1. presented bypresented by
Institut für die Förderung von Mehrsprachigkeit,
interkulturellen Kompetenzen und Gleichbehandlung
For the project meeting of the project EU Treasure Hunt in
Vienna June 2012
2. Roman beginnings
The name Vindobona -->from a Celtic language,
The Romans created a military camp (occupied by Legio
X Gemina) during the 1st century on the site of the city
centre of present-day Vienna.centre of present-day Vienna.
The settlement was raised to
the status of a municipium
3. Early Middle Ages
The streets and houses of early medieval Vienna
followed the former Roman walls, which gives rise to
the conclusion that parts of the fortification were still
in place and used by the settlers. The firstin place and used by the settlers. The first
documented mention of the city during the Middle
Ages dates to 881 when a battle apud Weniam was
fought against the Hungarians. However, it is unclear
whether this refers to the city or the River Wien.
4. Babenberg rule
In 976, the Margraviate of Ostarrîchi was
given to the Babenberg family. Vienna
lay at its border to Hungary.
Vienna was an important site of trade as
early as the 11th century. In the Exchange
of Mautern between the Bishop ofof Mautern between the Bishop of
Passau and Margrave Leopold IV, Vienna
is mentioned as a Civitas for the first
time, which indicates the existence of a
In 1155, Duke Henry II of Austria made
Vienna his capital.
Duke Henry II of the
elevated Vienna to his
capital in 1155
5. Babenberg rule 2.
In 1156, Austria was raised to a duchy in the
Privilegium Minus, with Vienna becoming the seat of
the duke. During that time, the Schottenstift was
In 1221, Vienna received the rights of a city and as aIn 1221, Vienna received the rights of a city and as a
staple port (Stapelrecht). This meant that all traders
passing through Vienna had to offer their goods in the
city. This allowed the Viennese to act as middlemen in
trade, so that Vienna soon created a network of far-
reaching trade relations, particularly along the
Danube basin and to Venice, and to become one of
the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire.
6. Habsburg rule
In 1278, Rudolf I took control over the
Austrian lands after his victory over
Ottokar II of Bohemia and began to
establish Habsburg rule.
In Vienna, it took a relatively long time
for the Habsburgs to establish theirfor the Habsburgs to establish their
control, because partisans of Ottokar
remained strong for a long time. There
were several uprisings against Albert I.
The family of the Paltrams vom
Stephansfreithof was foremost among
In 1280, Jans der Enikel wrote the
"Fürstenbuch", a first history of the city.
Duke Rudolf IV of Austria,
known as "the Founder", did
much to expand the city
7. Habsburg rule 2 Luxembourg emperors
With the Luxembourg emperors,
Prague became the imperial residence
and Vienna stood in its shadow
Rudolf IV of Austria deserves credit for
his prudent economic policy, which
raised the level of prosperity.raised the level of prosperity.
His epithet the Founder is due to two
1. he founded the University of
Vienna in 1365,
2. he began the construction of
the gothic nave in the
Stephansdom.Duke Rudolf IV of Austria,
known as "the Founder", did
much to expand the city
8. Habsburg rule 3 , Vienna became the
capital of the Holy Roman Empire
After the election of Duke Albert V as German King
Albert II, Vienna became the capital of the Holy
1469, Vienna was given its own bishop, and the
Stephansdom became a cathedral
During the upheavals of the era of the weak EmperorDuring the upheavals of the era of the weak Emperor
Frederick III, Vienna remained on the side of his
opponents (first Albert VI, then Matthias Corvinus), as
Frederick proved unable to maintain peace in the land
vis-à-vis rampaging gangs of mercenaries (often
remaining from the Hussite Wars).
9. Habsburg rule 4 Vienna became the seat of the Emperor
In 1556, Vienna became the seat of the Emperor, with
Hungary and Bohemia having been added to the
Habsburg realm in 1526.
During this time, the city was also recatholicised after
having become Protestant rather quickly.having become Protestant rather quickly.
were brought to
town and soon
gained a large
influence in court.
10. Turkish sieges
In 1529, Vienna was besieged by
the Ottoman Turks for the first , although
unsuccessfully. The city, protected by medieval walls,
only barely withstood the attacks, until epidemics and
an early winter forced the Turks to retreatan early winter forced the Turks to retreat
2. Turkish Siege of 1683, as they allowed the city to
maintain itself for two months, until the Turkish army
was defeated by the army led by the Polish King Jan
Sobieski. This was the turning point in the Turkish
Wars, as the Ottoman Empire was pushed back more
and more during the following decades.
11. 18th century
1679 and 1713, the population
began to grow steadily. It is
estimated that 150,000 people
lived in Vienna in 1724, and 200,000 in 1790. At thatlived in Vienna in 1724, and 200,000 in 1790. At that
time, the first factories were built.
Under Emperor Joseph II, the city administration was
modernized in 1783: officials in charge of only the city
were introduced, and the Magistrate was created. At
the same time, the graveyards within the city were
12. 19th century
During the Napoleonic Wars, Vienna was taken by
Napoleon twice, in 1805 and 1809.
