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  • 1. Special Interest Tourism UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Explore the overview of special interest tourism, and outline the tourist and tourism system • Identify and discuss the factors which led to the development of special interest tourism: the evolution of transport, development of winter sports, increase in paid holidays, long haul travel, opening up of global destinations, and current developmentSpecial interest tourism overviewSpecial interest tourism refers to tourists, usually in small group tours, who are traveling to learnabout and experience particular specific features related to an area. Special interest tourism canfocus on a wide range of features from cultural manifestations of dance, music, fine arts, handicraft,architecture, and traditional ways of life, unusual economic activities, archaeology and history, aswell as aspects of nature to those related to the tourists’ professional interests.Special interest tourism does not require large-scale or even greatly expensive development offacilities and infrastructure. However, careful organization, knowledgeable guide services, someintegrated transportation facilities and services, and at least basic accommodation and cateringfacilities are essential.DefinitionAlso known as serious leisure ~ leisure where participants are able to find personal fulfillment,enhance their identity and express themselves, as opposed to casual or un-serious leisure“A form of tourism which involves consumers whose holiday choice is inspired by specificmotivations and whose level of satisfaction is determined by the experience they pursue”(www.download-it.org/)“Travel for people who are going somewhere because they have a particular interest that can bepursued in a particular region or at a particular destination”(S. E. Read, 1980)Definition by World Tourism Organization (WTO), 1985“Specialized tourism involving group or individual tours by people who wish to develop certaininterests and visits sites and places connected with a specific subject. Generally speaking, thepeople concerned exercise the same profession or have a common hobby”.The tourist and the tourism systemDefinition of tourist ~ “temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours in the country visited and thepurpose of whose journey can be classified as: leisure, business, family, mission and meeting”.While visitor is “any person visiting a country other than that in which he has his usual place ofresidence, for any reason other following an occupation remunerated from within the countryvisited”. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Special Interest Tourism • International visitor – persons who travel for a period not exceeding 12 months to a country other than the one in which they generally reside • Internal visitor – persons who travel to a destination within their own country, that is outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 monthsExcursionists can be defined as temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours in the destinationvisited and not making an overnight stayTourism classification 1. International tourism • Inbound tourism – visits to a country by nonresidents • Outbound tourism – visits by residents of a country to another country 2. Internal tourism • Visits by residents of a country to their own country 3. Domestic tourism • Internal tourism plus inbound tourism (the tourism market of accommodation facilities and attractions within a country) 4. National tourism • Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the residents tourism markets for travel agents and airlines)Tourism systemTourism system should be viewed as a single system comprised of interrelated parts. A system, itcan be defined, analyzed, planned and managed in an integrated manner.Gunn further specifies the influencing factors on the functioning of the tourism as: naturalresources, cultural resources, entrepreneurship, finance, labor, competition, community,government policies and organization/leadership.Mill and Morrison identify the four (4) major parts of the tourism system as being:  The market (tourists)  Travel (transportation)  Destination (attractions, facilities and services)  Marketing (information and promotion)Reasons for special interest tourism development ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Special Interest TourismEvolution of transportTransport is the most critical element in the promotion of the growth of domestic and internationaltourism. At a simple level, transport links the tourist from the origin area with the destination area.It enables the tourist (the holiday maker, business traveler and other categories of traveler) toconsume the products and experiences they have purchased, because it links the supply chaintogether.The transport sector is entering into strategic alliances where different operators will seek to offerseamless transport experience to travelers. All embracing role of transport to:  Facilitate the tourist trip to the destination  Enable tourist travel within the destinationEvolution of transport: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Special Interest Tourism Evolution of transport ExplanationStagecoach travel Coaches were invented in Hungary in the 15th century and provided regular service there on prescribed routes. By the 19th century, stagecoach travel had become quite popular, especially in Great Britain. The development of the famous English tavern was brought by the need for overnight lodging by stagecoach passengers.Water travel Market boats picked up passengers as well as goods on ship canals in England as early as 1772. by 1815, steamboats were plying the Clyde, the Avon and the Thames. By 1841, steamship excursions on the Thames were well established.Rail travel Railways were first built in England in 1825 and carried passengers beginning in 1830. Because the fares were much lower than stagecoach fares, rail travel became widely accepted even for those with low incomes. Between 1826 and 1840, the first railroads were built in the United States.Automobile/motorcoach travel Automobiles entered the travel scene in the United State when Henry Ford introduced his famous Model T in 1908. By 1920, a road network became available, leading to the automobile’s current dominance of the travel industry. Motorcoaches also came into use soon after the popularization of the automobile and remain a major mode of transportation.Air travel Nearly 16 years after the airplane’s first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in 1903, regularly scheduled air service began in Germany. Because of its speed, comfort and safety, air travel is the leading mode of public transportation today, as