Special Interest Tourism                               UNIT 1:              INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapt...
Special Interest Tourism   •   International visitor – persons who travel for a period not exceeding 12 months to a countr...
Special Interest TourismEvolution of transportTransport is the most critical element in the promotion of the growth of dom...
Special Interest Tourism           Evolution of transport                                      ExplanationStagecoach trave...
Special Interest Tourism                                            Tourists leave           Transport link               ...
Special Interest TourismIncrease in paid holidays also can be associated with development of modern mass tourism. Paidholi...
Special Interest TourismIn the current development in the tourism industry, like mass tourism and the increase in packaged...
Special Interest TourismPro-poor tourism              The potential tourism has to help the very poorest in developing    ...
Special Interest Tourism                                   UNIT 2:                     TYPES OF SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM C...
Special Interest Tourism   •   Castles and battlefields   •   Sites of disasters (natural or man-made)   •   Prisons now o...
Special Interest Tourism    Dark Camps of Genocide: Seen as occupying the darkest edges of the dark tourism     spectrum,...
Special Interest TourismDefinition:“Any adventure trip close to nature that is undertaken by someone who depart from known...
Special Interest TourismAlmost all is white water oriented. White water ~ a fast flowing water which due to someobstructio...
Special Interest Tourism   •   Increasing economic role of women   •   Emerging trends to maximize the power of cultural t...
Special Interest Tourismpublic understanding of archaeological interpretation and the nature of archaeological resources,i...
Special Interest Tourism“All forms of active and passive involvement in sporting activity, participated in casually or in ...
Special Interest Tourism   •   Boost in tourism activity during the event as also post event period. It accelerates the gr...
Special Interest Tourismtourism, wildlife tourism, scenic driving and sightseeing, eco-tourism and garden tourism. Naturet...
Special Interest Tourismto purchase boutique wines that are not available in city wine outlets, proximity to the winery or...
Special Interest TourismSIT, it is suggested, should be viewed as part of a system, an interdisciplinary system, whichcomp...
Special Interest Tourismorganizations were perceived to have focused on rather homogeneously considered groups ofcustomers...
Special Interest Tourismbrochures, magazines, books, film and television, all are media for the creation of images thatfas...
Special Interest Tourismprimary function of government in fostering more special interest tourism is therefore to create a...
Special Interest TourismTourism Distribution ChannelsThe tourism channel of distribution is an operating structure, system...
Special Interest TourismInternet service provider        Companies that provide domain space for others on computer       ...
Special Interest Tourism                                                                these economic benefits because th...
Special Interest TourismEnvironmental activitiesWTTC concern:  • Political instability or increased competition for land c...
Special Interest Tourism   •   Community and industry consensus concerning architectural and signage standards   •   Suppo...
Special Interest Tourism   •   Group size: in many places, larger volumes of people arriving at the same time can be more ...
Special Interest Tourism              PARTICIPATION IN SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM  Chapter objectives    • Examine and explo...
Special Interest Tourism                                  considers the environmental and cultural contrast and similariti...
Special Interest Tourism   •   Changes in the physical environment   •   Ecological changesThese may affect patterns of co...
Special Interest TourismBelow is the Black Box Model of consumer buying behavior.       Marketing         Other           ...
Special Interest Tourism            Cultural                              Social                                          ...
Special Interest Tourism    Lifestyle - Lifestyle profile a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world...
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  1. 1. Special Interest Tourism UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Explore the overview of special interest tourism, and outline the tourist and tourism system • Identify and discuss the factors which led to the development of special interest tourism: the evolution of transport, development of winter sports, increase in paid holidays, long haul travel, opening up of global destinations, and current developmentSpecial interest tourism overviewSpecial interest tourism refers to tourists, usually in small group tours, who are traveling to learnabout and experience particular specific features related to an area. Special interest tourism canfocus on a wide range of features from cultural manifestations of dance, music, fine arts, handicraft,architecture, and traditional ways of life, unusual economic activities, archaeology and history, aswell as aspects of nature to those related to the tourists’ professional interests.Special interest tourism does not require large-scale or even greatly expensive development offacilities and infrastructure. However, careful organization, knowledgeable guide services, someintegrated transportation facilities and services, and at least basic accommodation and cateringfacilities are essential.DefinitionAlso known as serious leisure ~ leisure where participants are able to find personal fulfillment,enhance their identity and express themselves, as opposed to casual or un-serious leisure“A form of tourism which involves consumers whose holiday choice is inspired by specificmotivations and whose level of satisfaction is determined by the experience they pursue”(www.download-it.org/)“Travel for people who are going somewhere because they have a particular interest that can bepursued in a particular region or at a particular destination”(S. E. Read, 1980)Definition by World Tourism Organization (WTO), 1985“Specialized tourism involving group or individual tours by people who wish to develop certaininterests and visits sites and places connected with a specific subject. Generally speaking, thepeople concerned exercise the same profession or have a common hobby”.The tourist and the tourism systemDefinition of tourist ~ “temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours in the country visited and thepurpose of whose journey can be classified as: leisure, business, family, mission and meeting”.While visitor is “any person visiting a country other than that in which he has his usual place ofresidence, for any reason other following an occupation remunerated from within the countryvisited”. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Special Interest Tourism • International visitor – persons who travel for a period not exceeding 12 months to a country other than the one in which they generally reside • Internal visitor – persons who travel to a destination within their own country, that is outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 monthsExcursionists can be defined as temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours in the destinationvisited and not making an overnight stayTourism classification 1. International tourism • Inbound tourism – visits to a country by nonresidents • Outbound tourism – visits by residents of a country to another country 2. Internal tourism • Visits by residents of a country to their own country 3. Domestic tourism • Internal tourism plus inbound tourism (the tourism market of accommodation facilities and attractions within a country) 4. National tourism • Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the residents tourism markets for travel agents and airlines)Tourism systemTourism system should be viewed as a single system comprised of interrelated parts. A system, itcan be defined, analyzed, planned and managed in an integrated manner.Gunn further specifies the influencing factors on the functioning of the tourism as: naturalresources, cultural resources, entrepreneurship, finance, labor, competition, community,government policies and organization/leadership.Mill and Morrison identify the four (4) major parts of the tourism system as being:  The market (tourists)  Travel (transportation)  Destination (attractions, facilities and services)  Marketing (information and promotion)Reasons for special interest tourism development ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Special Interest TourismEvolution of transportTransport is the most critical element in the promotion of the growth of domestic and internationaltourism. At a simple level, transport links the tourist from the origin area with the destination area.It enables the tourist (the holiday maker, business traveler and other categories of traveler) toconsume the products and experiences they have purchased, because it links the supply chaintogether.The transport sector is entering into strategic alliances where different operators will seek to offerseamless transport experience to travelers. All embracing role of transport to:  Facilitate the tourist trip to the destination  Enable tourist travel within the destinationEvolution of transport: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Special Interest Tourism Evolution of transport ExplanationStagecoach travel Coaches were invented in Hungary in the 15th century and provided regular service there on prescribed routes. By the 19th century, stagecoach travel had become quite popular, especially in Great Britain. The development of the famous English tavern was brought by the need for overnight lodging by stagecoach passengers.Water travel Market boats picked up passengers as well as goods on ship canals in England as