UX from 30,000ft - COMP33512 - Lectures 5 & 6 - Week 3 - 2013/2014 Edition #comp33512

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In his 1992 article, Marc Rettig, defines the methods we use for understanding requirements as ‘Hat Racks for Understanding’ [Rettig, 1992] -
“I’ll sit down to work on an assignment, start sketching screens or composing an outline, then suddenly stop and say to myself, these are all ‘hows!’ What is the ‘what?’ What am I really trying to deliver? There is an implicit ‘what’ underlying most software projects ‘understanding.’ The users of your software are trying to learn something from the, data they are seeing. They need to understand the process of working with the software, and how it relates to the rest of their job. They need to understand how to use the software itself. When understanding is made an explicit part of the requirements, the ‘how’ that is, the design will change. How can we help our users gain understanding? ... As the collection grows, a few common themes are emerging. Some of the themes are often discussed in computing circles, such as user centred design, iterative development, user testing, and concern for human factors. These are all ‘big ideas.’ But what I really need for my day-to-day work are a few easy-to-handle tools – ways, of thinking that will help me to do well at all those small decisions whose cumulative effect is so large... When writers and designers want to explain something, they use visual ‘hat racks’ (maps, diagrams, charts, lists, time lines) that help us understand how our world is organised. Information hats may be hung on these racks to reveal patterns, connections, and relationships. As the scientific visualisation community has found out, one of the exciting things about computers is the way they let you dynamically change the racks on which your information hats are hanging – you can see the same information in many different ways... Although there seems to be an infinity of ways to organise information, [Wurman] notes there are really only five general ways: time; location; continuum or magnitude; and category.”

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UX from 30,000ft - COMP33512 - Lectures 5 & 6 - Week 3 - 2013/2014 Edition #comp33512

  1. 1. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up The User Experience from 30,000ft #comp33512 Week 03 – Lectures 05/06 Simon Harper University of Manchester Semester 2 – 2013/14 last update: February 11, 2014 The User Experience from 30,000ft 1 / 31
  2. 2. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up UX Pop Quiz 1. What is the key focus of HCI? 2. What is the purpose of the UX specialist? 3. What is User Experience and how is it applied? 4. If there are no 100% correct answers in UX, how do we decide what is right and what is wrong? 5. What are the five key properties of UX? 6. Pick one input modality and describe it. 7. What are the four main sensory channels, and briefly explain them? The User Experience from 30,000ft UX Pop Quiz 2 / 31
  3. 3. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Hat Racks for Understanding Marc Rettig “I’ll sit down to work on an assignment, start sketching screens or composing an outline, then suddenly stop and say to myself, “these are all ‘hows!’ What is the ‘what?’ What am I really trying to deliver?” There is an implicit ‘what’ underlying most software projects understanding.” The User Experience from 30,000ft Hat Racks for Understanding 3 / 31
  4. 4. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Awareness, Understanding, Action Figure: ‘Awareness, Understanding, Action’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Hat Racks for Understanding 4 / 31
  5. 5. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Discover, Design, Use Figure: ‘Discover, Design, Use’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Hat Racks for Understanding 5 / 31
  6. 6. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up User Centred Design / Participatory Design The major difference between the traditional engineering methods, and UCD is that the users participate far more in UCD, and that the cycles are not so ridged. Further, requirements engineering is often more concerned that all functionality is present and that this functionality works correctly – important, to be sure. However, UCD is interested in making sure the functionality elicited in the requirements capture is the ‘right’ functionality for the users – it is ‘What People Want!’. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 6 / 31
  7. 7. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Who... ‘Actor’ refers to a specific instance of the users such as a customer, manager, or sales clerk; The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 7 / 31
  8. 8. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Who... ‘Actor’ refers to a specific instance of the users such as a customer, manager, or sales clerk; ‘Stakeholder’ is similar to an actor but in this case they are less involved; The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 7 / 31
  9. 9. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Who... ‘Actor’ refers to a specific instance of the users such as a customer, manager, or sales clerk; ‘Stakeholder’ is similar to an actor but in this case they are less involved; ‘Role’ describes the persona the user will be taking, such as a purchaser or a seller; and The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 7 / 31
