FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS FIRE PROTECTION• According to National building code of India- Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of fires.• Basic Fire safe design, various smoke control practices and fire proofing has been taken into consideration in further slides
FIRE SAFEDESIGN•Fire resistiveconstruction•Compartmentation•Provision for firefighting
FIRE PROOFING• Sprayed-on applications of mineral fiber or cementitious materials• Encapsulation of structural steel members with concrete• Floor or roof, ceiling and Wall assemblies• Wood products can be treated or coated to improve behavior in fire
WATER PROOFING/ DAMP PROOFING• Water Proofing- It is used to prevent water penetration under hydrostatic pressure to the surfaces of components, such as structural steel and through assemblies such as exterior masonry walls, foundation walls, roofs.• Damp Proofing- It means protection against the passage of water in small quantities and not under pressure; commonly against penetration through capillary attraction only.
DAMP PROOFING• A damp-proof course is a horizontal barrier in a wall designed to resist moisture rising through the structure by capillary action - a phenomenon known as rising damp
THERMAL INSULATION• Insulation is defined as a material or combination of materials, which retard the flow of heat. The materials can be adapted to any size, shape or surface. A variety of finishes are used to protect the insulation from mechanical and environmental damage, and to enhance appearance.• Its helps in energy savings, fire protection, Sound attenuation, greenhouse gas reduction.
SKYLIGHTS• Skylights add natural lighting to dull, dark rooms by adding a skylight. Skylights provide the simplest means of introducing the daylight into a space under a flat or pitched roof assembly• FEATURES 1.Allows diffused light to enter. 2. Add to the aesthetic appeal of the viewer 3.Any of the shapes can be fabricated
SOLAR DESIGN• It means the use of solar energy in various forms to decrease the use of electrical energy and increase human thermal comfort. It has two components:-• Passive solar design• Active solar design
Passive Solar Design Techniques• Orient the house with the long axis running east/west.• Select, orient, and size glass to optimize winter heat gain and minimize summer heat gain for the specific climate. Consider selecting different glazing for different sides of the house (exposures).• Size south-facing overhangs to shade windows in summer and allow solar gain in winter.• Add thermal mass in walls or floors for heat storage.• Use natural ventilation to reduce or eliminate cooling needs.• Use daylight to provide natural lighting.
BUILDING ASSEMBLIES FLOORING AND ROOFINGFlooring-Flooring today offers a considerably wider choice in materials, properties. and appearance to meet changing performance criteria.
COMMERCIAL ROOFING• COMMERCIAL ROOFING is a building material used to protect and seal the top of commercial structures. It covers structural framing and prevents rain and other precipitation from entering the building. Commercial roof ing generally has a relatively flat slope.
STAIRCASES• Stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs are names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps.• The following features were studied:-• Stairway lighting• Staircase design Considerations
Reinforced Concrete Stairs• Categories depending on span of the stair slab – Stair with slab spanning horizontally • Stair is supported on one side by side-wall/stringer beam and on the other side by a stringer beam • Each step is designed as spanning horizontally with B.M as WL²/8 • Main reinforcement – 12mm diameter bars at 150 mm c/c • Distributed reinforcement - 6mm diameter bars at 150 mm c/c • Waist of 8 cm is provided – Stair with slab spanning longitudinally • Slab is supported at bottom and top of the flight • Main reinforcement is parallel to flight • Distribution reinforcement is along the width of flight
EXTERIOR WALL• Bearing wall: wall that carries the load of floors and roof above in addition to its own weight• Curtain Wall: it is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather.• Non-bearing Wall: non load bearing walls carry only their own weight.