UX from 30,000ft (COMP33512 - Lecture 15, 16 & 17 - 2012/2013)
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UX from 30,000ft (COMP33512 - Lecture 15, 16 & 17 - 2012/2013)

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Website Link: http://ocw.cs.manchester.ac.uk/ux/category/week-8/

Website Link: http://ocw.cs.manchester.ac.uk/ux/category/week-8/
Video URL: http://youtu.be/CjethuYvUJU
Slides: https://www.slideshare.net/simon-harper/1516-ux-from-30000ft-lectures-1516

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    UX from 30,000ft (COMP33512 - Lecture 15, 16 & 17 - 2012/2013) UX from 30,000ft (COMP33512 - Lecture 15, 16 & 17 - 2012/2013) Presentation Transcript

    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpThe User Experiencefrom 30,000ft#comp33512Week 08 – Lectures 15/16(Thoughtworks)Week 09 – Lecture 17Simon HarperUniversity of ManchesterSemester 2 – 2012/13last update: April 24, 2013The User Experience from 30,000ft 1 / 22
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpUX Pop Quiz1. Why is it difficult to know if the affective principles havebeen captured in software correctly?2. Why is affective computing different to affective experiences?3. How do Aesthetics and Visual Complexity relate to eachother?4. How does narrative art relate to the principle of Flow?5. Why is Emotion difficult to quantify? What is one possiblesolution?The User Experience from 30,000ft Preamble 2 / 22...expanded on pg. 186.
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpDesigning Your Evaluations1. Badly Designed = Incorrect Analysis;The User Experience from 30,000ft Preamble 3 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpDesigning Your Evaluations1. Badly Designed = Incorrect Analysis;2. Incorrect Analysis = Incorrect Conclusions; which meansThe User Experience from 30,000ft Preamble 3 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpDesigning Your Evaluations1. Badly Designed = Incorrect Analysis;2. Incorrect Analysis = Incorrect Conclusions; which means3. Success of your Interventions in Doubt.The User Experience from 30,000ft Preamble 3 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpDesigning Your Evaluations1. Badly Designed = Incorrect Analysis;2. Incorrect Analysis = Incorrect Conclusions; which means3. Success of your Interventions in Doubt.This MeansIf evaluations are not designed correctly the previous ≈207 pagesof the course notes have been, to a large extent, pointless.The User Experience from 30,000ft Preamble 3 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScience and GeneralisationInductive reasoningEvaluates and then applies to the general ‘population’abstractions of observations of individual instances of members ofthe same populationThe User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 4 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScience and GeneralisationInductive reasoningEvaluates and then applies to the general ‘population’abstractions of observations of individual instances of members ofthe same populationDeductive reasoningEvaluates a set of premises which then necessitate a conclusion –for example: {(1) Herbivores only eat plant matter; (2) Allvegetables contain only plant matter; (3) All cows are herbivores}→ Therefore, vegetables are a suitable food source for Cows.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 4 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScience and GeneralisationInductive reasoningEvaluates and then applies to the general ‘population’abstractions of observations of individual instances of members ofthe same populationDeductive reasoning1. Therefore, the conclusion must be true provided that thepremises are true;2. Note that you could not say ‘Therefore, all cows eatvegetables’ because fruit also contains only plant matter; asdo grass and trees.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 4 / 22...expanded in ‘Designing Your Evaluations’ (pg. 207)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScientific BedrockTo Be scientific,A method of inquiry must be based on the gathering ofobservable, empirical and measurable evidence, and be subject tospecific principles of reasoning.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 5 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScientific BedrockFigure 77. ‘The Scientific Method’; pg. 208The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 5 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScientific BedrockAn Inductive Example1. Firstly, we create an hypothesis which, in the best case, cannotbe otherwise interpreted and is ‘refutable’; for example we mightmake the statement ‘all swans are white’. In this case we mayhave travelled widely and tried to observe swans in every countryand continent in an attempt to support our hypothesis.