  10. 10. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Who... ‘Actor’ refers to a specific instance of the users such as a customer, manager, or sales clerk; ‘Stakeholder’ is similar to an actor but in this case they are less involved; ‘Role’ describes the persona the user will be taking, such as a purchaser or a seller; and ‘Proxy’ is used to describe a person who is not a specific user but is playing that role, in this case a proxy sales clerk. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 7 / 31
  11. 11. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up What? The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 8 / 31
  12. 12. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up What.. ‘Current System?’ What does the current system (paper based or not) do; You will also need to have... The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 9 / 31
  13. 13. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up What.. ‘Current System?’ What does the current system (paper based or not) do; ‘Current Documentation?’ What does it produce and what terms / jargon is used; You will also need to have... ...a plan for design, agile participatory development, and handling feature creep. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 9 / 31
  14. 14. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up What.. ‘Current System?’ What does the current system (paper based or not) do; ‘Current Documentation?’ What does it produce and what terms / jargon is used; ‘Improvements?’ What improvements could be made (where does it fail)?; You will also need to have... ...a plan for design, agile participatory development, and handling feature creep. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 9 / 31
  15. 15. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up What.. ‘Current System?’ What does the current system (paper based or not) do; ‘Current Documentation?’ What does it produce and what terms / jargon is used; ‘Improvements?’ What improvements could be made (where does it fail)?; ‘Newness?’ What changes / additions / subtractions are required; and You will also need to have... ...a plan for design, agile participatory development, and handling feature creep. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 9 / 31
  16. 16. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up What.. ‘Current System?’ What does the current system (paper based or not) do; ‘Current Documentation?’ What does it produce and what terms / jargon is used; ‘Improvements?’ What improvements could be made (where does it fail)?; ‘Newness?’ What changes / additions / subtractions are required; and ‘Importance?’ What is important / what needs speed / what is less often used / what is the ‘schedule’ ?. You will also need to have... ...a plan for design, agile participatory development, and handling feature creep. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 9 / 31
  17. 17. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How? Figure: ‘Post-Its’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 10 / 31
  18. 18. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How... ‘Observation’ (Observe) Look at what people do, and note it down; THIS IS NOT Time and Motion! The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 11 / 31
  19. 19. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How... ‘Observation’ (Observe) Look at what people do, and note it down; ‘Analysis’ (Analyse) Analysis the ‘stuff’ they produce; and THIS IS NOT Time and Motion! The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 11 / 31
  20. 20. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How... ‘Observation’ (Observe) Look at what people do, and note it down; ‘Analysis’ (Analyse) Analysis the ‘stuff’ they produce; and ‘Discussion’ (Discuss) Try to find out what these observations and analysis means; THIS IS NOT Time and Motion! The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 11 / 31
  21. 21. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Qualitative – ‘Qual’ Figure: ‘NVivo Tool’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 12 / 31
  22. 22. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Got Six Months? The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 13 / 31
  23. 23. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Got Six Months? Participant Observation ‘Learn by Doing’; Longterm / Interpretive; Embedded / Imbedded (Invisible & Embedded); Copious Notes and Analysis (Ethnography); Conversations with a Purpose; Deep but Narrow Understanding; using Strategies to NOT Standout. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 13 / 31
  24. 24. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Got Six Months? Participant Observation Task Analysis ‘Learn by Doing’; ‘Learn by Observing’; Longterm / Interpretive; Can be Short Term; Embedded / Imbedded (Invisible & Embedded); Invisible / Remote, but can be Copious Notes and Analysis (Ethnography); Close & Discursive; Notes with ‘Formal’ Models; Conversations with a Purpose; Mid-Deep / Mid-Scope; using Deep but Narrow Understanding; using Less Interpretation. Strategies to NOT Standout. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 13 / 31
  25. 25. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Where Could these be Applied? The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 14 / 31
  26. 26. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Got Six Weeks? The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 15 / 31
  27. 27. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Got Six Weeks? Focus Groups / Interviews ‘Learn By Asking’; Fast with many Participants; ‘People Lie’; Group think (in F/G) maybe Wrong; Wide but Shallow; Semi-Structured Questions; and Requires Even Less Interpretation. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 15 / 31