early as 1772. by 1815, steamboats were plying the Clyde, the Avon and the Thames. By 1841, steamship excursions on the Thames were well established.Rail travel Railways were first built in England in 1825 and carried passengers beginning in 1830. Because the fares were much lower than stagecoach fares, rail travel became widely accepted even for those with low incomes. Between 1826 and 1840, the first railroads were built in the United States.Automobile/motorcoach travel Automobiles entered the travel scene in the United State when Henry Ford introduced his famous Model T in 1908. By 1920, a road network became available, leading to the automobile’s current dominance of the travel industry. Motorcoaches also came into use soon after the popularization of the automobile and remain a major mode of transportation.Air travel Nearly 16 years after the airplane’s first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in 1903, regularly scheduled air service began in Germany. Because of its speed, comfort and safety, air travel is the leading mode of public transportation today, as measured in revenue passenger miles.The role of transport in tourist travel: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Special Interest Tourism Tourists leave Transport link home area Airport shuttle/taxi/public transport/private car Departure airport Flight to destination Destination airport Airport shuttle to a hotel Hotel Scenic train Local tours by Car hire Local cruise Cycle hire journey coachDevelopment of winter sportWinter sport commonly played during winter. Main winter sports; ice hockey, figure skating,sledding events (luge, skeleton and bobsleigh), skiing and snowboarding.Example: • Apline Winter Sport Resort • Winter Olympic Games • Alps Mountain, SwirtzerlandTraveling for winter sports is very common now and insurance has been created specifically forcoverage on incidence during the tourists’ trip fro winter sports like the Winter Sports Policyprovided by the AA Winter Sports Insurance. With this kind of accessibility and convenience,people tend to be more prone into traveling just for winter sports because it is simplified by theinformation technology at the same time. Online bookings can be made to book winter sportsequipment.As for Winter Olympic Games, with young athletes attracted to new sports, the InternationalOlympic Committee, in trying to avoid an increasingly geriatric audience, has added sports that arepopular with today’s youth. This goes on to show how influential winter sports can be and with thisincrease in popularity of winter sports, more tourists would travel for that purpose specifically.Increase in paid holidaysThe introduction of annual paid holiday is very largely of English origin and this has importantrepercussions on development of mass tourism. The annual paid holiday was established during theinter-War years for a considerable number of working population and led to greater mobility of thepopulation and broadened the horizon of millions of people. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Special Interest TourismIncrease in paid holidays also can be associated with development of modern mass tourism. Paidholidays are now established all over the world, and in most countries a minimum duration of one tothree weeks is specified by law or by collective agreements, between the employers and the workersToday, the right to paid holidays has universal recognition.Presently, the main potential for tourism market is made up of wage-earners and their families. Theconcept of paid holidays, which originated with the advent of industrialization in the west, hasgiven modern tourism a tremendous boost.Positive impact of increase in paid holidays:  More leisure time  Increased in wealth material  Changes in mental attitudes towards pleasure travel  Improvement in transportation systemLong-haul travelJourneys typically made by wide-body aircraft that involve long distances, typically beyond six anda half hours in length, and often are non-stop flights. On some long-haul flights, jet airliners refuelin order to reach the destination. ORSelf-challengers ~ have a drive to challenge themselves, passionate travelers and embrace the ideaof exploring and immersing themselves in the culture and lifestyle of the destination. They seekdestinations that are as different from the home as possible and they don’t mind roughing it a bit.Example: outback AustraliaThe segment motivation reflects a personal drive to challenge them and the reward is intenselypersonal experiences. When traveling abroad, this segment appreciates immersion in the localculture, lifestyle and environment. They definitely perceives themselves as travelers, not tourists,and are focused on experiencing destinations before they become part of a heavily commercializedtourist trail.Self-challengers are focused on self-discovery through challenging experiences and want to get‘under the skin’ of a destination.Opening up of global destinationsBackpackers are arguable in setting new travel trends, opening up new destinations and developingnew markets; for example in developing destinations. Today, there is greater understanding of theneeds of tourists and their expectations of tourist destination than in the early phase of developmentof the tourism industry.By the 1980s, with increasing recognition of various forms of ‘special interest’ tourism and theirpotential economic benefits, awareness of the deteriorating environmental quality and therelationship between the tourists and residents in many destinations, attention began to focus onthese types of tourist, who might avoid the problems of mass tourism.More destinations to explore; example: • Bird watchers at Utah, Idaho and Nevada • Ardent mountain climbers at Taman Negara Kinabalu, Sabah; Nepal and Pakistan ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Special Interest TourismIn the current development in the tourism industry, like mass tourism and the increase in packagedholidays, special interest tourism is growing because tourists tend to seek something outside of theordinary to pursue their interest. For example, one of the most recent trends that can be seen inMalaysia is the love for Korean series amongst the youngsters or young adult who can be contributeto the increase in Malaysian traveling to Korea to visit the places in which those drama series hasbeen filmed in.Current developmentsThere has been an upmarket trend in the tourism industry over the last few decades, especially inEurope, where international travel for short breaks is common. The terms tourism and travel aresometimes used interchangeably – in this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, butimplies a more purposeful journey.There is now a demand for a better quality product, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the massmarket for beach vacations; people want more specialized version, quieter resorts, family-orientedholidays or niche market-targeted destinations hotels.There have been a few setbacks in tourism: • September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations • Tsunami • SARS outbreakContemporary special interest tourism trends: • Tourists have a high level of disposable income, considerable leisure time, are well-educated and have sophisticated tastes • Development in technology and transport infrastructure • Changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism • Some sites offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer impulseEmergences of new type of tourism destinations: Types ExplanationSustainable tourism Envisage as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems (WTO). Implies meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987).Ecotourism Also known as ecological tourism is responsible travel to fragile, pristine and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Special Interest TourismPro-poor tourism The potential tourism has to help the very poorest in developing countries has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development and the issue has been addressed either through small scale projects in local communities or by Ministries of Tourism attempting to attract huge numbers of tourists. For tourism to successfully reach the poor efforts must be made for tourists to use local currency, for locals to develop relevant skills and to ensure that exclusive contracts do not dominate the sector.Recession tourism Travel trend which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Defined by low-cost, high value experiences taking place of once- popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low-cost of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.Medical tourism When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (i.e. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as ‘medical tourism’.Educational tourism Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture; or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment.Creative tourism Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginning of tourism itself. ‘Grand Tour’ – which saw the sons of the aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences Can also be defined as tourism related to active participation of travelers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences. The concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.Dark tourism Involves visits to ‘dark’ sites such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide. A small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origin rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Special Interest Tourism UNIT 2: TYPES OF SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Identify and discuss the different types of special interest tourism: outdoor pursuits, adventure activities, cultural events, archeological tours, educational trips, sports competition, spiritual interests, and etc.Types of special interest tourismThe development of the special interest tourism which includes; • Outdoor pursuits • Adventure activities • Cultural events • Archaeological tours • Educational trips • Sports competition • Spiritual interestsThere is one unlisted type that increasingly becoming a form of tourism that is attracting interestfrom academic researchers and the industry: the “dark tourism”Dark tourismDark tourism also known as “black tourism” or “grief tourism” - Involving travel to sites associatedwith death and suffering. This includes: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Special Interest Tourism • Castles and battlefields • Sites of disasters (natural or man-made) • Prisons now open to the public • Purpose built centers • Sites of human atrocities and genocideThe dark tourism spectrums  Dark Fun Factories: These are commercially oriented, entertainment centers offering attractions and tours based on actual or fictional death and macabre incidents. Examples of dark fun factories include such family-friendly tourist attractions as the London Dungeon, Tower of London and Jack the Ripper tours.  