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  • 1. Sustainable Architecture without Architects How the people of a small town on the cross road to silk road in Persia used micro-climate and their local materials to create energy-efficient homes
  • 2. Sustainable Architecture without Architects This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited.
  • 3. Learning Objectives Passive solar design Assess how they have used sun, wind, water, and thermal mass to transform a harsh natural environment into a comfortable residential space Evaluate innovative uses of local material in building Weigh the benefits and drawbacks of using only local materials to create buildings Observe the use of these techniques in modern architecture
  • 4. What is a Green Building? Based on USGBC Location, location Building design Indoors-environmental quality Windows and doors Water efficiency Energy efficiency Green building materials Insulations Renewable energy Landscaping
  • 5. Energy Saving
  • 6. Passive Solar Design Principles Heating and cooling without mechanical system Orientation (south facing windows) Glazing Shading Thermal mass Insulation Ventilation Landscaping (Planting for wind diversion, shade, natural air conditioner, water feature)
  • 7. San Diego Micro Climate Coastal Inland Mountain Desert
  • 8. Orientation Sun path during summer and winter Winter Summer Maximize south facing windows
  • 9. Glazing and Day lighting Locate windows in South and north facing walls Good day lighting creates a pleasant atmosphere and elevates mood and reduce depression Reduces electric lighting usage during the day
  • 10. Shading Outside Southern wall: overhangs Reduces intense light and glare East and West windows
  • 11. Thermal mass Winter time: Absorbs and stores the heat during the day then radiates the heat at night with a delayed effect and moderately. Summer time: Absorbs nighttime coolness and release it slowly during the hot days. Tile or stained concrete floor. Masonry or tile Fire place surround. Concrete or tile countertops. Concrete mass walls. Pond roof . Light color painted wall to reflect on the floor. No throw rugs on the floor. Fade?
  • 12. Ventilation Controlled movement of air through a building not a leak Evaporative cooling Cross Ventilation Stack ventilation
  • 13. Landscaping Wind break Natural air conditioner Creating shade
  • 14. Do we follow 2000 year old design rules?
  • 15. Desert Micro Climate!
  • 16. Desert Micro Climate Hostile environment Very little vegetation Almost no rainfall Sand storms Loss of life Not popular with travellers Vast area with few roads Marco Polo in 13th Century • Lack of water, heat and vicious sand, Summer temperature up to 120°F Winter temperature dips below -4 °F Temperatures soar in the sun, but drop rapidly at dusk
  • 17. Comfort Zone Chart for Tabas Building bio-climatic chart by Milne and Givoni July 12th Tabas Temp: Max: 106’° Min: 68° F F Humidity : 9% Wind: 14 mph NNE
  • 18. Materials Earth 1/3 of population, half in developing counties Architect Gernot Minke Straw White plaster Wood
  • 19. Other problems Cultural: Privacy, attack, protection Economic Status: Animals, distance, food storage Structural System: Only adobe
  • 21. Tabas, an oasis in the desert A city which used to exist! •“Pearl of Persian cities” •“Bride of Persian cities”
  • 22. Tabas Compare with Yazd a designated historic city
  • 23. Why Tabas became important? • Connection to silk road • Motels or “Karevan Sara” • Source of water • Coal mines
  • 24. Tabas, in the middle of the desert • Trade center • Source of water
  • 25. Tabas, how it became an oasis? • Existence of water • Love of planting trees • Need for shade • Distance • Farms irrigation
  • 26. Tree Preservation
  • 27. These are the spaces they formed! • Summer living area • E`ivan (covered patio or veranda) • Courtyards (with water feature and planters) • Baudgeers (wind scoops or wind catchers) • Kitchen and storage • Hoaz-khane (living room) • Winter living area • Sardab (basement) • Hashti (eight sided vestibule)
  • 28. Typical Floor Plan • Season Baudgeer • Compact • Summer, winter area • Courtyard • Architectural elements • Four seasons • Cross ventilation
  • 29. Summer Living Area • Location • Elaborate • Windows • Height Low High
  • 30. E’ivan (covered porch or veranda) • Location • Main element • Stand alone • Shade • Usage time • Day to day work Clay jugs
  • 31. Courtyard • Location • Steps • Materials • Water • Well of cold air • Reservoir of coolness