After Napoleon's final defeat, the Congress of
Vienna took place from September 18, 1814 to
June 9, 1815, in which the political map of Europe was
1. half of the 19. c. --> intensive industrialization
in 1837 Vienna being attached to the railway network.
The French February Revolution of 1848 had an effect
as far away as Vienna: on March 13, the March
Revolution, which forced long-serving chancellor
Metternich to resign.
13. Expansion under Emperor Franz Joseph I
Under the rule of Emperor Franz Joseph I the city
experienced rapid growth and an unprecedented
flowering of culture, the arts and architecture
In 1861, the Liberals won the first (relatively) free
elections after the end of neoabsolutism.
After the great flood of 1830, RegulationAfter the great flood of 1830, Regulation
of the Danube. During that period, the
population of Vienna increased sharply,
mostly because of immigration
1910 all-time high of population,
with 2,031,000 inhabitants.
14. Expansion under Emperor Franz Joseph I
Around 1900, Vienna became a centre of the Jugendstil
(Art Nouveau), most of all with Otto Wagner and the
association of artists known as Vienna Secession
In 1890, the city was expanded for a second time: the
suburbs beyond the old Citywall were incorporatedsuburbs beyond the old Citywall were incorporated
into the town
Water pipeline Wiener Hochquellwasserleitung,
bringing fresh water from the mountains to Vienna
and the creation of a belt of meadows and forests
around the city).
15. World War I
World War I (1914–1918)
did not result in an immediate threat to Vienna,
but it led to a lack of supplies because of the economic
embargo imposed by the Entente powers, which resultedembargo imposed by the Entente powers, which resulted
in a shortage of food and clothes.
The end of the war was also the end of Austria-
Hungary. On November 12, 1918, the Republic of
Deutsch-Österreich, or German-Austria, was
proclaimed in front of the parliament. The population
was concentrated in the capital, which was often called
a hydrocephalus because of this.
16. First Republic
In 1921, Vienna was separated
from the surrounding Lower
Austria and became a state of its own.
The left-wing Social Democrats have an importatnt role
in the city administration. "Red Vienna" was consideredin the city administration. "Red Vienna" was considered
an international model. Many notable Gemeindebauten
(low-cost residential estates) were built during that
Polarisation of the political parties: On the social
democratic side, the left-wing Republican Protective
Alliance was formed in 1923/24, which was a well-
organised and well-equipped paramilitary group. It was
opposed by the right-wing Heimwehr ("Home Guard")
in 1933 the dissolution of parliament, marked the way
to the Civil War in February 1934. After Engelbert
Dollfuß, who had been Chancellor of Austria and
foreign minister since 1932, had forbidden the Nazi
Party, the Communist Party and the Schutzbund inParty, the Communist Party and the Schutzbund in
1933, he extended the ban to the Social Democratic
Party in 1934 after the February Uprising.
The only legal political organization was the new
movement of his own creation, the Vaterländische
Front. Dollfuß created an authoritarian regime and
ruled without parliamentary approval.
18. Third Reich
In March 1938 Nazi Germany
occupied and annexed Austria
in a process known as the Anschluss.
Immediately after the Anschluss the Jews of Vienna
were subject to violence from the State as well as fromwere subject to violence from the State as well as from
Antisemites acting out of their own sadism. During
the Reichskristallnacht on November 9, 1938, the
synagogues, the Jewish centres were destroyed.
In August, the KZ Oberlanzendorf Wien (Central
Office for Jewish Emigration) was created. Its head
was Adolf Eichmann
19. World War II
1943 the city began being attacked by bombers based
in Italy. Large flak towers were constructed in the city
The bombings of 1944 and 1945 and the vicious
during the subsequent conquest of Vienna by Soviet
troops in April 1945 caused much destruction within
Luckily some historic buildings survived the
bombardment; many more were painstakingly
reconstructed after the war.
20. Allied occupation
Only a few days after the war,
On April 29, 1945 the parliament
building passed from the occupa-
tion force to the new Austrian
government announced the reinstitution of thegovernment announced the reinstitution of the
democratic Republic of Austria.
Vienna was divided into five occupation zones
between the Soviet Union, the USA, the UK, France,
and with the first district being patrolled by all four.
The first municipal elections were held in November
21. Modern history since 1955
On May 15, 1955, the country regained
its political independence and sovereignty
with the "Austrian State Treaty".
The Austrian Parliament immediately
amended the treaty to establish Austria's
future neutrality and non-alignmentfuture neutrality and non-alignment
(similar to that of Switzerland).
After the war: enormous economic boom
Public transport in Vienna was improved by the
introduction of the new U-Bahn network, the first part of
which was opened in 1978
During the 1970s, Vienna became the third official seat of
the United Nations, and the UNO-City was built.
22. Modern history of the last
Austria is member of the European Union since 1995
Official currency EURO since 1999.
In the municipal elections of 2001, the Social
Democrats regained an absolute majority. With the ,
not gaining enough votes, only four parties have been
represented in the municipal council since then. In the
2005 elections, the Social Democrats further increased
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