Dark Exhibitions: Tourism products that encourage educational reflection on death, suffering or the macabre. They also tend still to have a commercial focus, but are more aimed at commemorating the dark events on exhibition, than entertaining customers. Examples include the Smithsonian Museum of American History exhibit September 11: Bearing Witness to History, which contains very few artifacts (only 45 in total). The exhibit doesnt even show images of the airliners approaching and crashing into the Twin Towers. The museum prefers to use photographs of eyewitnesses to tell the story.  Dark Dungeons: These are sites that mix entertainment with education (edu-tainment) as they reveal sites of crime and punishment systems from history. The Galleries of Justice in Nottingham is an example of this type of tourism product, which has been promoted as the only site where you could be arrested, sentenced and executed. Here the emphasis is more on entertainment, which contrasts with Robben Island, South Africa, where Nelson Mandela, among many other freedom fighters criminalized by the apartheid system, were incarcerated.  Dark Resting Places: Where a cemetery is seen as a potential tourism product. Tours, special interest groups and the spread of the Internet have led to growth in interest in these sites, where the living can feel literally close to the dead. Seen as occupying the middle ground of dark tourism, cemeteries such as Père-Lachaise in Paris are used to commemorate the (often very famous) dead, such as Jim Morrison and Isadora Duncan. Other cemeteries also offer open space for recreational activities, exercise and relaxation. Dark resting places can also become the subject of battles between land owners and local people over the right to access the site, such as in the case of Arnos Vale in Bristol  Dark Shrines: Based on the act of remembrance for the recently deceased. Dark shrines are often located close to or at the scene of a death, and usually within a short period after the incident which led to the death. Roadside tributes of flowers laid to commemorate death through traffic accidents have become increasingly popular in this country. Media-reported deaths of significance for people can also lead to similar informal tributes, as in the death of Diana, Princess of Wales.  Dark Conflict Sites: War and battlefields fit into this category and their use as tourism sites have been known about for centuries. Tourists are recorded as having visited the scene of the Battle of Waterloo even as it was being fought in 1815. The battlefields of the First World War were also first visited soon after hostilities ended and are now well established tourism venues, but their purpose is more about remembrance than celebration. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Special Interest Tourism  Dark Camps of Genocide: Seen as occupying the darkest edges of the dark tourism spectrum, death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Dachau and Buchenwald attract thousands of visitors each yearOutdoor activitiesOutdoor activities dedicated to the promotion of physical activities, wellness and a deeper meaningand understanding of nature through experience-based outdoor, adventure and environmentaleducation. Generally non-mechanized, outdoor recreation activities done in areas remote from theamenities of telephone, emergency help and urban comforts.There are also often means activities done in nature away from civilization such as hiking, hunting,backpacking and canoeing. Outdoor activities, as well as meant for a broader group activities suchas water sports and snow sportsThis mission fostered through: • Environmental awareness and minimum impact travel • Service learning and conservation efforts • Skill development and personal challenge • Positive group dynamic • Having a great timeOutdoor pursuit requires people to: • Learn through experience • Gaining direct awareness of their limitations in various areas of activities • Seeking to overcome them in the context of group interactionTypes of Outdoor Activities Mountain Forest Beach & sea Fresh Aero Desert Family Cultural activities activities activities water activities activities activities & activities historical activities Trekking Wildlife Snorkeling Angling Gliding Camel Theme Museum safari safari parkRock climbing Camping Scuba diving Canoeing Ballooning Desert jeep safari Mountain Bird Parasailing White Sand cycling watching water surfing rafting Motorbike Elephant Deep sea expedition safari fishing Skiing Tree Windsurfing climbingSnowboarding Water sports Ice climbing CanyoningAdventure tourism ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Special Interest TourismDefinition:“Any adventure trip close to nature that is undertaken by someone who depart from knownsurroundings to encounter unfamiliar places and people, with the purpose of exploration, study,business, communication, recreation, sport or sightseeing and tourism”(Addison, 1999)Generally an outdoor activity of sport, which involves elements of daring and risks. Physical fitnessis generally a pre-condition to participate in adventure sport activities. The core characteristics ofadventure tourism are: • Uncertain outcomes • Danger and risks • Challenge • Absorption and focus • Contrasting emotion • Escapism and separation • Exploration and discoveryCan be divided into three (3) sub-categoriesAerial AdventureExample: • Parachuting • Skydiving • Hand-gliding • Parasailing • Bungee jumpingWater Adventure Sport ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Special Interest TourismAlmost all is white water oriented. White water ~ a fast flowing water which due to someobstructions in its path is turbulent at those places which give it a white water appearances due tosurf produced. • White water rafting • White water kayakingFlat water is mainly sea based or a very large lake: • Water skiing • Wind surfing • SurfingLand-based SportsMost of the popular land-based sports are mountain oriented. Example: • Trekking • Skiing • Mountaineering • Rock climbingCultural tourismDefinition:“The practice of travelling to experience historic and cultural attractions to learn about acommunity’s heritage in an enjoyable and educational way”(Heritage Tourism Program)“The movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, withthe intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy needs”“The subset of tourism concerned with a country or regions culture, specifically the lifestyle of thepeople in those geographical areas, the history of those peoples, their art, architecture, religion(s),and other elements that helped shape their way of life”Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and theircultural facilities such as museums and theatres. Can also include tourism in rural areas showcasingthe traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values andlifestyle.Indigenous communities can be defined as ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according toone of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most ofwhich carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory. Other cultural tourismappeals are: • Music and dance • Foods and drinks • Government • Fine arts • Architectural etc.Trends in influencing the market place for cultural tourism: • Rising education level • Aging population ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Special Interest Tourism • Increasing economic role of women • Emerging trends to maximize the power of cultural tourism • Dramatic increase in short, get-away trips where by people are trying to pack more activities into more frequent trips of shorter duration • People are searching for meaning where by many will find it in nature, heritage and culture • The success of theme parks has created high expectations for cultural tourism • Sustainability of communities and the natural environment • The increasing impact of Internet (*virtual tourism)Virtual tourism – “a process of online browse and provision of travel information”. As a means togive tourists access to remote, inaccessible, fragile or closed cultural and natural heritage sites.Virtual reality – improve the presentation and interpretation of cultural sites and to extend thecarrying capacity of heavily visited sites. Virtual reality technology could be used to give virtualaccess to endangered heritage sites and regulate visitation to an acceptable level, and still satisfytourists and tourism needs.Five (5) distinct types of cultural tourism by McKercher and Du Cros (2002): • The purposeful cultural tourists (high centrality/deep experience) • The sightseeing cultural tourists (high centrality/shallow experience) • The casual cultural tourists (modest centrality/shallow experience) • The incidental cultural tourists (low centrality/shallow experience) • The serendipitous cultural tourists (low centrality/deep experience)Archaeological tourismArchaeological tourism is an alternative form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote thepassion for historical-archaeology and the conservation of historical sites. Promoted to encouragethe development of cultural associations, and companies and cooperatives can be found thatdedicate themselves