  • 32. Courtyard • Water Features • Citrus fruit trees • Palm trees • Walls, wind break • US Department of Energy, up to 25°F cooler under a tree
  • 33. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) • Unique, important • 4000 B.C. • One sided, three sided • Breath • Cool winds • Exhaust • Wet straw • 8’ – 20’
  • 34. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) • Location Low income • Basement • Divisions, Venturi effect
  • 35. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) Temperature change produce air pressures Sensible cooling hot air rising by convection Creates Stack effect Like a chimney Air movement: Venturi Ventilation Up draft • Pressure difference effect pathways • Suction • The Venturi effect • Convection • Hot air rises Hot day in the afternoon no wind Stack effect Down draft Temperature Low change produce air pressures, High difference in air pressure generates air flow
  • 36. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft) • Enclosure • Sand settlement • Protection
  • 37. Houz-khaneh (living room) • Favorite • Water feature • Height • Cross ventilation • Baudgeer, centered • Thermal mass Plan Section Elevation
  • 38. Houz-khaneh (living room) Air movement by convection: Stack effect: as hot air rises, it leaves an area of lower air pressure beneath it, which will suck in air through any low placed openings. Increasing the height between the hot air outlet and cool air inlet enhances the stack effect. The higher the hot air rise= more suction= stronger air flow. Great idea for area with no summer breeze. Low pressure
  • 39. Houz-khaneh (living room) • Econ. Status • Decoration • Opening • Fountain • Evaporative cooling Low pressure
  • 40. Houz-khaneh • Palm tree • Clerestory • Latticed opening
  • 41. Houz-khaneh • Flower • Reflection
  • 42. Sardab (basement) • Location • Temperature • 12 to 4 • Ventilation • Damp walls
  • 43. Winter Living Area and Kitchen • Room Location • Length of the season • Kitchen location • Windows • Size • Height • Braziers
  • 44. Kitchen • Vent • Suction • Light and air • Bread oven Prevailing wind
  • 45. Sleeping Area • Roof, courtyard • Privacy, breeze
  • 46. Cultural Elements • Privacy, Entry • Door knob, door height • Family size • Central courtyard • Clustered
  • 47. Economic Status • Storage • Stable for animals
  • 48. Economic Status • Handcrafting • Weaving loom • Dyeing wool
  • 49. Economic Status, Amir Garden • Judge and his business • Public and private spaces Floor plan Section
  • 50. Privacy issue in other small towns
  • 51. Materials • Sun dried adobe, salt • high heat storage capacity and low heat conductivity: Thermal lag • Kahgel or plaster of clay and straw • White plaster to reflect heat • Wood
  • 52. Structural System • Bearing wall, thermal mass • Barrel roof • Dome roof, distributes heat
  • 53. Alleys • Shade • Breeze • Maze • Roof • Source of cool air
  • 54. Baghe Golshan • Main park (Persian garden) • Four gardens • Two stream • Water feature • Water fountain • Water fall Section Arial Photo Site Plan
  • 55. Baghe Golshan (main park) • Vanishing edge pool • Stream passes through park entry and moves toward the city
  • 56. Benefits & drawbacks of using only local materials
  • 57. Tabas After Earth Quake, 1978 • 7.9 magnitude earthquake • Shear strength in adobe • 22,000 died
  • 58. We are building a new civilization Cheap energy Spoiled by HVAC Changing our behaviors, thanks to H.E.C of last year. Experiment and start from scratch Historical examples This was only one example
  • 59. Innovative uses of the same strategy in new buildings Natural resources; wind, sun, water and trees Orientation, orientation, orientation South facing windows July 12 San Diego Ventilation Temp: Max: 75° Min: 52° F F Humidity : 75% Cross Wind:14 mph W July 12th Tabas Stack Temp: Max: 106’° Min: 68° F F Humidity : 9% Shade Wind: 14 mph NNE Thermal mass Natural day-light Landscape Passive solar San Diego weather pattern in the chart
  • 60. Value of architects and designers Architect role
  • 61. Mission Style Spanish Architecture
  • 62. Rob Quigley Architect Children Museum, San Diego Baudgeer concept (as cooling chimney) Exhaust ventilation
  • 63. CII-Godrej GBC J.W. Marriott, Palm Desert Courtyard Water feature Water falls CII-Godrej GBC India Wind tower HVAC load
  • 64. Gerber architect Germany Burj al-Taqa, Dubai High-tech baudgeer Wind driven ventilation Central atrium Dbl layered façade for shade w/s.p.
