li></ul><ul><li>Class I, Level of Evidence: B </li></ul>
    4. 4. Step II: Determine whether fibrinolysis or invasive strategy is preferred Step I: Assess time and risk - Time since onset of symptoms - Risk from STEMI - Risk of fibrinolysis - Time required for transport to a skilled PCI lab Fibrinolysis is generally preferred if - Early presentation (3 hours or less and delay to invasive strategy) - Invasive strategy is not an option - Cath lab not available - Vascular access difficulties - Lack of access to a skilled lab - Delay to invasive strategy Invasive strategy is generally preferred if - Skilled PCI lab available with surgical backup - High risk from STEMI - Cardiogenic shock - Killip class > or = to 3 - Contraindications to fibrinolysis including increased risk of bleeding and ICH - Late presentation - Symptom onset more than 3 hours - Diagnosis of STEMI is in doubt
    5. 5. TIMI Risk Score for UA/NSTEMI Historical Age > or = to 65 > or = to 3 CAD Risk Factors Known CAD (> or = to 50% stenosis) ASA use in the last 7 days Presentation Recent Angina (> or = to 24 hours) Elevated Cardiac Markers ST Deviation > 0.5mm Points 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RISK SCORE = TOTAL POINTS (0-7)
    6. 6. TIMI Risk Score for UA/NSTEMI Antman et al., JAMA 2000;284:835-842
    7. 7. TIMI STEMI Risk Score Applies to patients with chest pain >30 min, symptom onset <6 hrs, ST elevation History Age > or = to 75 Age 65-74 Previous Angina, HTN, or DM Examination Weight < 67 kg (150#) HR > 100 Systolic BP < 100mmHg Killip Class II – IV Presentation Anterior ST Elevation or LBBB Time to Treatment > 4 hours Points 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 RISK SCORE = TOTAL POINTS (0-14)
    8. 8. TIMI STEMI Risk Score Morrow et al. Circ. 2000;102:2031-2037
    9. 9. Fibrinolytic Therapy <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>STEMI patients presenting to a facility without the capacity for expert, prompt intervention (primary PCI with 90 minutes of first medical contact) should undergo fibrinolytic therapy. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of contraindications, fibrinolytic therapy should be administered to STEMI patients with symptom onset within the prior 12 hours and ST elevation greater than 0.1mV in at least 2 contiguous precordial leads or at least 2 adjacent limb leads. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of contraindications, fibrinolytic therapy should be administered to patients with symptom onset within the prior 12 hours and new or presumably new LBBB. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Fibrinolytic Therapy <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of contraindications, it is reasonable to administer fibrinolytic therapy to STEMI patients with symptom onset within the prior 12 hours and ECG findings consistent with true posterior MI. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of contraindications, it is reasonable to administer fibrinolytic therapy to patients with symptoms of STEMI beginning within the prior 12-24 hours who have continuing ischemic symptoms and ST elevation greater than 0.1mV in at least 2 contiguous precordial leads or at least 2 adjacent limb leads. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fibrinolytic Therapy <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrinolytic therapy should not be administered to asymptomatic patients whose initial symptoms of STEMI began more than 24 hours earlier. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrinolytic therapy should not be administered to patients whose ECG shows only ST segment depression unless true posterior MI is suspected. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Contraindications and Cautions for Fibrinolysis use in STEMI Absolute Contraindications - Any prior ICH - Known structural cerebral vascular lesion (e.g., AVM) - Known malignant intracranial neoplasm (1 o or 2 o ) - Ischemic stroke within 3 months except acute ischemic stroke within 3 hours - Suspected aortic dissection - Active bleeding or bleeding diathesis (except menses) - Significant closed head or facial trauma within 3 months Relative Contraindications - History of chronic, severe, poorly controlled HTN - Severe, uncontrolled HTN on presentation (SBP>180, DBP>110) - Hx of prior ischemic stroke >3 months, dementia, or known IC pathology not listed in contraindications - Traumatic or prolonged CPR (>10 min) or major surgery (<3 weeks) - Recent internal bleeding (2-4 weeks) - Noncompressible vascular punctures - For Streptokinase/Anistreplase: prior exposure (>5 days) or prior allergic rxn - Pregnancy - Active peptic ulcer - Current use of anticoagulants; the higher the INR, the higher the risk
    13. 13. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>If immediately available, primary PCI should be performed in patients with STEMI (including posterior MI), or in patients with new LBBB who can undergo PCI of the infarct artery within 12 hours of onset of symptoms. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>PCI must be performed in a timely fashion (door  balloon time 90 minutes) by persons skilled in the procedure (greater than 75/year). (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Primary PCI should be performed for patients younger than 75 years with STEMI or LBBB who develop shock within 36 hours of MI and are suitable for revascularization that can be performed within 18 hours of shock. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary PCI should be performed in patients with severe CHF and/or pulmonary edema (Killip class III) and onset of symptoms within 12 hours. Door  balloon should be within 90 minutes. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>Primary PCI is reasonable for patients >75 yrs who develop shock within 36 hours of MI and are suitable for revascularization that can be performed within 18 hours of shock. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable to perform primary PCI for patients with onset of symptoms in prior 12-24 hours and severe CHF (Level of Evidence: C), hemodynamic or electrical instability (Level of Evidence: C), or persistent ischemic symptoms (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>PCI should not be performed in a non-infarct artery at the time of PCI in patients without hemodynamic compromise. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary PCI should not be performed in asymptomatic patients more than 12 hours after onset of STEMI if they are hemodynamically and electrically stable. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Acute Surgical Reperfusion <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Failed PCI with persistent pain or hemodynamic instability in patient with suitable anatomy. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent or refractory ischemia in patients with suitable anatomy, with significant myocardium at risk, and who are not candidates for fibrinolysis or PCI. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Acute Surgical Reperfusion <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of surgical repair of post-infarction ventricular septal rupture or mitral valve insufficiency. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiogenic shock in patients <75yrs with STEMI, LBBB, posterior MI who develop shock within 36 hours of STEMI and have severe multivessel or LM disease. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>Life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in the presence of severe multivessel or LM disease. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Ancillary Therapy: UFH <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Patients undergoing PCI or surgical Revascularization should be given UFH. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>UFH should be given intravenously to patients undergoing reperfusion therapy with alteplase, reteplase, or tenecteplase. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Ancillary Therapy: UFH <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>UFH should be given intravenously to patients treated with nonselective fibrinolytic agents (streptokinase, anistreplase, urokinase) who are at high risk for systemic emboli (e.g., AFIB, large anterior MI, known LV thrombus). (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>Platelet counts should be monitored daily in patients receiving UFH. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>Class IIB </li></ul><ul><li>It may be reasonable to administer UFH to patients undergoing reperfusion therapy with streptokinase </li></ul>
    21. 21. Ancillary Therapy: LMWH <ul><li>Class IIB </li></ul><ul><li>LMWH may be acceptable alternative to UFH for patients <75yrs who are receiving fibrinolytic therapy. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>Should not be used for patients >75yrs who are receiving fibrinolytic therapy. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Should not be used in patients with significant renal dysfunction (SCr <2.5 for men, 2.0 for women). (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Ancillary Therapy: Bivalirudin <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>In patients with known HIT, it is reasonable to consider bivalirudin as an alternative to UFH to be used with streptokinase. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Dosing is 0.25mg/kg followed by IV infusion of 0.5mg/kg/hr for the first 12 hours and 0.25mg/kg/hr for the subsequent 36 hours. The infusion rate should be reduced if the PTT is <75 seconds within the first 12 hours. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Ancillary Therapy: Thienopyridines <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>In patients who have undergone diagnostic LHC and for whom PCI is planned, clopidogrel should be started and continued for at least 1 month for bare metal stents and several months for DES’s (at least 3 months for SES and 6 months for PES). If patients are not at high risk for bleeding, it should be given for up to 12 months for DES’s. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>In patients taking clopidogrel in whom CABG is planned, the drug should be withheld for at least 5 days (and preferably 7), unless the urgency of CABG outweighs the risk of bleeding. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Ancillary Therapy: Thienopyridines <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>Clopidogrel is probably indicated in patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy who are unable to take aspirin because of hypersensitivity or major GI intolerance. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>General Statements: </li></ul><ul><li>Clopidogrel combined with ASA is recommended for patients undergoing stent implantation </li></ul><ul><li>There are no safety data comparing 300mg vs. 600mg loading doses </li></ul><ul><li>Routine administration of clopidogrel is not recommended in patients who have not undergone LHC and in whom CABG might be performed if necessary </li></ul>
    25. 25. Ancillary Therapy: GP IIb/IIIa Inhibitors <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable to start therapy with abciximab as early as possible before primary PCI (with or without stenting) in patients with STEMI. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Class IIb </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with tirofiban or eptifibatide may be considered before primary PCI (with or without stenting) in patients with STEMI. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Ancillary Therapy: Inhibition of RAAS <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of hypotension (SBP <100) or other contraindications, an oral ACE-I should be administered within the first 24 hours to patients with anterior MI, pulmonary congestion, or LVEF <40%. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>An ARB should be administered to patients who are intolerant of ACE-I and who have either clinical or radiographic signs of CHF or if LVEF <40%. Valsartan and Candesartan have established efficacy for this recommendation. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Ancillary Therapy: Inhibition of RAAS <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of hypotension (SBP <100) or other contraindications, an oral ACE-I administered within the first 24 hours can be useful in patients without anterior MI, pulmonary congestion, or LVEF <40%. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>An IV ACE-I should not be given to patients within 24 hours of STEMI because of the risk of hypotension. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Strict Glucose Control During STEMI <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>An insulin infusion to normalize blood glucose is recommended for patients with STEMI and complicated courses. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>During the acute phase (first 24-48 hrs) of the management of STEMI in patients with hyperglycemia, it is reasonable to administer an insulin infusion, even in patients with an uncomplicated course. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul><ul><li>After the acute phase of STEMI, it is reasonable to individualize treatment, selecting from insulin, insulin analogs, and oral hypoglycemics. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Magnesium <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable that documented Mg deficits be corrected, especially in patients receiving diuretics before the onset of STEMI. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable that episodes of torsades de pointes associated with a prolonged QT interval be treated with 1-2 grams of IV Mg administered as an IV bolus over 5 minutes. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of electrolyte abnormalities or documented torsades, routine IV Mg should not be administered to STEMI patients at any level of risk. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Calcium Channel Blockers <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable to give verapamil or diltiazem to patients in whom beta blockers are ineffective or contraindicated (e.g., bronchospastic disease) for relief of ongoing ischemia or control of a rapid ventricular response with AFIB or flutter after STEMI. This should be done only in the absence of CHF, LV dysfunction, or AV block. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Calcium Channel Blockers <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>Diltiazem and verapamil are contraindicated in patients with STEMI and associated LV systolic dysfunction or AV block. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul><ul><li>Nifedipine (immediate release form) is contraindicated in treatment of STEMI because of the reflex sympathetic activation, tavhycardia, and hypotension associated with its use. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>STEMI patients should be admitted to a quiet and comfortable environment that provides continuous ECG monitoring, pulse oximetry, and has ready access to facilities for hemodynamic monitoring and defibrillation. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>The patients medication regimen should be reviewed to confirm the administration of ASA and beta blockers in an adequate dose to control heart rate and to assess the need for IV NTG for control of angina, HTN, or CHF. (Level of Evidence: A) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>The ongoing need for oxygen therapy should be assessed by monitoring arterial oxygen saturation. When stable for 6 hours, the patient should be reassessed for oxygen need (SaO 2 <90%) and discontinuation of supplemental O 2 should be considered. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing care should be provided by individuals certified in critical care, with staffing based on the specific needs of the patients and provider competencies, as well as organizational priorities. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Care of STEMI patients in the CCU should be structured around protocols derived from practice guidelines. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>ECG monitoring leads should be based on the rhythm to optimize detection of ST deviation, axis shift, conduction defects, and dysrhythmias. (Level of Evidence: B) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Hospital Management: CCU <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><li>It is not an effective use of the CCU environment to admit terminally ill, “do not resuscitate” patients with STEMI, because clinical and comfort needs can be provided outside of a critical care environment. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Hospital Management: Stepdown <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><li>It is a useful triage strategy to admit low-risk STEMI patients who have undergone successful PCI directly to the stepdown unit for post PCI care rather than to the CCU. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>STEMI patients originally admitted to the CCU who demonstrate 12-24 hours of clinical stability (absence of recurrent ischemia, heart failure, or hemodynamically compromising dysrhythmias) should be transferred to the stepdown unit. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    37. 37. Hospital Management: Stepdown <ul><li>Class IIa </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable for patients recovering from STEMI who have clinically symptomatic heart failure to be managed on the stepdown unit, provided that facilities for continuous monitoring of pulse oximetry and appropriately skilled nurses are available. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul><ul><li>It is reasonable for patients recovering from STEMI who have arrhythmias that are well tolerated (AFIB, NSVT) to be managed on the stepdown unit, provided that facilities for continuous monitoring of the ECG, defibrillators, and appropriately skilled nurses are available. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    38. 38. Hospital Management: Stepdown <ul><li>Class IIb </li></ul><ul><li>Patients recovering from STEMI who have clinically significant pulmonary disease requiring high flow supplemental oxygen or non-invasive mask ventilation/BiPAP/CPAP may be considered for care on a stepdown unit, provided that facilities for continuous monitoring of pulse oximetry and appropriately skilled nurses with a sufficient nurse:patient ratio are available. (Level of Evidence: C) </li></ul>
    39. 39. Summary <ul><li>Targeted History </li></ul><ul><li>Physical (include neuro) </li></ul><ul><li>ECG (RV, Posterior) </li></ul><ul><li>Lab </li></ul><ul><li>CXR </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates </li></ul><ul><li>MSO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>ASA </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Blockers </li></ul><ul><li>Select Reperfusion Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>UFH/LMWH </li></ul><ul><li>Thienopyridines </li></ul><ul><li>GPIIb/IIIa </li></ul><ul><li>ACE-I </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose Control </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>CCB </li></ul><ul><li>CCU/Stepdown </li></ul>
    40. 40. Summary ICH Limited access / time Systemic bleeding Expertise required Disadvantages Probably superior to fibrinolysis overall Superior in CG shock Simple to give a bolus Lower early mortality Prompt on site Less ICH Operator experience Reduced Mortality, RI, MI Widely available Superior patency rate Advantages Fibrinolysis PCI
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