History of Vienna - IFMIK


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Presentation about history of Wien made by the learners of IFMIK Wien.
Eu Treasure Hunt Project.

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History of Vienna - IFMIK

  1. 1. presented bypresented by Institut für die Förderung von Mehrsprachigkeit, interkulturellen Kompetenzen und Gleichbehandlung For the project meeting of the project EU Treasure Hunt in Vienna June 2012
  2. 2. Roman beginnings The name Vindobona -->from a Celtic language, The Romans created a military camp (occupied by Legio X Gemina) during the 1st century on the site of the city centre of present-day Vienna.centre of present-day Vienna. The settlement was raised to the status of a municipium in 212.
  3. 3. Early Middle Ages The streets and houses of early medieval Vienna followed the former Roman walls, which gives rise to the conclusion that parts of the fortification were still in place and used by the settlers. The firstin place and used by the settlers. The first documented mention of the city during the Middle Ages dates to 881 when a battle apud Weniam was fought against the Hungarians. However, it is unclear whether this refers to the city or the River Wien.
  4. 4. Babenberg rule In 976, the Margraviate of Ostarrîchi was given to the Babenberg family. Vienna lay at its border to Hungary. Vienna was an important site of trade as early as the 11th century. In the Exchange of Mautern between the Bishop ofof Mautern between the Bishop of Passau and Margrave Leopold IV, Vienna is mentioned as a Civitas for the first time, which indicates the existence of a well-ordered settlement. In 1155, Duke Henry II of Austria made Vienna his capital. Duke Henry II of the Babenberg dynasty elevated Vienna to his capital in 1155
  5. 5. Babenberg rule 2. In 1156, Austria was raised to a duchy in the Privilegium Minus, with Vienna becoming the seat of the duke. During that time, the Schottenstift was founded. In 1221, Vienna received the rights of a city and as aIn 1221, Vienna received the rights of a city and as a staple port (Stapelrecht). This meant that all traders passing through Vienna had to offer their goods in the city. This allowed the Viennese to act as middlemen in trade, so that Vienna soon created a network of far- reaching trade relations, particularly along the Danube basin and to Venice, and to become one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire.
  6. 6. Habsburg rule In 1278, Rudolf I took control over the Austrian lands after his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia and began to establish Habsburg rule. In Vienna, it took a relatively long time for the Habsburgs to establish theirfor the Habsburgs to establish their control, because partisans of Ottokar remained strong for a long time. There were several uprisings against Albert I. The family of the Paltrams vom Stephansfreithof was foremost among the insurgents. In 1280, Jans der Enikel wrote the "Fürstenbuch", a first history of the city. Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, known as "the Founder", did much to expand the city
  7. 7. Habsburg rule 2 Luxembourg emperors With the Luxembourg emperors, Prague became the imperial residence and Vienna stood in its shadow Rudolf IV of Austria deserves credit for his prudent economic policy, which raised the level of prosperity.raised the level of prosperity. His epithet the Founder is due to two things: 1. he founded the University of Vienna in 1365, 2. he began the construction of the gothic nave in the Stephansdom.Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, known as "the Founder", did much to expand the city
  8. 8. Habsburg rule 3 , Vienna became the capital of the Holy Roman Empire After the election of Duke Albert V as German King Albert II, Vienna became the capital of the Holy Roman Empire. 1469, Vienna was given its own bishop, and the Stephansdom became a cathedral During the upheavals of the era of the weak EmperorDuring the upheavals of the era of the weak Emperor Frederick III, Vienna remained on the side of his opponents (first Albert VI, then Matthias Corvinus), as Frederick proved unable to maintain peace in the land vis-à-vis rampaging gangs of mercenaries (often remaining from the Hussite Wars).
  9. 9. Habsburg rule 4 Vienna became the seat of the Emperor In 1556, Vienna became the seat of the Emperor, with Hungary and Bohemia having been added to the Habsburg realm in 1526. During this time, the city was also recatholicised after having become Protestant rather quickly.having become Protestant rather quickly. In 1551, the Jesuits were brought to town and soon gained a large influence in court.
  10. 10. Turkish sieges In 1529, Vienna was besieged by the Ottoman Turks for the first , although unsuccessfully. The city, protected by medieval walls, only barely withstood the attacks, until epidemics and an early winter forced the Turks to retreatan early winter forced the Turks to retreat 2. Turkish Siege of 1683, as they allowed the city to maintain itself for two months, until the Turkish army was defeated by the army led by the Polish King Jan Sobieski. This was the turning point in the Turkish Wars, as the Ottoman Empire was pushed back more and more during the following decades.
  11. 11. 18th century 1679 and 1713, the population began to grow steadily. It is estimated that 150,000 people lived in Vienna in 1724, and 200,000 in 1790. At thatlived in Vienna in 1724, and 200,000 in 1790. At that time, the first factories were built. Under Emperor Joseph II, the city administration was modernized in 1783: officials in charge of only the city were introduced, and the Magistrate was created. At the same time, the graveyards within the city were closed.