  • 65. Twirling Tower Orchid Plaza By David Fisher in Dubai Bahrain Wind powered Electricity generating wind tower
  • 66. Louis Kahn architect Salk Institute, La Jolla Persian gardens and water feature
  • 67. AS +GG Architect of Chicago Masdar Headquarters, Abu Dhabi Baudgeer concept, exhaust ventilation
  • 68. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Coyne Residence, La Jolla 1990 New Existing building West facing windows Strategic location of windows Cross ventilation Existing
  • 69. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Coyne Residence, La Jolla 1990 Strategic location of windows Overhang Shade Daylight Cross ventilation
  • 70. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Vajda Residence, Rancho Santa Fe Covenant South facing windows West facing windows Cross ventilation HVAC usage? Before After
  • 71. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Vajda Residence, Rancho Santa Fe Covenant South facing windows Shade HVAC usage? After After Before
  • 72. Assoc. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Vista Mar Residence, Pacific Beach 2000 West facing lot Great view No buyer for 2 years Small flat area
  • 73. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Assoc. Vista Mar Residence, Pacific Beach 2000 South facing windows West facing windows? Overhangs Cross ventilation HVAC?
  • 74. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Soledad Home, P.B. South facing windows Shade Cross ventilation Stack ventilation Fan
  • 75. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Chalcedony, Pacific Beach South facing windows Shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation
  • 76. MSA & Assoc. Inc. La Jolla Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Cross ventilation Daylight Courtyard Before After
  • 77. MSA & Assoc. Inc. La Jolla Residence, La Jolla Courtyard After North facing windows Before Before After
  • 78. MSA & Assoc. Inc. La Jolla Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Use of shade Water Courtyard Daylight Umbrellas After Before
  • 79. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Ten in rows, Linda Vista South facing windows Use of shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation Daylight
  • 80. Green Building Design Natural resources; wind, sun, water and trees Orientation, orientation, orientation South facing windows Ventilation Cross Stack Shade Thermal mass Natural day-light Landscape Passive solar
  • 81. Resources • Master Theses research by Simi Razavian, Lila Khalvati and Fereshteh Asefi. • Gardens of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost • Monuments of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost • Urban structure and architecture in the hot arid zone of Iran by Mahmoud Tavassoli • http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=1040 • http://www.gulfweeklyworldwide.com/article.asp?Sn=5536&Article=19304 • http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/05/16/david-fishers-twirling-wind-power-tower/ • http://www.lightningcanyon.com/pages/passive-solar/introduction_passive_solar.html •Viability of wind towers in achieving summer comfort in the hot arid regeions of the middle east By Mehdi N. Bahadori Professor of Mechanical Engineering Sharif University of Technology Tehran, Iran • Three dimensional numerical investigation of air flow over domed roofs by Ahmadreza K.Faghih and,MehdiN.Bahadori School ofMechanicalEngineering,SharifUniversityofTechnology,Tehran,Iran
  • 82. Speaker Simi Razavian Architect, LEED AP, CGBP Master of Science in Architecture and Urban Design with Emphasis on Passive Solar Design and Vernacular Architecture of Tabas, Iran Co- founder of MSA & Assoc. Inc. in 1987 Licensed Architect in the State of California Certified Green Building Professional Speaker at : AIA Convention 2009 Notre Dame University Apr 2010 UCSD July 2010 Contact Information Simi Razavian simi@msahome.com www.msahome.com