measured in revenue passenger miles.The role of transport in tourist travel: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Special Interest Tourism Tourists leave Transport link home area Airport shuttle/taxi/public transport/private car Departure airport Flight to destination Destination airport Airport shuttle to a hotel Hotel Scenic train Local tours by Car hire Local cruise Cycle hire journey coachDevelopment of winter sportWinter sport commonly played during winter. Main winter sports; ice hockey, figure skating,sledding events (luge, skeleton and bobsleigh), skiing and snowboarding.Example: • Apline Winter Sport Resort • Winter Olympic Games • Alps Mountain, SwirtzerlandTraveling for winter sports is very common now and insurance has been created specifically forcoverage on incidence during the tourists’ trip fro winter sports like the Winter Sports Policyprovided by the AA Winter Sports Insurance. With this kind of accessibility and convenience,people tend to be more prone into traveling just for winter sports because it is simplified by theinformation technology at the same time. Online bookings can be made to book winter sportsequipment.As for Winter Olympic Games, with young athletes attracted to new sports, the InternationalOlympic Committee, in trying to avoid an increasingly geriatric audience, has added sports that arepopular with today’s youth. This goes on to show how influential winter sports can be and with thisincrease in popularity of winter sports, more tourists would travel for that purpose specifically.Increase in paid holidaysThe introduction of annual paid holiday is very largely of English origin and this has importantrepercussions on development of mass tourism. The annual paid holiday was established during theinter-War years for a considerable number of working population and led to greater mobility of thepopulation and broadened the horizon of millions of people. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Special Interest TourismIncrease in paid holidays also can be associated with development of modern mass tourism. Paidholidays are now established all over the world, and in most countries a minimum duration of one tothree weeks is specified by law or by collective agreements, between the employers and the workersToday, the right to paid holidays has universal recognition.Presently, the main potential for tourism market is made up of wage-earners and their families. Theconcept of paid holidays, which originated with the advent of industrialization in the west, hasgiven modern tourism a tremendous boost.Positive impact of increase in paid holidays:  More leisure time  Increased in wealth material  Changes in mental attitudes towards pleasure travel  Improvement in transportation systemLong-haul travelJourneys typically made by wide-body aircraft that involve long distances, typically beyond six anda half hours in length, and often are non-stop flights. On some long-haul flights, jet airliners refuelin order to reach the destination. ORSelf-challengers ~ have a drive to challenge themselves, passionate travelers and embrace the ideaof exploring and immersing themselves in the culture and lifestyle of the destination. They seekdestinations that are as different from the home as possible and they don’t mind roughing it a bit.Example: outback AustraliaThe segment motivation reflects a personal drive to challenge them and the reward is intenselypersonal experiences. When traveling abroad, this segment appreciates immersion in the localculture, lifestyle and environment. They definitely perceives themselves as travelers, not tourists,and are focused on experiencing destinations before they become part of a heavily commercializedtourist trail.Self-challengers are focused on self-discovery through challenging experiences and want to get‘under the skin’ of a destination.Opening up of global destinationsBackpackers are arguable in setting new travel trends, opening up new destinations and developingnew markets; for example in developing destinations. Today, there is greater understanding of theneeds of tourists and their expectations of tourist destination than in the early phase of developmentof the tourism industry.By the 1980s, with increasing recognition of various forms of ‘special interest’ tourism and theirpotential economic benefits, awareness of the deteriorating environmental quality and therelationship between the tourists and residents in many destinations, attention began to focus onthese types of tourist, who might avoid the problems of mass tourism.More destinations to explore; example: • Bird watchers at Utah, Idaho and Nevada • Ardent mountain climbers at Taman Negara Kinabalu, Sabah; Nepal and Pakistan ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Special Interest TourismIn the current development in the tourism industry, like mass tourism and the increase in packagedholidays, special interest tourism is growing because tourists tend to seek something outside of theordinary to pursue their interest. For example, one of the most recent trends that can be seen inMalaysia is the love for Korean series amongst the youngsters or young adult who can be contributeto the increase in Malaysian traveling to Korea to visit the places in which those drama series hasbeen filmed in.Current developmentsThere has been an upmarket trend in the tourism industry over the last few decades, especially inEurope, where international travel for short breaks is common. The terms tourism and travel aresometimes used interchangeably – in this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, butimplies a more purposeful journey.There is now a demand for a better quality product, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the massmarket for beach vacations; people want more specialized version, quieter resorts, family-orientedholidays or niche market-targeted destinations hotels.There have been a few setbacks in tourism: • September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations • Tsunami • SARS outbreakContemporary special interest tourism trends: • Tourists have a high level of disposable income, considerable leisure time, are well-educated and have sophisticated tastes • Development in technology and transport infrastructure • Changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism • Some sites offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer impulseEmergences of new type of tourism destinations: Types ExplanationSustainable tourism Envisage as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems (WTO). Implies meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987).Ecotourism Also known as ecological tourism is responsible travel to fragile, pristine and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Special Interest TourismPro-poor tourism The potential tourism has to help the very poorest in developing countries has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development and the issue has been addressed either through small scale projects in local communities or by Ministries of Tourism attempting to attract huge numbers of tourists. For tourism to successfully reach the poor efforts must be made for tourists to use local currency, for locals to develop relevant skills and to ensure that exclusive contracts do not dominate the sector.Recession tourism Travel trend which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Defined by low-cost, high value experiences taking place of once- popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low-cost of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.Medical tourism When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (i.e. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as ‘medical tourism’.Educational tourism Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture; or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment.Creative tourism Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginning of tourism itself. ‘Grand Tour’ – which saw the sons of the aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences Can also be defined as tourism related to active participation of travelers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences. The concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.Dark tourism Involves visits to ‘dark’ sites such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide. A small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origin rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Special Interest Tourism UNIT 2: TYPES OF SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Identify and discuss the different types of special interest tourism: outdoor pursuits, adventure activities, cultural events, archeological tours, educational trips, sports competition, spiritual interests, and etc.Types of special interest tourismThe development of the special interest tourism which includes; • Outdoor pursuits • Adventure activities • Cultural events • Archaeological tours • Educational trips • Sports competition • Spiritual interestsThere is one unlisted type that increasingly becoming a form of tourism that is attracting interestfrom academic researchers and the industry: the “dark tourism”Dark tourismDark tourism also known as “black tourism” or “grief tourism” - Involving travel to sites associatedwith death and suffering. This includes: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Special Interest Tourism • Castles and battlefields • Sites of disasters (natural or man-made) • Prisons now open to the public • Purpose built centers • Sites of human atrocities and genocideThe dark tourism spectrums  Dark Fun Factories: These are commercially oriented, entertainment centers offering attractions and tours based on actual or fictional death and macabre incidents. Examples of dark fun factories include such family-friendly tourist attractions as the London Dungeon, Tower of London and Jack the Ripper tours.  Dark Exhibitions: Tourism products that encourage educational reflection on death, suffering or the macabre. They also tend still to have a commercial focus, but are more aimed at commemorating the dark events on exhibition, than entertaining customers. Examples include the Smithsonian Museum of American History exhibit September 11: Bearing Witness to History, which contains very few artifacts (only 45 in total). The exhibit doesnt even show images of the airliners approaching and crashing into the Twin Towers. The museum prefers to use photographs of eyewitnesses to tell the story.  Dark Dungeons: These are sites that mix entertainment with education (edu-tainment) as they reveal sites of crime and punishment systems from history. The Galleries of Justice in Nottingham is an example of this type of tourism product, which has been promoted as the only site where you could be arrested, sentenced and executed. Here the emphasis is more on entertainment, which contrasts with Robben Island, South Africa, where Nelson Mandela, among many other freedom fighters criminalized by the apartheid system, were incarcerated.  Dark Resting Places: Where a cemetery is seen as a potential tourism product. Tours, special interest groups and the spread of the Internet have led to growth in interest in these sites, where the living can feel literally close to the dead. Seen as occupying the middle ground of dark tourism, cemeteries such as Père-Lachaise in Paris are used to commemorate the (often very famous) dead, such as Jim Morrison and Isadora Duncan. Other cemeteries also offer open space for recreational activities, exercise and relaxation. Dark resting places can also become the subject of battles between land owners and local people over the right to access the site, such as in the case of Arnos Vale in Bristol  Dark Shrines: Based on the act of remembrance for the recently deceased. Dark shrines are often located close to or at the scene of a death, and usually within a short period after the incident which led to the death. Roadside tributes of flowers laid to commemorate death through traffic accidents have become increasingly popular in this country. Media-reported deaths of significance for people can also lead to similar informal tributes, as in the death of Diana, Princess of Wales.  Dark Conflict Sites: War and battlefields fit into this category and their use as tourism sites have been known about for centuries. Tourists are recorded as having visited the scene of the Battle of Waterloo even as it was being fought in 1815. The battlefields of the First World War were also first visited soon after hostilities ended and are now well established tourism venues, but their purpose is more about remembrance than celebration. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Special Interest Tourism  Dark Camps of Genocide: Seen as occupying the darkest edges of the dark tourism spectrum, death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Dachau and Buchenwald attract thousands of visitors each yearOutdoor activitiesOutdoor activities dedicated to the promotion of physical activities, wellness and a deeper meaningand understanding of nature through experience-based outdoor, adventure and environmentaleducation. Generally non-mechanized, outdoor recreation activities done in areas remote from theamenities of telephone, emergency help and urban comforts.There are also often means activities done in nature away from civilization such as hiking, hunting,backpacking and canoeing. Outdoor activities, as well as meant for a broader group activities suchas water sports and snow sportsThis mission fostered through: • Environmental awareness and minimum impact travel • Service learning and conservation efforts • Skill development and personal challenge • Positive group dynamic • Having a great timeOutdoor pursuit requires people to: • Learn through experience • Gaining direct awareness of their limitations in various areas of activities • Seeking to overcome them in the context of group interactionTypes of Outdoor Activities Mountain Forest Beach & sea Fresh Aero Desert Family Cultural activities activities activities water activities activities activities & activities historical activities Trekking Wildlife Snorkeling Angling Gliding Camel Theme Museum safari safari parkRock climbing Camping Scuba diving Canoeing Ballooning Desert jeep safari Mountain Bird Parasailing White Sand cycling watching water surfing rafting Motorbike Elephant Deep sea expedition safari fishing Skiing Tree Windsurfing climbingSnowboarding Water sports Ice climbing CanyoningAdventure tourism ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Special Interest TourismDefinition:“Any adventure trip close to nature that is undertaken by someone who depart from knownsurroundings to encounter unfamiliar places and people, with the purpose of exploration, study,business, communication, recreation, sport or sightseeing and tourism”(Addison, 1999)Generally an outdoor activity of sport, which involves elements of daring and risks. Physical fitnessis generally a pre-condition to participate in adventure sport activities. The core characteristics ofadventure tourism are: • Uncertain outcomes • Danger and risks • Challenge • Absorption and focus • Contrasting emotion • Escapism and separation • Exploration and discoveryCan be divided into three (3) sub-categoriesAerial AdventureExample: • Parachuting • Skydiving • Hand-gliding • Parasailing • Bungee jumpingWater Adventure Sport ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Special Interest TourismAlmost all is white water oriented. White water ~ a fast flowing water which due to someobstructions in its path is turbulent at those places which give it a white water appearances due tosurf produced. • White water rafting • White water kayakingFlat water is mainly sea based or a very large lake: • Water skiing • Wind surfing • SurfingLand-based SportsMost of the popular land-based sports are mountain oriented. Example: • Trekking • Skiing • Mountaineering • Rock climbingCultural tourismDefinition:“The practice of travelling to experience historic and cultural attractions to learn about acommunity’s heritage in an enjoyable and educational way”(Heritage Tourism Program)“The movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, withthe intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy needs”“The subset of tourism concerned with a country or regions culture, specifically the lifestyle of thepeople in those geographical areas, the history of those peoples, their art, architecture, religion(s),and other elements that helped shape their way of life”Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and theircultural facilities such as museums and theatres. Can also include tourism in rural areas showcasingthe traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values andlifestyle.Indigenous communities can be defined as ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according toone of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most ofwhich carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory. Other cultural tourismappeals are: • Music and dance • Foods and drinks • Government • Fine arts • Architectural etc.Trends in influencing the market place for cultural tourism: • Rising education level • Aging population ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Special Interest Tourism • Increasing economic role of women • Emerging trends to maximize the power of cultural tourism • Dramatic increase in short, get-away trips where by people are trying to pack more activities into more frequent trips of shorter duration • People are searching for meaning where by many will find it in nature, heritage and culture • The success of theme parks has created high expectations for cultural tourism • Sustainability of communities and the natural environment • The increasing impact of Internet (*virtual tourism)Virtual tourism – “a process of online browse and provision of travel information”. As a means togive tourists access to remote, inaccessible, fragile or closed cultural and natural heritage sites.Virtual reality – improve the presentation and interpretation of cultural sites and to extend thecarrying capacity of heavily visited sites. Virtual reality technology could be used to give virtualaccess to endangered heritage sites and regulate visitation to an acceptable level, and still satisfytourists and tourism needs.Five (5) distinct types of cultural tourism by McKercher and Du Cros (2002): • The purposeful cultural tourists (high centrality/deep experience) • The sightseeing cultural tourists (high centrality/shallow experience) • The casual cultural tourists (modest centrality/shallow experience) • The incidental cultural tourists (low centrality/shallow experience) • The serendipitous cultural tourists (low centrality/deep experience)Archaeological tourismArchaeological tourism is an alternative form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote thepassion for historical-archaeology and the conservation of historical sites. Promoted to encouragethe development of cultural associations, and companies and cooperatives can be found thatdedicate themselves to offer this type of service.Include all types of products associated with public archaeological promotion; example: • Visit to archaeological sites • Reenactment of historical occurrence • Archaeological tourism is ideal for which: • They look for a higher knowledge and sublimate • Tie to the meditation and the relaxation • Integration with the Mother NatureThe objectives of archaeological tourism are: • To offer a wonderful and unforgettable experiences • An intensive course and of introduction to each of these manifestations of the human knowledgeArchaeological sites, particularly those with spectacular ruins or monumental art, have drawntourists for centuries, as they drew explorers and adventures in even earlier times. Several countrieshave for years had programs resembling the main points of archaeological tourism for economicincome, including Egypt, Mexico and Peru. Archaeological preservation can be enhance by better ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Special Interest Tourismpublic understanding of archaeological interpretation and the nature of archaeological resources,including in many cases, their