  12. 12. 19th century During the Napoleonic Wars, Vienna was taken by Napoleon twice, in 1805 and 1809. After Napoleon's final defeat, the Congress of Vienna took place from September 18, 1814 to June 9, 1815, in which the political map of Europe was redrawn.redrawn. 1. half of the 19. c. --> intensive industrialization in 1837 Vienna being attached to the railway network. The French February Revolution of 1848 had an effect as far away as Vienna: on March 13, the March Revolution, which forced long-serving chancellor Metternich to resign.
  13. 13. Expansion under Emperor Franz Joseph I Under the rule of Emperor Franz Joseph I the city experienced rapid growth and an unprecedented flowering of culture, the arts and architecture In 1861, the Liberals won the first (relatively) free elections after the end of neoabsolutism. After the great flood of 1830, RegulationAfter the great flood of 1830, Regulation of the Danube. During that period, the population of Vienna increased sharply, mostly because of immigration 1910 all-time high of population, with 2,031,000 inhabitants.
  14. 14. Expansion under Emperor Franz Joseph I Around 1900, Vienna became a centre of the Jugendstil (Art Nouveau), most of all with Otto Wagner and the association of artists known as Vienna Secession In 1890, the city was expanded for a second time: the suburbs beyond the old Citywall were incorporatedsuburbs beyond the old Citywall were incorporated into the town Water pipeline Wiener Hochquellwasserleitung, bringing fresh water from the mountains to Vienna and the creation of a belt of meadows and forests around the city).
  15. 15. World War I World War I (1914–1918) did not result in an immediate threat to Vienna, but it led to a lack of supplies because of the economic embargo imposed by the Entente powers, which resultedembargo imposed by the Entente powers, which resulted in a shortage of food and clothes. The end of the war was also the end of Austria- Hungary. On November 12, 1918, the Republic of Deutsch-Österreich, or German-Austria, was proclaimed in front of the parliament. The population was concentrated in the capital, which was often called a hydrocephalus because of this.
  16. 16. First Republic In 1921, Vienna was separated from the surrounding Lower Austria and became a state of its own. The left-wing Social Democrats have an importatnt role in the city administration. "Red Vienna" was consideredin the city administration. "Red Vienna" was considered an international model. Many notable Gemeindebauten (low-cost residential estates) were built during that period. Polarisation of the political parties: On the social democratic side, the left-wing Republican Protective Alliance was formed in 1923/24, which was a well- organised and well-equipped paramilitary group. It was opposed by the right-wing Heimwehr ("Home Guard")
  17. 17. Austrofascism in 1933 the dissolution of parliament, marked the way to the Civil War in February 1934. After Engelbert Dollfuß, who had been Chancellor of Austria and foreign minister since 1932, had forbidden the Nazi Party, the Communist Party and the Schutzbund inParty, the Communist Party and the Schutzbund in 1933, he extended the ban to the Social Democratic Party in 1934 after the February Uprising. The only legal political organization was the new movement of his own creation, the Vaterländische Front. Dollfuß created an authoritarian regime and ruled without parliamentary approval.
  18. 18. Third Reich In March 1938 Nazi Germany occupied and annexed Austria in a process known as the Anschluss. Immediately after the Anschluss the Jews of Vienna were subject to violence from the State as well as fromwere subject to violence from the State as well as from Antisemites acting out of their own sadism. During the Reichskristallnacht on November 9, 1938, the synagogues, the Jewish centres were destroyed. In August, the KZ Oberlanzendorf Wien (Central Office for Jewish Emigration) was created. Its head was Adolf Eichmann
  19. 19. World War II 1943 the city began being attacked by bombers based in Italy. Large flak towers were constructed in the city The bombings of 1944 and 1945 and the vicious fightingfighting during the subsequent conquest of Vienna by Soviet troops in April 1945 caused much destruction within the city. Luckily some historic buildings survived the bombardment; many more were painstakingly reconstructed after the war.
  20. 20. Allied occupation Only a few days after the war, On April 29, 1945 the parliament building passed from the occupa- tion force to the new Austrian government announced the reinstitution of thegovernment announced the reinstitution of the democratic Republic of Austria. Vienna was divided into five occupation zones between the Soviet Union, the USA, the UK, France, and with the first district being patrolled by all four. The first municipal elections were held in November 1945.
  21. 21. Modern history since 1955 On May 15, 1955, the country regained its political independence and sovereignty with the "Austrian State Treaty". The Austrian Parliament immediately amended the treaty to establish Austria's future neutrality and non-alignmentfuture neutrality and non-alignment (similar to that of Switzerland). After the war: enormous economic boom Public transport in Vienna was improved by the introduction of the new U-Bahn network, the first part of which was opened in 1978 During the 1970s, Vienna became the third official seat of the United Nations, and the UNO-City was built.
  22. 22. Modern history of the last decades Austria is member of the European Union since 1995 Official currency EURO since 1999. In the municipal elections of 2001, the Social Democrats regained an absolute majority. With the , not gaining enough votes, only four parties have been represented in the municipal council since then. In the 2005 elections, the Social Democrats further increased their majority.
  23. 23. A-1140 Vienna, Penzingerstr.125/3 ContactContact detailsdetails: Thank you for your attention! A-1140 Vienna, Penzingerstr.125/3 0043-699-17194869 @ ifmik@hotmail.com