  28. 28. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Got Six Weeks? Focus Groups / Interviews Social / Shorten 6 Months ‘Learn By Asking’; Social; Fast with many Participants; Just Talking; Cannot get the full picture; ‘People Lie’; Group think (in F/G) maybe Wrong; Relaxed - Informal; or Wide but Shallow; Observation on a smaller scale; but Semi-Structured Questions; and More Constrained - More Shallow, than PObs. Requires Even Less Interpretation. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 15 / 31
  29. 29. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Lack of Users? Archive Describe an organisation by the things it produces; The Letters and Trails it Creates; Important Documentation; Logs and Logbooks; in short The artefacts of the systems already created by the users. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 16 / 31
  30. 30. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Let’s Have a Break! Back in 10 Minutes! Come see me now if you have Questions Regarding this Lecture! The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 17 / 31
  31. 31. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How Do I Convey The Information? –User Stories With Notes: Figure: ‘Story Card with Notes’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 18 / 31
  32. 32. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How Do I Convey The Information? –User Stories Too Much: Figure: ‘Too Much’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 18 / 31
  33. 33. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up How Do I Convey The Information? –User Stories Revised: Figure: ‘Revised’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 18 / 31
  34. 34. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Use Cases Figure: ‘h’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 19 / 31
  35. 35. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Scenario Mary has a learning disability. She finds looking at images on a webpage very distracting. Mary would like to see all images rendered in the following order. First, for images with long descriptions have the long description rendered in place of the image. If the long description does not exit, she wants the ‘alt text’ to be rendered. If neither is available, Mary wants the file name rendered. Added functionality would allow Mary to right click (context menu) on an image to list and select the rendering of the available alternatives (thumbnail, original size, full screen, low resolution, high resolution, alt text, long description, file name). The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 20 / 31
  36. 36. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Persona Eva is 75 she was diagnosed with lung cancer 8 months ago, she has had chemotherapy to manage her symptoms and to hopefully extend her life, she found the treatment very difficult and had lots of side effects. Her husband died 5 years ago from bowel cancer and she lives alone in social housing. Her daughter lives nearby and she sees her grandchildren often. She is an ex-smoker and quit 20 years ago. She attends church on a Sunday when she can but is otherwise limited in her social contact. She does not own a computer and feels she is too old to learn about technology. Her granddaughter sometimes brings her articles from the internet about new treatments but she finds them confusing. She telephones her cancer nurse is she has any problems but mainly gets information when she has her regular follow-up appointments. The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 21 / 31
  37. 37. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Persona on Steroids Figure: ‘Persona on Steroids’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 22 / 31
  38. 38. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Wireframe Figure: ‘Wireframes’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 23 / 31
  39. 39. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Mock-up / Wizard of Oz Figure: ‘iPhone Application’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 24 / 31
  40. 40. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Storyboard The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 25 / 31
  41. 41. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –Flow Charts Figure: ‘Flow Chart’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 26 / 31
  42. 42. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –State Transition / State Machine ...thanks Scott W. Ambler http: // www. agilemodeling. com/ artifacts/ stateMachineDiagram. htm The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 27 / 31
  43. 43. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up –UML Figure: ‘h’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Stakeholders 28 / 31
  44. 44. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Pop Quiz for next week... 1. How would you go about getting the ‘what’ ? 2. Why are Post-its so important? 3. What are the differences between informal and semi-formal methods? 4. Pick an informal methodology and describe it? 5. What are the two main danger points to remember when undertaking UXD? The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 29 / 31
  45. 45. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up To Do for next week... 1. Pop Quiz. Discuss Next Week; and 2. Read your notes up to the end of ‘Hat Racks for Understanding’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 30 / 31
  46. 46. UX Pop Quiz Hat Racks for Understanding Stakeholders Wrapping Up Any Questions? Simon Harper 2.44 Kilburn Building 0161 275 0599 (OR x50599) simon.harper@manchester.ac.uk Office Hours: Friday 14:00–18:00 Figure: ‘Baldy!’ The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 31 / 31

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