fragility.Public participation activities that tourists can take advantage of range from: • Visits to sites with good quality interpretation; • To visit the excavations in progress; and • The opportunities to participate in excavationsEducational tourismDefinition“Reserved for language studies abroad or generally for any kind of trips associated with systematiclearning”“Tourists activities undertaken by those who are undertaking an overnight vacation and those whoare undertaking an excursion for whom education and learning is a primary secondary part of theirtrip”Educational tourism may consist of: • General travel for education (“Edu-Tourism”) • University/college students’ and schools tourismCan be independently or formally organized and can be undertaken in a variety of natural or man-made setting. Developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledgeand the enhancing of technology.The main focus: • Visiting another culture (i.e. student exchange and study tours) • To work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment (i.e. international practicum training program)Language EducationThe teaching and learning of language. This includes: • Improving a learner’s mastery of her or his native language • Second language acquisitionThere are three principals’ views: • The structural view treats language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning (i.e. grammar) • The functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as requesting something • The interactive view sees language as a vehicle for the creation and the maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchangesSport tourismSport tourism is a multi-billion dollar business, one of the fastest growing areas of the global traveland tourism industry. Sport tourism can be defined as: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Special Interest Tourism“All forms of active and passive involvement in sporting activity, participated in casually or in anorganized way for non-commercial or business/commercial reasons, that necessitate travel awayfrom home or work locality”“Travel for the sake of either viewing or participating in a sporting event staying apart from theirusual environment”Sport tourism is now a tool to achieve many things, make money, create thousands of new jobs andeven help change cultural perceptions. In some instances, sports have been used to advance culturaland political interests.Potential for growth: • Increased media exposure • Increasing number of sport fans want to experience live events • Low-cost regional airlinesThere are three (3) principal types of sport tourism, including: • Active sport tourists – those who actively participate in a sporting experience as a tourist • Event sport tourists – those who attend the event to be a spectator • Nostalgic sport tourists – those who visit a lace to pay homage to sport (such as iconic stadium or hall of fame)Sports CompetitionThere are some major international sporting events, which have given great impetus to sporttourism. These events generate millions of tourist worldwide and the host nation benefit a great dealfrom these events. • Olympic Games (Summer) • Olympic Games (Winter) • World Cup (Football, Cricket, Rugby, etc) • Asian Games • Regional Games • National GamesThe above events are held regularly but not necessarily in the same country each timeMajor advantages: • Augmentation of infrastructure of the host country in the form of accommodation, transportation, wayside facilities, built especially for the event in hope it will trigger off new tourist demand • Providing host city and country with a unique opportunity to sell/market itself, its culture and its attractions directly to a wide international audience .i.e. o Opening ceremony of Olympic Games in Beijing, China o Asian Games in Delhi, India o etc ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Special Interest Tourism • Boost in tourism activity during the event as also post event period. It accelerates the growth of international tourism .i.e. o F1 Grand Prix o World Cup Rugby in New Zealand o SEA Games in Indonesia o etc • Spread tourist demand by way of attracting additional tourists over and above those who visit specifically for the event itself • Brings in economic uplift to the local area and host communitySpiritual interest/pilgrimageIn religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is long journey or search of great moral significance.Sometimes, it is a journey to a shrine of importance to a person’s beliefs and faith.Examples: • Muslim pilgrimage at Makkah • Buddha’s birthplace at Lumbini, Nepal • Christianity at Vatican City • Judaism at Jerusalem, IsraelHowever, now religion is being seen more and more as a privatized and pluralized experiencewhere the “spiritual” and the “religious” are separate. This is where by, emerge the personality cultscultivated by communist leaders. i.e. • A visit to Lenin’s Mausoleum in Red Square, Moscow • Visits of homage to Mao Zedong, Kim Il Sung and Ho Chi MinhOther types of special interest tourismNature-based tourismNature in tourism involves experiencing natural places, typically through outdoor activities that aresustainable in terms of their impact on the environment. Nature-based tourism encompasses manyleading and rapidly growing tourism subsets including – soft and hard adventure activities, beach ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. Special Interest Tourismtourism, wildlife tourism, scenic driving and sightseeing, eco-tourism and garden tourism. Naturetourism may be crucial to the experience or may simply enhance the experience. It is also includesthe benefits of nature such as relaxation and enriching the spirit.Aboriginal tourismAboriginal tourism is defined as: • Aboriginal tourism experiences that are Aboriginal-owned • Aboriginal tourism businesses where Aboriginal people and/or community benefit by gaining employment and income • Aboriginal tourism experiences that provide consenting contact with Aboriginal people, cultural heritage or landThe following principles underpin the Aboriginal Tourism Development Plan: • Aboriginal involvement in tourism is not restricted to cultural tourism. • For Aboriginal tourism to be effective and meaningful, it must involve and benefit the Aboriginal community. • To ensure successful outcomes, Aboriginal tourism enterprises will be based on sound business planning and identified customer needs. • Aboriginal tourism operations are part of the mainstream tourism industry network.Urban tourismTakes place in large cities where tourism not a primary activity of the urban area and serve bothholidays and businesses travelers. Location - relate to the transportation system and major attractionfeatures. Special problems of