to offer this type of service.Include all types of products associated with public archaeological promotion; example: • Visit to archaeological sites • Reenactment of historical occurrence • Archaeological tourism is ideal for which: • They look for a higher knowledge and sublimate • Tie to the meditation and the relaxation • Integration with the Mother NatureThe objectives of archaeological tourism are: • To offer a wonderful and unforgettable experiences • An intensive course and of introduction to each of these manifestations of the human knowledgeArchaeological sites, particularly those with spectacular ruins or monumental art, have drawntourists for centuries, as they drew explorers and adventures in even earlier times. Several countrieshave for years had programs resembling the main points of archaeological tourism for economicincome, including Egypt, Mexico and Peru. Archaeological preservation can be enhance by better ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Special Interest Tourismpublic understanding of archaeological interpretation and the nature of archaeological resources,including in many cases, their fragility.Public participation activities that tourists can take advantage of range from: • Visits to sites with good quality interpretation; • To visit the excavations in progress; and • The opportunities to participate in excavationsEducational tourismDefinition“Reserved for language studies abroad or generally for any kind of trips associated with systematiclearning”“Tourists activities undertaken by those who are undertaking an overnight vacation and those whoare undertaking an excursion for whom education and learning is a primary secondary part of theirtrip”Educational tourism may consist of: • General travel for education (“Edu-Tourism”) • University/college students’ and schools tourismCan be independently or formally organized and can be undertaken in a variety of natural or man-made setting. Developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledgeand the enhancing of technology.The main focus: • Visiting another culture (i.e. student exchange and study tours) • To work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment (i.e. international practicum training program)Language EducationThe teaching and learning of language. This includes: • Improving a learner’s mastery of her or his native language • Second language acquisitionThere are three principals’ views: • The structural view treats language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning (i.e. grammar) • The functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as requesting something • The interactive view sees language as a vehicle for the creation and the maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchangesSport tourismSport tourism is a multi-billion dollar business, one of the fastest growing areas of the global traveland tourism industry. Sport tourism can be defined as: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Special Interest Tourism“All forms of active and passive involvement in sporting activity, participated in casually or in anorganized way for non-commercial or business/commercial reasons, that necessitate travel awayfrom home or work locality”“Travel for the sake of either viewing or participating in a sporting event staying apart from theirusual environment”Sport tourism is now a tool to achieve many things, make money, create thousands of new jobs andeven help change cultural perceptions. In some instances, sports have been used to advance culturaland political interests.Potential for growth: • Increased media exposure • Increasing number of sport fans want to experience live events • Low-cost regional airlinesThere are three (3) principal types of sport tourism, including: • Active sport tourists – those who actively participate in a sporting experience as a tourist • Event sport tourists – those who attend the event to be a spectator • Nostalgic sport tourists – those who visit a lace to pay homage to sport (such as iconic stadium or hall of fame)Sports CompetitionThere are some major international sporting events, which have given great impetus to sporttourism. These events generate millions of tourist worldwide and the host nation benefit a great dealfrom these events. • Olympic Games (Summer) • Olympic Games (Winter) • World Cup (Football, Cricket, Rugby, etc) • Asian Games • Regional Games • National GamesThe above events are held regularly but not necessarily in the same country each timeMajor advantages: • Augmentation of infrastructure of the host country in the form of accommodation, transportation, wayside facilities, built especially for the event in hope it will trigger off new tourist demand • Providing host city and country with a unique opportunity to sell/market itself, its culture and its attractions directly to a wide international audience .i.e. o Opening ceremony of Olympic Games in Beijing, China o Asian Games in Delhi, India o etc ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Special Interest Tourism • Boost in tourism activity during the event as also post event period. It accelerates the growth of international tourism .i.e. o F1 Grand Prix o World Cup Rugby in New Zealand o SEA Games in Indonesia o etc • Spread tourist demand by way of attracting additional tourists over and above those who visit specifically for the event itself • Brings in economic uplift to the local area and host communitySpiritual interest/pilgrimageIn religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is long journey or search of great moral significance.Sometimes, it is a journey to a shrine of importance to a person’s beliefs and faith.Examples: • Muslim pilgrimage at Makkah • Buddha’s birthplace at Lumbini, Nepal • Christianity at Vatican City • Judaism at Jerusalem, IsraelHowever, now religion is being seen more and more as a privatized and pluralized experiencewhere the “spiritual” and the “religious” are separate. This is where by, emerge the personality cultscultivated by communist leaders. i.e. • A visit to Lenin’s Mausoleum in Red Square, Moscow • Visits of homage to Mao Zedong, Kim Il Sung and Ho Chi MinhOther types of special interest tourismNature-based tourismNature in tourism involves experiencing natural places, typically through outdoor activities that aresustainable in terms of their impact on the environment. Nature-based tourism encompasses manyleading and rapidly growing tourism subsets including – soft and hard adventure activities, beach ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Special Interest Tourismtourism, wildlife tourism, scenic driving and sightseeing, eco-tourism and garden tourism. Naturetourism may be crucial to the experience or may simply enhance the experience. It is also includesthe benefits of nature such as relaxation and enriching the spirit.Aboriginal tourismAboriginal tourism is defined as: • Aboriginal tourism experiences that are Aboriginal-owned • Aboriginal tourism businesses where Aboriginal people and/or community benefit by gaining employment and income • Aboriginal tourism experiences that provide consenting contact with Aboriginal people, cultural heritage or landThe following principles underpin the Aboriginal Tourism Development Plan: • Aboriginal involvement in tourism is not restricted to cultural tourism. • For Aboriginal tourism to be effective and meaningful, it must involve and benefit the Aboriginal community. • To ensure successful outcomes, Aboriginal tourism enterprises will be based on sound business planning and identified customer needs. • Aboriginal tourism operations are part of the mainstream tourism industry network.Urban tourismTakes place in large cities where tourism not a primary activity of the urban area and serve bothholidays and businesses travelers. Location - relate to the transportation system and major attractionfeatures. Special problems of urban tourism planning: • Competing demands for development of certain prime sites • Traffic congestion in central areas • Over-use of primary tourist attractionsAdvantages: • Generating income and employment • Support urban facilities and services • Justify and paying for historic preservation and infrastructure improvements • Vital force for inner-city redevelopment and revitalizationFood and wine tourismWine and food is one of the five iconic experiences identified as a major draw card for tourists tothe state and includes wine tasting, vineyards, wine education, indulgence and romantic escapes,complemented by fine food produced with fresh, local ingredients and opportunities to wine anddine in natural settings.Wine tourism encompasses a wide range of experiences built around tourist visitation to wineriesand wine regions. This includes wine tasting, enjoyment of wine and food, the exploration ofregional environments and the experience of a range of cultural, nature based and lifestyle activitiesThe main motivations for visiting a particular winery include recommendations from friends,information obtained at visitor information centers, referrals from colleagues and friends, pastexperience with wine from the specific winery visited, awareness of a winery brand, the opportunity ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Special Interest Tourismto purchase boutique wines that are not available in city wine outlets, proximity to the winery orregion and the physical appearance of the winery from the roadside when driving past.Cruises tourismA cruise is, according to the Collins English Dictionary, 2008, a trip by sea on a liner for leisure,unusually docking at various ports during its journey. A cruise ship tourist is one who travelsaround on such a ship.The cruise industry is growing at a rapid speed and is one of the major areas of tourism growth atthe beginning of the new millennium. There are few specific features that are appealing to travelersto cruise traveling: • Passengers have the opportunity to visit many places in a short period of time without issues pertaining other modes of transport; • The ships are self-contained; • Cruise ships have a cruise director and staff whose only function