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 5 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScientific BedrockAn Inductive Example (pg. 208)2. While, we may be able to amass many observations of whiteswans we must also realise that a statement must be refutable. Ifthe hypothesis remains intact it must be correct; in our examplewe may try to observe every swan that exists in, say, the UK, orEurope, or the Americas, which is not white.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 5 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScientific BedrockAn Inductive Example (pg. 208)3. However, one instance of an observation of a non-white swanwill disapprove our hypothesis; in this case when we arrive inAustralia we discover a black swan, in this case we can see allswans are not white and our hypothesis is found to be incorrect.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 5 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpScientific BedrockMany debates regarding the question of whether inductivereasoning leads to truth;We can make some inductive leaps if they are based on goodscience;These leaps may not be absolutely accurate; butMay well assist us in our understanding; in theUX domain we use mathematical (statistical) methods tohelp us understand these points.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 6 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpMathematical (Statistical) MethodsGeneralise results to enable us to say something about thewider population; soWe use well formed and tested statistical tests;Which enables use to mathematically generalise to apopulation; this is called,External Validity.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 7 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpMathematical (Statistical) MethodsGeneralise results to enable us to say something about thewider population; soWe use well formed and tested statistical tests;Which enables use to mathematically generalise to apopulation; this is called,External Validity.No 100% CertaintyAll we have is a level of confidence in how a particular test relatesto the population, and therefore how useful the knowledgegenerated from it really is.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 7 / 22...expanded in ‘Scientific Bedrock’ (pg. 208)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpVariables / UXBehavioural: Equated to the user;Stimulus: Equated to the interface or the computersystem;Observable Response: the thing we measure to understand ifthere is a benefit after we havemanipulated the stimulus; andSubject: Factors such as age, weight, gender.Independent Variable: The thing that we manipulate – the lowerthe number of independent variables, the moreconfident we can be about the data collected andthe results of the analysis; andDependent Variable: The thing that we measure.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 8 / 22...expanded in ‘Variables’ (pg. 209)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpMeasuring Dependent VariablesNominal Scale: Which denotes identity;Ordinal Scale: Which denotes identity and magnitude;Interval Scale: Denotes identity, magnitude and has the benefit ofequal intervals; andRatio Scale: Which has the positive properties of the three wehave already seen as well as a true zero point.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 9 / 22...expanded in ‘Measuring Variables’ (pg. 210)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpMeasuring Dependent VariablesNominal Scale: Which denotes identity;Ordinal Scale: Which denotes identity and magnitude;Interval Scale: Denotes identity, magnitude and has the benefit ofequal intervals; andRatio Scale: Which has the positive properties of the three wehave already seen as well as a true zero point.Variables, and their measurement, are important.They inform the experimental design process and the kind ofanalysis that will be possible once the data has been collected.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 9 / 22...expanded in ‘Measuring Variables’ (pg. 210)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpHypothesis TestingNull Hypothesis: Which dictates that there is no differencebetween two conditions beyond chancedifferences; orHypothesis: Which dictates there is a difference andsupports the hypothesis proposed.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 10 / 22...expanded in ‘Hypothesis Testing’ (pg. 211)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpHypothesis TestingNull Hypothesis: Which dictates that there is no differencebetween two conditions beyond chancedifferences; orHypothesis: Which dictates there is a difference andsupports the hypothesis proposed.Strong and WeakA hypothesis must be ‘strong’ to be testable.The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 10 / 22...expanded in ‘Hypothesis Testing’ (pg. 211)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpHypothesis TestingNull Hypothesis: Which dictates that there is no differencebetween two conditions beyond chancedifferences; orHypothesis: Which dictates there is a difference andsupports the hypothesis proposed.Strong and WeakA hypothesis must be ‘strong’ to be testable.Nothing is Ever ProvedHypotheses are supported or disproved - NOT ever proved (inempirical work).. Why?The User Experience from 30,000ft Science and Generalisation 10 / 22...expanded in ‘Hypothesis Testing’ (pg. 211)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpLet’s Have a Break!Back in 10 Minutes!Come see me now if you haveQuestions Regarding this Lecture!The User Experience from 30,000ft Break! 11 / 22