urban tourism planning: • Competing demands for development of certain prime sites • Traffic congestion in central areas • Over-use of primary tourist attractionsAdvantages: • Generating income and employment • Support urban facilities and services • Justify and paying for historic preservation and infrastructure improvements • Vital force for inner-city redevelopment and revitalizationFood and wine tourismWine and food is one of the five iconic experiences identified as a major draw card for tourists tothe state and includes wine tasting, vineyards, wine education, indulgence and romantic escapes,complemented by fine food produced with fresh, local ingredients and opportunities to wine anddine in natural settings.Wine tourism encompasses a wide range of experiences built around tourist visitation to wineriesand wine regions. This includes wine tasting, enjoyment of wine and food, the exploration ofregional environments and the experience of a range of cultural, nature based and lifestyle activitiesThe main motivations for visiting a particular winery include recommendations from friends,information obtained at visitor information centers, referrals from colleagues and friends, pastexperience with wine from the specific winery visited, awareness of a winery brand, the opportunity ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. Special Interest Tourismto purchase boutique wines that are not available in city wine outlets, proximity to the winery orregion and the physical appearance of the winery from the roadside when driving past.Cruises tourismA cruise is, according to the Collins English Dictionary, 2008, a trip by sea on a liner for leisure,unusually docking at various ports during its journey. A cruise ship tourist is one who travelsaround on such a ship.The cruise industry is growing at a rapid speed and is one of the major areas of tourism growth atthe beginning of the new millennium. There are few specific features that are appealing to travelersto cruise traveling: • Passengers have the opportunity to visit many places in a short period of time without issues pertaining other modes of transport; • The ships are self-contained; • Cruise ships have a cruise director and staff whose only function is to make sure passengers have an pleasant time; • High quality food is served in a stylish manner and • Everyone begins and ends their vacation on the same day (Dowling R.K 2006:3). UNIT 3: SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM INTERACTIVE SYSTEM Chapter objectives • Explore and discuss special interest tourism interactive system: the tourism-product supply, special interest tourism demand and image creation/media • Identify and explore the roles and responsibilities of special interest tourism stakeholders: government, service provider, host/local communities, as well as tourists’/visitors’ awarenessSpecial interest tourism interactive system ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. Special Interest TourismSIT, it is suggested, should be viewed as part of a system, an interdisciplinary system, whichcomprises the overall environment (local to global), the tourist demand system, the tourism industrysupply system with the media being conceptualized as a major influencer on tourism in the 21stcentury, (see Fig. 1).It is the merging of all these components that make up SIT. The overall system is representative ofpolitical, economical, ecological, technological, and socio-economical and socio-cultural concerns,at local to global level. The tourism industry supply system is made up of tourismplaces/destinations, the travel and tourism organizers/operators, travel agents, accommodationbusinesses, transport, and SIT facilities and infrastructure.The tourist demand system consists of the individual’s financial situation, possession or access tonecessary tourism activity equipment, the cognitive determinants (perception, awareness andlearning), activating determinants (emotions, needs, motives, attitudes, images), and personalcharacteristics (involvement, perceived risk, values) (Dreyer, 1995). The demand side is sub-divided into intra- and inter-personal components that recognize the internal and externalmotivational determinants for demand, including the desire to gain insight, and to use the resultant‘‘self-image’’ for peer approval.This includes guides and tourism operators, as the very media that help shape the demand for aproduct also help shape the design, presentation and representation of the product by those whosupply it. They too are part of a closed system that fuses representation of places and action with theproduction and reproduction of tourism experiences.The tourism product - supplySIT was seen as a ‘‘prime force in the expansion of tourism’’ by Read in 1980 with the productrange having expanded from that of a boutique product to a mainstream offering. Initially SIT ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. Special Interest Tourismorganizations were perceived to have focused on rather homogeneously considered groups ofcustomers such as in adventure tourism, eco-tourism, sport tourism and cultural tourism for touristsseeking the ‘‘hard or specialized’’ end of the market, being ‘‘serious leisure participants’’.However, it is now apparent that operators have diversified their offerings to attract the large marketsegment of the ‘‘soft’’ or ‘‘novice’’ end of the spectrum, and intervening stages, either based ontheir own expertise within the field of special interest or their awareness of the growing latent andsalient consumer demand. A constant reciprocal exchange between supply and demand influencesthe evolvement, growth and access to new leisure and tourism experiences.Technology, time squeeze, space contraction, affluence and increased availability of leisureequipment and travel products have impacted on leisure and travel trends and diversified activitiesand destinations from the ‘‘old’’ to the ‘‘new’’. Consequently, it becomes possible to ‘‘re-package’’in ways within which, an environment may contain the appropriate mix of new or old activitiesdone in a new way to be optimally arousing, with the individual believing that: • she/he has enough ability to succeed at the task and • Possessing a positive role in sustaining the quality of one’s life and promote personal growth.In short, to repeat, experiences are sold on the premise of being life enhancing.Special tourism interest demandAccording to the World Tourism Organization, tourism consumption patterns reflect the increasingdiversity of interests of the late-modern leisure society with ‘‘SIT’’ having emerged, reflecting thenew values which include ‘‘increased importance of outdoor activities, awareness of ecologicalproblems, educational advances, aesthetic judgment and