is to make sure passengers have an pleasant time; • High quality food is served in a stylish manner and • Everyone begins and ends their vacation on the same day (Dowling R.K 2006:3). UNIT 3: SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM INTERACTIVE SYSTEM Chapter objectives • Explore and discuss special interest tourism interactive system: the tourism-product supply, special interest tourism demand and image creation/media • Identify and explore the roles and responsibilities of special interest tourism stakeholders: government, service provider, host/local communities, as well as tourists’/visitors’ awarenessSpecial interest tourism interactive system ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Special Interest TourismSIT, it is suggested, should be viewed as part of a system, an interdisciplinary system, whichcomprises the overall environment (local to global), the tourist demand system, the tourism industrysupply system with the media being conceptualized as a major influencer on tourism in the 21stcentury, (see Fig. 1).It is the merging of all these components that make up SIT. The overall system is representative ofpolitical, economical, ecological, technological, and socio-economical and socio-cultural concerns,at local to global level. The tourism industry supply system is made up of tourismplaces/destinations, the travel and tourism organizers/operators, travel agents, accommodationbusinesses, transport, and SIT facilities and infrastructure.The tourist demand system consists of the individual’s financial situation, possession or access tonecessary tourism activity equipment, the cognitive determinants (perception, awareness andlearning), activating determinants (emotions, needs, motives, attitudes, images), and personalcharacteristics (involvement, perceived risk, values) (Dreyer, 1995). The demand side is sub-divided into intra- and inter-personal components that recognize the internal and externalmotivational determinants for demand, including the desire to gain insight, and to use the resultant‘‘self-image’’ for peer approval.This includes guides and tourism operators, as the very media that help shape the demand for aproduct also help shape the design, presentation and representation of the product by those whosupply it. They too are part of a closed system that fuses representation of places and action with theproduction and reproduction of tourism experiences.The tourism product - supplySIT was seen as a ‘‘prime force in the expansion of tourism’’ by Read in 1980 with the productrange having expanded from that of a boutique product to a mainstream offering. Initially SIT ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Special Interest Tourismorganizations were perceived to have focused on rather homogeneously considered groups ofcustomers such as in adventure tourism, eco-tourism, sport tourism and cultural tourism for touristsseeking the ‘‘hard or specialized’’ end of the market, being ‘‘serious leisure participants’’.However, it is now apparent that operators have diversified their offerings to attract the large marketsegment of the ‘‘soft’’ or ‘‘novice’’ end of the spectrum, and intervening stages, either based ontheir own expertise within the field of special interest or their awareness of the growing latent andsalient consumer demand. A constant reciprocal exchange between supply and demand influencesthe evolvement, growth and access to new leisure and tourism experiences.Technology, time squeeze, space contraction, affluence and increased availability of leisureequipment and travel products have impacted on leisure and travel trends and diversified activitiesand destinations from the ‘‘old’’ to the ‘‘new’’. Consequently, it becomes possible to ‘‘re-package’’in ways within which, an environment may contain the appropriate mix of new or old activitiesdone in a new way to be optimally arousing, with the individual believing that: • she/he has enough ability to succeed at the task and • Possessing a positive role in sustaining the quality of one’s life and promote personal growth.In short, to repeat, experiences are sold on the premise of being life enhancing.Special tourism interest demandAccording to the World Tourism Organization, tourism consumption patterns reflect the increasingdiversity of interests of the late-modern leisure society with ‘‘SIT’’ having emerged, reflecting thenew values which include ‘‘increased importance of outdoor activities, awareness of ecologicalproblems, educational advances, aesthetic judgment and improvement of self and society’’.Tourism prefixed with specific descriptors, such as ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourismand “SIT’’, serve to indicate qualitative difference from those of mass tourism, thereby ‘‘promotingsocially just forms of tourism’’ that meet tourists’’ needs to engage in modes of behavior that, atbest, again, enhance sense of self, and at worst, may be ‘‘justified’’ as being socially responsible .Individuals increasingly adjust their needs and desires based on images of societal behavior that‘‘promises’’ societal acceptance.The tourist in the 21st century is ‘‘searching for new and exciting forms of travel in defiance of amass-produced product’’ yet without ‘‘actually having to involve themselves in any way’’, areflection of increasing commoditization and depersonalization within modern and post-modernsociety. Commoditization has changed tourism experiences in the 21st century from that of thetraditional search for the totally unknown, the utmost challenging and dangerous to that of safetyand comfort, to that of “gaze’’ but also embodiment beyond individual’s onsite experience.However, the tourist also brings with him/her images and myths associations as portrayed in themultiplicity of media and other sources which transform and individualize the tourist experience.Adventure tourism for instance is regarded by Cater (2000) as commoditization of ‘‘embodiedhuman experiences’’ that are marketed and managed to cater for a spectrum of consumers within aframework of myth and dramatic story lineImage creation/mediaIncreased exposure of high-risk leisure in the media may indeed stimulate involvement in anactivity such as mountaineering, which can evolve into a leisure or tourism career. Tourism ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Special Interest Tourismbrochures, magazines, books, film and television, all are media for the creation of images thatfashion desires, wants and needs, creating anticipation and a way for tourists to envisage themselvesin place and action.Media pervades every intimate human space and thus can influence value creation, beliefs andattitudes. It generates a possible cognitive and affective response—knowledge of, and familiaritywith the activity and places within which it occurs, and an emotive response to those activities.The tourist comes to the tourism location with pre-conceived images within which they haveallocated a role to him or herself. The tourist tries to understand and relive these images bymirroring the representations during their holidays.Thus, tourism provides for a ritual or sacred journey to be performed at places with meaningsimbued by the tourism industry and the wider media. Representation of places are collages ofimages, of experiences and metaphors, depicting a range of similes not only born of authenticity butenriched by ‘‘irrelevant’’ stimuli through entertainment and spectacle, with the spectacle becomingmore spectacular, thrills more thrilling and the magic of nature more magical.Tourism places no longer only present continuity in time and space with historical and biographicalmeaning but are instilled with physical and emotional sensations of a consumption-oriented societyImages are interpreted and re-interpreted and generate perceived authenticity of place and action.Special interest tourism stakeholdersMany different interests may effect whether in a positive or negative way from special interesttourism development: 1. Governments plays a leading role in encouraging the private sector, tourists and other stakeholders in building a proper special interest tourism development 2. Tourism enterprises, while seeking long term profitability, should be concerned about their corporate image, the relationship with their staff, and their impact on the global environment and that immediately around them. 3. Local communities are seeking increased prosperity but without exploitation or damage to their quality of life. 4. Environmentalists are concerned about the harmful impacts of tourism but also see it as a valuable source of income for conservation. 