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpEvaluation Design and AnalysisExperimental Design;Data Collection and Tools;Data Analysis; mostlyStatistical Analysis.The User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 12 / 22...expanded in ‘Evaluation Design and Analysis’ (pg. 212)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpEvaluation Design and AnalysisDescriptive Statistics;Inferential Statistics.Internal Validity;External Validity; andConfounding Variables.The User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 13 / 22...expanded in ‘Evaluation Design and Analysis’ (pg. 212)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpParticipantsSimple Random Sampling Probabilistic — Simple randomsampling equates to drawing balls at a tom-bola. The selection ofthe first has no bearing, and is fully independent of, the second orthe third, and so forth. This is often accomplished in the realworld by the use of random number tables or, with the advent ofcomputer technology, by random number generators;Systematic Sampling Probabilistic — Systematic samples are avariation of random sampling whereby each possible participant isallocated a number, with participants being selected based onsome systematic algorithm. In the real world we may listparticipants numbering them from, say, one to three hundred andpicking every seventh participant, for instance;The User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 14 / 22...expanded in ‘Participants’ (pg. 216)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpParticipantsStratified Sampling Probabilistic — Stratified samples are usedto reduce the normal sampling variation that is often introducedin random sampling methods. This means that certain aspects ofthe sample may become apparent as that sample is selected. Inthis case, subsequent samples are selected based on thesecharacteristics, this means that a sample can be produced that ismore likely to look like the total population than a random sample;Multistage Sampling Probabilistic — Multistage sampling is astrategy for linking populations to some kind of grouping. If asample was drawn from, say, the U. of Manchester then this maynot be representative of all universities. In this case, multistagesampling could be used whereby a random sample is drawn frommultiple different universities independently and then integrated.In this way we can ensure the generalisability of the findings; andThe User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 14 / 22...expanded in ‘Participants’ (pg. 216)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpParticipantsQuota Sampling Non-Probabilistic — Almost allnon-governmental polling groups or market research companiesrely heavily on non-probability sampling methods; the mostaccurate of these is seen to be quota based sampling. Here, acertain demographic profile is used to drive the selection process,with participants often approached on the street. In this case, acertain number of participants are selected, based on each pointin the demographic profile, to ensure that an accuratecross-section of the population are selected;Snowball Sampling Non-Probabilistic — The process of snowballsampling is much like asking your participants to nominateanother person with the same trait as them.The User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 14 / 22...expanded in ‘Participants’ (pg. 216)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpParticipantsConvenience Sampling Non-Probabilistic — The participantsare selected just because they are easiest to recruit for the studyand the UX’er did not consider selecting participants that arerepresentative of the entire population.Judgmental Sampling Non-Probabilistic — This type ofsampling technique is also known as purposive sampling andauthoritative sampling. Purposive sampling is used in cases wherethe specialty of an authority can select a more representativesample that can bring more accurate results than by using otherprobability sampling techniques.The User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 14 / 22...expanded in ‘Participants’ (pg. 216)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpEvaluation‘++’Single Group, Post Test;Single Group, Pre-Test and Post-Test;Natural Control Group, Pre-Test and Post-Test;Randomised Control Group, Pre-Test and Post-Test;Within Subjects; but there areOthers.The User Experience from 30,000ft Evaluation Design and Analysis 15 / 22...expanded in ‘Evaluation‘++’’ (pg. 219)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpPractical Ethical ProceduresThe Ethical ProcessA critical component of good evaluation design because itencourages the UX specialist to focus on the methodology andthe analysis techniques to be used within that methodology.The User Experience from 30,000ft Practical Ethical Procedures 16 / 22...expanded in ‘Practical Ethical Procedures’ (pg. 220)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpOrganisationsThe American Psychological Association’s (APA), ‘EthicalPrinciples of Psychologists and Code of Conduct’;The United States Public Health Service Act (Title 45, Part46, Appendix B), ‘Protection of Human Subjects’;The Belmont Report, ‘Ethical Principles and Guidelines forthe Protection of Human Subjects of Research’;The Council of International Organisations of MedicalSciences, ‘International Ethical Guidelines for EpidemiologicalStudies’; and finallyThe World Medical Association’s, ‘Declaration of Helsinki –Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving HumanSubjects’.The User Experience from 30,000ft Practical Ethical Procedures 17 / 22...expanded in ‘Practical Ethical Procedures’ (pg. 220)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping Upin Brief...About You...Competence: Keep up to date, know your limitations, ask foradvice;Integrity: Have no axe to grind, or desired outcome; andScience: Follow the Scientific Method.The User Experience from 30,000ft Practical Ethical Procedures 18 / 22...expanded in ‘Practical Ethical Procedures’ (pg. 220)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping Upin Brief...About Them...Respect: Assess you participants autonomy and capabilityof self-determination, treat participants as equals,ensure their welfare;Benefits: Maximising benefits and minimising possible harmsaccording to your best judgement, seek advicefrom your organisations ethics committee;Justice: Research should be undertaken with participantswho will benefit from the results of that research;andTrust: Maintain trust, anonymity, confidentiality andprivacy, ensure participants fully understand theirroles and responsibilities and those of theexperimenter.The User Experience from 30,000ft Practical Ethical Procedures 18 / 22...expanded in ‘Practical Ethical Procedures’ (pg. 220)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping Upin Brief...About Us...Responsibility: You have a duty of care, not only to yourparticipants, but also to the community fromwhich they are drawn, and your own community ofpractice.The User Experience from 30,000ft Practical Ethical Procedures 18 / 22...expanded in ‘Practical Ethical Procedures’ (pg. 220)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpDiscussion Topics Coursework # 3‘Voice Loops as Cooperative Aids in Space Shuttle MissionControl’ (10 Marks) – this paper shows just how far UX and thetechniques which it inherits from human computer interaction cango. We are mainly concerned with systems and objects which arepurely commercial, however, in this case failures in the humaninterface can have serious consequences for a real-time mission,including the loss of the vehicle. Further, these kind of UXtechniques can also be found in other critical interfacecomponents such as those controlling nuclear power stations orfly-by-wire aircraft.Jennifer C. Watts, David D. Woods, James M. Corban, Emily S. Patterson, Ronald L. Kerr, and LaDessa C.Hicks., Voice loops as cooperative aids in space shuttle mission control., In Proceedings of the 1996 ACMconference on Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW ’96, pages 48–56, New York, NY, USA, 1996.ACM., ISBN 0-89791-765-0., http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/240080.240188., URLhttp://doi.acm.org/10.1145/240080.240188.The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 19 / 22...expanded in ‘Discussion Topics’ (pg. 19)
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpPop Quiz for next (logical) week...1. What is the scientific method and why is it important?2. What do we mean by internal and external validity?3. What is the single most important reason for having a set ofethical procedures?4. What are the eight key ethical principles (give a briefrationale for each)?5. Why is conforming to scientific principles key to good ethicaldesigns?The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 20 / 22...expanded on pg. 231.
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpTo Do for next week...1. Pop Quiz (pg. 231) Discuss Next Week; and2. Read your notes up to the end of ‘Self AssessmentQuestions’ (pg. 231)The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 21 / 22
    • Preamble Science and Generalisation Break! Evaluation Design and Analysis Practical Ethical Procedures Wrapping UpAny Questions?Simon Harper 2.44 Kilburn Building0161 275 0599 (OR x50599)simon.harper@manchester.ac.ukOffice Hours: Friday 14:00–18:00Figure 93. ‘Simon Harper –Your Mild-Mannered CourseTutor’; pg. 326The User Experience from 30,000ft Wrapping Up 22 / 22...expanded in ‘Contact’ (pg. 326)