improvement of self and society’’.Tourism prefixed with specific descriptors, such as ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourismand “SIT’’, serve to indicate qualitative difference from those of mass tourism, thereby ‘‘promotingsocially just forms of tourism’’ that meet tourists’’ needs to engage in modes of behavior that, atbest, again, enhance sense of self, and at worst, may be ‘‘justified’’ as being socially responsible .Individuals increasingly adjust their needs and desires based on images of societal behavior that‘‘promises’’ societal acceptance.The tourist in the 21st century is ‘‘searching for new and exciting forms of travel in defiance of amass-produced product’’ yet without ‘‘actually having to involve themselves in any way’’, areflection of increasing commoditization and depersonalization within modern and post-modernsociety. Commoditization has changed tourism experiences in the 21st century from that of thetraditional search for the totally unknown, the utmost challenging and dangerous to that of safetyand comfort, to that of “gaze’’ but also embodiment beyond individual’s onsite experience.However, the tourist also brings with him/her images and myths associations as portrayed in themultiplicity of media and other sources which transform and individualize the tourist experience.Adventure tourism for instance is regarded by Cater (2000) as commoditization of ‘‘embodiedhuman experiences’’ that are marketed and managed to cater for a spectrum of consumers within aframework of myth and dramatic story lineImage creation/mediaIncreased exposure of high-risk leisure in the media may indeed stimulate involvement in anactivity such as mountaineering, which can evolve into a leisure or tourism career. Tourism ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Special Interest Tourismbrochures, magazines, books, film and television, all are media for the creation of images thatfashion desires, wants and needs, creating anticipation and a way for tourists to envisage themselvesin place and action.Media pervades every intimate human space and thus can influence value creation, beliefs andattitudes. It generates a possible cognitive and affective response—knowledge of, and familiaritywith the activity and places within which it occurs, and an emotive response to those activities.The tourist comes to the tourism location with pre-conceived images within which they haveallocated a role to him or herself. The tourist tries to understand and relive these images bymirroring the representations during their holidays.Thus, tourism provides for a ritual or sacred journey to be performed at places with meaningsimbued by the tourism industry and the wider media. Representation of places are collages ofimages, of experiences and metaphors, depicting a range of similes not only born of authenticity butenriched by ‘‘irrelevant’’ stimuli through entertainment and spectacle, with the spectacle becomingmore spectacular, thrills more thrilling and the magic of nature more magical.Tourism places no longer only present continuity in time and space with historical and biographicalmeaning but are instilled with physical and emotional sensations of a consumption-oriented societyImages are interpreted and re-interpreted and generate perceived authenticity of place and action.Special interest tourism stakeholdersMany different interests may effect whether in a positive or negative way from special interesttourism development: 1. Governments plays a leading role in encouraging the private sector, tourists and other stakeholders in building a proper special interest tourism development 2. Tourism enterprises, while seeking long term profitability, should be concerned about their corporate image, the relationship with their staff, and their impact on the global environment and that immediately around them. 3. Local communities are seeking increased prosperity but without exploitation or damage to their quality of life. 4. Environmentalists are concerned about the harmful impacts of tourism but also see it as a valuable source of income for conservation. 5. Tourists are seeking a high quality experience in safe and attractive environments; they are becoming more aware of the impacts of their traveling.Government plays a leading roleThis can best be achieved by establishing and implementing a set of policies for tourismdevelopment and management, drawn up in concert with others that place sustainability at itscentre. Governments have a crucial role to play in the development and management of specialinterest tourism. The level of government engagement in tourism varies considerably across theworld.Contacts with governments on sustainability nevertheless reveal that most are, at least nominally,seeking to pursue special interest tourism. This applies equally to developed and developingcountries, though the emphasis may be different. Whatever the motivation of governments, theirrole relates only partly to their own actions.Tourism is primarily an activity carried out by private sector enterprises, and it is their actions,together with those of tourists, that are responsible for most impacts, positive and negative. A ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. Special Interest Tourismprimary function of government in fostering more special interest tourism is therefore to create anenvironment that enables or influences the private sector to operate more sustainably, andinfluences patterns of visitor flows and behavior so as to maximize the benefits and minimize thenegative impacts of tourism.The key reasons for the importance of the role of government are as follows: • Much of the sustainability agenda is about areas of public rather than private concern. • Although the private sector is beginning to recognize its responsibility, it cannot, on its own, be expected to take a lead on these issues.In all countries, the special interest tourism sector is fragmented into many thousands of businesses,mainly micro or small enterprises. Collectively their actions can make a difference, whileindividually they cannot, so coordination is needed. Furthermore, very small businesses often needexternal support and advice if they are to change their operations successfully to meet a new agendaGovernments are responsible for many functions that are fundamentally important to the sustainabledevelopment of tourism, such as land use planning, labor and environmental regulations, and theprovision of infrastructure and social and environmental services.Many governments are already actively engaged in supporting tourism through marketing,information services, education and in other ways, often through joint public-private frameworks.These arguments and functions are applicable at both national and local government