5. Tourists are seeking a high quality experience in safe and attractive environments; they are becoming more aware of the impacts of their traveling.Government plays a leading roleThis can best be achieved by establishing and implementing a set of policies for tourismdevelopment and management, drawn up in concert with others that place sustainability at itscentre. Governments have a crucial role to play in the development and management of specialinterest tourism. The level of government engagement in tourism varies considerably across theworld.Contacts with governments on sustainability nevertheless reveal that most are, at least nominally,seeking to pursue special interest tourism. This applies equally to developed and developingcountries, though the emphasis may be different. Whatever the motivation of governments, theirrole relates only partly to their own actions.Tourism is primarily an activity carried out by private sector enterprises, and it is their actions,together with those of tourists, that are responsible for most impacts, positive and negative. A ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Special Interest Tourismprimary function of government in fostering more special interest tourism is therefore to create anenvironment that enables or influences the private sector to operate more sustainably, andinfluences patterns of visitor flows and behavior so as to maximize the benefits and minimize thenegative impacts of tourism.The key reasons for the importance of the role of government are as follows: • Much of the sustainability agenda is about areas of public rather than private concern. • Although the private sector is beginning to recognize its responsibility, it cannot, on its own, be expected to take a lead on these issues.In all countries, the special interest tourism sector is fragmented into many thousands of businesses,mainly micro or small enterprises. Collectively their actions can make a difference, whileindividually they cannot, so coordination is needed. Furthermore, very small businesses often needexternal support and advice if they are to change their operations successfully to meet a new agendaGovernments are responsible for many functions that are fundamentally important to the sustainabledevelopment of tourism, such as land use planning, labor and environmental regulations, and theprovision of infrastructure and social and environmental services.Many governments are already actively engaged in supporting tourism through marketing,information services, education and in other ways, often through joint public-private frameworks.These arguments and functions are applicable at both national and local government levels.In many countries, many of the objectives and actions that governments are pursuing can be said tobe in line with sustainability, and there is considerable recent interest in relating special interesttourism policies to wider sustainable development or poverty reduction strategies.However, as has already been pointed out, the understanding of what the sustainable developmentof tourism entails, and even the terminology, is not consistent between governments. A moresystematic approach to link sustainability aims and principles to policies and tools are needed.Services providerTour operators are businesses that combine two or more travel services (e.g. transport,accommodation, catering, entertainment, and sightseeing) and sell them through travel agencies ordirectly to final consumers as a single product.A tour operator is thus a crucial link in the distribution chain, representing the central connectionbetween customers and providers of tourism services, and thus has the power to influence both thedemand and the supply side. The product that a tour operator sells to customers is the package tour,i.e. the packaged combination of transport, accommodation and services.Due to bulk-buying the tour operator is able to offer this package at a cheaper price than thecustomer would have been able to achieve dealing directly with individual suppliers. This packageis distributed to the customer either directly (e.g. via direct sell, internet) or via a ‘middleman’ (thetravel agent) who arranges the sale of the package for commission, usually 10% of the retail price.The role of the tour operator in the distribution chain: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Special Interest TourismTourism Distribution ChannelsThe tourism channel of distribution is an operating structure, system or linkage of variouscombinations of organizations through which a producer of travel products describes, sells, orconfirms travel arrangement to the buyer. SUPPLIERS: Transportation providers, accommodations, food services, resorts, recreation, entertainment, Etc. Host Specialty Tour Direct Retail Specialty Specialty Channeler Whole- Via Travel Channeler Channeler Retail Tour saler Internet Agent Specialty Tour Travel Whole- Telephone Channeler Whole- Agent saler Suppliers Home-based saler Retail Retail Tour Office Travel Retail Travel Travel Whole- Agent Travel Agent Agent saler Agent CUSTOMERS: Individuals, pleasure groups, business groups, EtcTravel AgentsWhat is a Travel Agency?Travel agency – (a middleman) a business or person selling the travel industry’s individual parts ora combination of the parts to the consumer. In marketing term: an agent middleman, acting onbehalf of the client, making arrangements with suppliers of travel (airlines, hotels, tour operators)and receiving a commission from the suppliers and/or a fee from the clientOther tourism distribution members: • Internet service provider • Consolidators • Tour wholesaler • Specialty channeler Distribution members Explanation ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Special Interest TourismInternet service provider Companies that provide domain space for others on computer servers they own, companies that provide travel information that they develop, and companies that provide a combination of the twoConsolidators A travel firm that makes available airplane tickets and sometimes other travel products at discount prices. These are usually sold to retail travel agencies but also sometimes sold directly to the public.Tour wholesaler A company that plans markets and (usually) operates tours. Marketing is always through intermediaries such as retail travel agents, an association, a club or a tour organizer – never directly to the public as is sometimes done by tour operators.Specialty channeler Include such organizations as incentive travel firms, business meeting and convention planners, corporate travel offices, association executives, hotel representatives, travel consultants and supplier sales offices. They have considerable power to influence when, where and how people travelHost/local communitiesCommunity-based tourism ventures should be used to distinguish those initiatives which areenvironmentally sensitive, but which also aim to ensure that members of local communities have ahigh degree of control over the activities taking place, and a significant proportion of the benefitsaccrue to them (Liu, 1994; Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996).This is in contrast to tourism ventures which are controlled wholly by outside operators, and it isalso distinct from contexts in which most of the economic benefits of tourism accrue to thegovernment (Akama, 1996). A community-based approach to ecotourism recognizes the need topromote both the quality of life of people and the conservation of resources.It is now recognized in parts of Africa, for example, that local people should be compensated for theloss of access to resources they suffer when wildlife parks are created. While tourism rhetoricsuggests that there is much support for community-based tourism ventures, it is difficult to findsuccessful cases of this in practice.A useful way to discern responsible community-based tourism is to approach it from a developmentperspective, which considers social, environmental and economic goals, and questions howecotourism can “. . . Meet the needs of the host population in terms of improved living standardsboth in the short and long term” (Cater, 1993). Community-based approaches to tourism thereforeneed to acknowledge the importance of social dimensions of the tourism experience, rather thanprimarily focusing on environmental or economic impacts.Frameworks for determining the Impacts of Special Interest Tourism Initiatives on LocalCommunities Signs of empowerment Signs of disempowermentEconomic empowerment Ecotourism brings lasting economicEcotourism merely results in small, gains to a local community. Cashspasmodic cash gains for a local earned is shared between manycommunity. Most profits go to local households in the community. Thereelites, outside operators, government are visible signs of improvementsagencies, etc. Only a few individuals from the cash that is earned (e.g.or families gain direct financial improved water systems, housesbenefits from ecotourism, while made of more permanent materials). others cannot find a way to share in ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Special Interest Tourism these economic benefits because they lack capital and/or appropriate skills.Psychological Self-esteem of many communityMany people have not shared in theempowerment members is enhanced because ofbenefits of tourism, yet they may face outside recognition of thehardships because of reduced access uniqueness and value of theirto the resources of a protected area. culture, their natural resources andThey are thus confused, frustrated, their traditional knowledge.disinterested or disillusioned with the Increasing confidence of communityinitiative. members leads them to seek out further education and training opportunities. Access to employment and cash leads to an increase in status for traditionally low-status sectors of society e.g. women, youths.Social empowerment Tourism maintains or enhances theDisharmony and social decay. Many local community’s equilibrium.in the community take on outside Community cohesion is improved asvalues and lose respect for traditional individuals and families workculture and for elders. Disadvantaged together to build a successfulgroups (e.g. women) bear the brunt of ecotourism venture. Some fundsproblems associated with the tourism raised are used for communityinitiative and fail to share equitably development purposes, e.g. to buildin its benefits. Rather than schools or improve roads. cooperating, individuals, families, ethnic or socio-economic groups compete with each other for the perceived benefits of ecotourism. Resentment and jealousy are commonplace.Political empowerment The community’s political structure,The community has an autocratic which fairly represents the needsand/or self-interested leadership. and interests of all communityAgencies initiating or implementing groups, provides a forum throughthe tourism venture treat which people can raise questionscommunities as passive beneficiaries, relating to the ecotourism venturefailing to involve them in decision- and have their concerns dealt with.making. Thus the majority of Agencies initiating or implementingcommunity members feel they have the ecotourism venture seek out thelittle or no say over whether the opinions of community groupsecotourism initiative operates or the (including special interest groups ofway in which it operates. women, youths and other socially disadvantaged groups) and provide opportunities for them to be represented on decision-making bodies e.g. the Wildlife Park Board. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Special Interest TourismEnvironmental activitiesWTTC concern: • Political instability or increased competition for land could lead to loss of potential tourism destinations and degradation of existing destinations • Loss of landscape and wildlife could cause a decrease in customer satisfaction hence lower propensity to travel • Higher fuel prices could lead to operational price increases and corresponding decreases in the number of travelers in this price-sensitive marketWTTC subsequently proceeds to examine the key environmental issues under five headings: • Global warming • Depletion of the ozone layer • Acid rain • Depletion and pollution of land resources • Depletion and pollution of water resourcesWTTC presents a positive vision of tourism and environment: • Travel and tourism is an integral aspect of modern societies • Global awareness of environmental damage is developing rapidly • The resources of the world’s largest industry can and must be harnessed to achieve environmental goals • The industry has the potential to influence billions of customers per year and to use its leverage to achieve beneficial environmental effects • The customer challenge will exert a growing pressure to achieve environmental improvements • Environmental lobbies will add pressure to develop good environmental practice • Self-regulation must be developed rapidly and effectively and used to influence the development of appropriate and workable regulations • Corporate environmental mission statements are a vital first step toward self-regulation • Environmental leadership must come from the major international companiesSustainable DevelopmentDefinition:“The ability of a destination to maintain the quality of its physical, social, cultural andenvironmental resources while it competes in the marketplace”In discussing the responsibility for sustainable development in the field of special interest tourism -the four main areas needs to be addressed: • The premises on which sustainable development policy in tourism should be based • The most critical areas of sustainable development as applied to special interest tourism • How responsibility for sustainable development in tourism should be allocated • An agenda of suggested sustainable development actions for the tourism sectorAgenda to support a sustainable development program: • Maximum total visitation levels to a community/region • An obligatory tax to support tourism infrastructure planning, development and maintenance • Community-supported legislation to protect and preserve unique resources and heritage sites ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Special Interest Tourism • Community and industry consensus concerning architectural and signage standards • Support for standards and certification programs that encourage staff development and the delivery of high-quality serviceEcotourismDefinition:“Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being oflocal people”Should adhere to the following principles: • Minimize impact • Built environmental and cultural awareness and respect • Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts • Provide direct financial benefits for conservation • Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people • Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental and social climate • Support international human rights and labor agreementsBenefits and importance of ecotourism: • Provides job and income for local people • Makes possible funds for purchasing and improving protected or natural areas to attract more eco-tourists in the future • Provides environmental education for visitors • Encourage heritage and environmental preservation and enhancementDangers and limitations of ecotourism: • Tourism may consume and over consume the resources that used by local people • The local population and the tourists may competing for scarce natural resources • Scientific knowledge of visitor impacts on remote areas • Tourism is multifaceted industry and almost impossible to controlTourists/visitors awarenessInfluencing travel choices and visitor flowsInfluencing travel choices and visitor flows means influencing the nature of trips taken. Key factorsrelevant to sustainability include: • When trips are taken: as already mentioned, travel out of season may often be more sustainable. • Places visited: strategic decisions should be taken about the level of visitation to be encouraged in different areas. For example, visits to protected areas may be encouraged because of the revenue they bring to conservation or, alternatively, they may need to be discouraged because of the ecological sensitivity of the area. • Transport used: the significantly greater environmental impact of travel by private car or air compared with other forms of transport has already been mentioned. • Operators and enterprises selected: encouraging visitors to select operators that follow sustainability principles will make consumption more sustainable. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Special Interest Tourism • Group size: in many places, larger volumes of people arriving at the same time can be more disruptive to environments and communities. • Length of stay: in general, longer trips may bring more benefits to host communities and be more sustainable than short trips.Influencing visitor behavior and awarenessVisitors should be encouraged to: • Respect host communities and avoid all forms of disruptive behavior. • Find out about the natural and historic heritage and culture of the area. • Purchase local products. • Reduce personal environmental impact—e.g. using water and energy sparingly, recycling waste and not leaving litter. • Follow good practice with respect to outdoor activities, including wildlife watching. • Support conservation and social projects, financially or in other ways.Code of Ethics for Tourists  Enjoy our diverse natural and cultural heritage and help us to preserve it  Assists us in conservation efforts through the efficient use of resources, including energy and water  Experience the friendliness of our people and the welcoming spirit of our communities. Help us to preserve this attributes by respecting our traditions, customs and local regulations  Avoid activities that threaten wildlife or plant populations or that may be potentially damaging to our natural environment  Select tourism products and services that demonstrate social, cultural and environmental sensitivity UNIT 4: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. Special Interest Tourism PARTICIPATION IN SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Examine and explore the factors that affect participation in special interest tourism: demographic and market segmentation, socio-economics factors, social change and trends, consumer behavior, increased disposable income and political stability • Discuss on destination marketing, as well as the destination mix: attractions, facilities, infrastructures, transportations and hospitality resourcesMarket segmentationMarket segmentation is a concept in economics and marketing. The strategy of market segmentationrecognizes that few vacation destination areas are universally acceptable and desired.Therefore, rather than dissipate promotion resources by trying to please all travelers, specialistproviders should aim the promotional efforts specifically to the wants and needs of likely prospects.An effective market strategy will determine exactly what the target markets will be and attempt toreach only those markets.Marketing researchers typically have two (2) objectives in this regard: • To determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population • To create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each of these segmentsThe target market is that segment of a total potential market to which the tourism attraction wouldbe most salable. A market segment is a sub-set of a market made up of people or organizationssharing one or more characteristics that cause them to demand similar product and/or services basedon qualities of those products such as price or function.A true market segment meets all the following criteria: • It is distinct from other segments (different segments have different needs) • It is homogenous within the segment (exhibit common needs) • It respond similarly to a market stimulus • It can be reached by a market interventionMarket segmentation can be defined as “the process of dividing a market into distinct groups ofbuyers who might require separate products and/or marketing mixes”Market segmentation analysis is typically based on the four factors of: Factors ExplanationSocio-economic or Demographic Categorizes tourists based on their socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, and income levelsProduct-led segmentation Which relates to the types of tourists to the particular tourism products such as attractions and facilities that the area has to offer or can potentially offerPsychographic Which involves grouping tourists by their attitudes, interest, lifestyles and travel motivationGeographic Which groups tourists by location of origin as related to the time- distance and cost of traveling to the tourist destination, and also ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Special Interest Tourism considers the environmental and cultural contrast and similarities between the origin and destinationRequirements for effective segmentation 1. Measurability - The degree to which the segment’s size and purchasing power can be measured 2. Accessibility - Segments can be accessed and served 3. Substantiality - Segments are large or profitable enough to serve as markets 4. Actionability - Effective programs can be designed for attracting and serving segments 5. Differential - Segment must respond differently to different marketing mix elements and programsMarket segmentation determinants in special interest tourismDemographicsDemographics are the characteristics of a human population as used in the government, marketingor opinion research. Commonly used data are sex, race, age, income, disabilities, mobility (in termsof travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership,employment status and even location.A demographic trend describes in a population over time i.e. the average age of a population mayincrease or decrease over time. Certain restrictions may be set in place i.e. the one child policy inChina. Marketers typically combine several variables to define a demographic profile.A demographic profile provides enough information about the typical member of this group tocreate a mental picture of this hypothetical aggregate.Socio-economic FactorsSocio-economics - The study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. In manycases, socio-economic focus on the social impact of some sort of economic change. Such changesmight include: Closing factory, market manipulation, the signing of international trade treaties, newnatural gas regulation, etcExamples of socio-economic impacts: • New technologies such as cars or mobile phone • Changes in laws ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. Special Interest Tourism • Changes in the physical environment • Ecological changesThese may affect patterns of consumption, the distribution of incomes and wealth, the way in whichpeople behave and the overall quality of lifeSocial Change and TrendsSociology – is the study of society (to develop and refine a body of knowledge and theory abouthuman social activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of socialwelfare).Social change can be defined as alterations in basic structure of a social group or society. An everpresent phenomenon in social life, but has become especially intense in the modern era. Socialchanges came about when individuals or groups choose to go against social norms. The concept ofsocial change implies measurement of some of the characteristics of a group of individuals.Social change is a topic of sociology and social work, but also involves political science,economics, history, anthropology, and many other social sciences.Some of the social changes that may occur:  A change in social structure: the nature, the social institutions, the social behavior or the social relations of a society, community of people and so on  When behavior patterns change in large numbers, and this change is visible and sustained: once there is deviance from culturally-inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result, resulting in a change in the social order  Any event or action that affects a group of individuals who have shared values or characteristics  Acts of advocacy for the cause of changing society in a way subjectively perceived as normatively desirableConsumer BehaviorConsumer behavior is the when, why, how and where people do or do not buy products (blendselements of psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics). It main roles: • Attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups • Tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in generalCustomer behavior study based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing the three(3) distinct roles of (1) user, (2) payer and (3) buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential assetfor customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning ofmarketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer.Belch and Belch define consumer behavior as “the process and activities people engage in whensearching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services so asto satisfy their needs and desires. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. Special Interest TourismBelow is the Black Box Model of consumer buying behavior. Marketing Other Buyer’s Buyer’s black box Stimuli Stimuli Responses Product choice Product Economic Brand choice Price Technological Dealer choice Place Political Buyer Buyer Decision Characteristics Purchase timing Promotion Cultural Process Purchase amountBelow is the buyer decision process: Need Information Evaluation of Purchase Post-purchase Recognition Search Alternatives Decision Behavior 1. Problem recognition The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need 2. Information search An aroused consumer may or may not search for more information. How much searching a consumer does will depend on the strength of the drive, the amount of initial information, the ease of obtaining more information, the value placed on additional information and the satisfaction one gets from searching 3. Evaluations of alternatives Unfortunately, there is no simple and single evaluation process used by all consumers or even by one consumer in all buying situations. There are several evaluation processes: Attitude of Others Purchase Evaluation of Purchase Decision Alternatives Intention Unexpected Situational Factors 4. Purchase decision In the evaluation stage, the consumer ranks brands in the choice set and forms purchase intentions. Generally, the consumer will buy the most preferred brand 5. Post-purchase behavior The marketer’s job does not end when the customer buys a product. Following a purchase, the consumer will be satisfied and dissatisfied and will engage in post-purchase actions of significant interest to the marketer.Below are the personal characteristics that will affect consumer behavior: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  34. 34. Special Interest Tourism Cultural Social Personal Psychological Age and life- cycle stage Culture Reference Motivation Groups Occupation Perception Economic Subculture Circumstances Buyer Family Learning Lifestyle Beliefs and Roles and attitudes Social class Personality and Status Self-conceptCultural factors • Culture - The most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behavior. It compromises the basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviors that a person learns continuously in a society. • Subculture - Each culture contains smaller subcultures, groups of people with shared value systems based on common experience. • Social classes - These are relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests and behaviors.Social factors  Reference groups - These groups serve as direct (face to face) or direct point of comparison or reference in the forming of a person’s attitude and behavior.  Family - Family members have a strong influence on buyer behavior. The family remains the most important consumer-buying organization in any society.  Role and status - A role consists of the activities that a person is expected to perform according to the persons around him or her. Each role carries a status reflecting the general esteem given to it by society. People often choose products that show their status in society.Personal factors  Age and life-cycle stage - The types of goods and services people buy change during their lifetimes. As people grow older and mature, the products they desire change. The makeup of the family also affects purchasing behavior.  Occupation - A person’s occupation affects the goods and services bought.  Economic situation - A person’s economic situation greatly affects product choice and the decision to purchase a particular product  Environment - Many marketers use a concept related to personality: a person’s self-concept (also called self-image). Each of us has a complex mental self-picture, and our behavior tends to be consistent with that self-image. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. Special Interest Tourism  Lifestyle - Lifestyle profile a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. When used carefully, the lifestyle concept can help the marketer understand changing consumer values and how they affect buying behavior.  Personality and self-concept - Each person’s personality influences his or her buying behavior. By personality we mean distinguishing psychological characteristics that disclose a person’s relatively individualized, consistent and enduring responses.Psychological factors  Motivation - A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. Creating a tension state causes a person to act to release the tension.  Perception - Perception is the process by which a person selects, organizes and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.  Learning - Learning describes changes in a person’s behavior arising from experience.  Beliefs and attitude - A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluation, feelings and tendencies toward an object or an idea.Increased Disposable IncomeDisposable income – total personal income minus personal current taxes. In national accountsdefinition, personal income, minus personal taxes equals disposable personal income – subtractingpersonal outlays (which includes the major category or personal/private consumption expenditure)yields personal/private saving.The marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is the fraction of a change in disposable income that isconsumed. Discretionary income is income after subtracting taxes and normal expenses (such asrent or mortgage, utilities, insurance, medical, transportation, property maintenance and etc) tomaintain a certain standard of living . Commonly, disposable income is the amount of ‘play money’left to spend or save.Political StabilityA political system is a system of politics and government – usually compared to the legal system,economic system, cultural system and other social systems.There are several definitions of ‘political system’: • A complete set of institutions, interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law) • Composed of the members of a social organization (group) who are in power • A system that necessarily has two properties: (1) a set of interdependent components and (2) boundaries toward the environment with which it interacts • A concept in which theoretically regarded as a way of the government makes a policy and also to make them more organized in their administration • One that ensures the maintaining of order and sanity in the society and at the same time makes it possible for some other institutions to also have their grievances and complaints put across in the course of social existence ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.

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