levels.In many countries, many of the objectives and actions that governments are pursuing can be said tobe in line with sustainability, and there is considerable recent interest in relating special interesttourism policies to wider sustainable development or poverty reduction strategies.However, as has already been pointed out, the understanding of what the sustainable developmentof tourism entails, and even the terminology, is not consistent between governments. A moresystematic approach to link sustainability aims and principles to policies and tools are needed.Services providerTour operators are businesses that combine two or more travel services (e.g. transport,accommodation, catering, entertainment, and sightseeing) and sell them through travel agencies ordirectly to final consumers as a single product.A tour operator is thus a crucial link in the distribution chain, representing the central connectionbetween customers and providers of tourism services, and thus has the power to influence both thedemand and the supply side. The product that a tour operator sells to customers is the package tour,i.e. the packaged combination of transport, accommodation and services.Due to bulk-buying the tour operator is able to offer this package at a cheaper price than thecustomer would have been able to achieve dealing directly with individual suppliers. This packageis distributed to the customer either directly (e.g. via direct sell, internet) or via a ‘middleman’ (thetravel agent) who arranges the sale of the package for commission, usually 10% of the retail price.The role of the tour operator in the distribution chain: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. Special Interest TourismTourism Distribution ChannelsThe tourism channel of distribution is an operating structure, system or linkage of variouscombinations of organizations through which a producer of travel products describes, sells, orconfirms travel arrangement to the buyer. SUPPLIERS: Transportation providers, accommodations, food services, resorts, recreation, entertainment, Etc. Host Specialty Tour Direct Retail Specialty Specialty Channeler Whole- Via Travel Channeler Channeler Retail Tour saler Internet Agent Specialty Tour Travel Whole- Telephone Channeler Whole- Agent saler Suppliers Home-based saler Retail Retail Tour Office Travel Retail Travel Travel Whole- Agent Travel Agent Agent saler Agent CUSTOMERS: Individuals, pleasure groups, business groups, EtcTravel AgentsWhat is a Travel Agency?Travel agency – (a middleman) a business or person selling the travel industry’s individual parts ora combination of the parts to the consumer. In marketing term: an agent middleman, acting onbehalf of the client, making arrangements with suppliers of travel (airlines, hotels, tour operators)and receiving a commission from the suppliers and/or a fee from the clientOther tourism distribution members: • Internet service provider • Consolidators • Tour wholesaler • Specialty channeler Distribution members Explanation ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. Special Interest TourismInternet service provider Companies that provide domain space for others on computer servers they own, companies that provide travel information that they develop, and companies that provide a combination of the twoConsolidators A travel firm that makes available airplane tickets and sometimes other travel products at discount prices. These are usually sold to retail travel agencies but also sometimes sold directly to the public.Tour wholesaler A company that plans markets and (usually) operates tours. Marketing is always through intermediaries such as retail travel agents, an association, a club or a tour organizer – never directly to the public as is sometimes done by tour operators.Specialty channeler Include such organizations as incentive travel firms, business meeting and convention planners, corporate travel offices, association executives, hotel representatives, travel consultants and supplier sales offices. They have considerable power to influence when, where and how people travelHost/local communitiesCommunity-based tourism ventures should be used to distinguish those initiatives which areenvironmentally sensitive, but which also aim to ensure that members of local communities have ahigh degree of control over the activities taking place, and a significant proportion of the benefitsaccrue to them (Liu, 1994; Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996).This is in contrast to tourism ventures which are controlled wholly by outside operators, and it isalso distinct from contexts in which most of the economic benefits of tourism accrue to thegovernment (Akama, 1996). A community-based approach to ecotourism recognizes the need topromote both the quality of life of people and the conservation of resources.It is now recognized in parts of Africa, for example, that local people should be compensated for theloss of access to resources they suffer when wildlife parks are created. While tourism rhetoricsuggests that there is much support for community-based tourism ventures, it is difficult to findsuccessful cases of this in practice.A useful way to discern responsible community-based tourism is to approach it from a developmentperspective, which considers social, environmental and economic goals, and questions howecotourism can “. . . Meet the needs of the host population in terms of improved living standardsboth in the short and long term” (Cater, 1993). Community-based approaches to tourism thereforeneed to acknowledge the importance of social dimensions of the tourism experience, rather thanprimarily focusing on environmental or economic impacts.Frameworks for determining the Impacts of Special Interest Tourism Initiatives on LocalCommunities Signs of empowerment Signs of disempowermentEconomic empowerment Ecotourism brings lasting economicEcotourism merely results in small, gains to a local community. Cashspasmodic cash gains for a local earned is shared between manycommunity. Most profits go to local households in the community. Thereelites, outside operators, government are visible signs of improvementsagencies, etc. Only a few individuals from the cash that is earned (e.g.or families gain direct financial improved water systems, housesbenefits from ecotourism, while made of more permanent materials). others cannot find a way to share in ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. Special Interest Tourism these economic benefits because they lack capital and/or appropriate skills.Psychological Self-esteem of many communityMany people have not shared in theempowerment members is enhanced because ofbenefits of tourism, yet they may face outside recognition of thehardships because of reduced access uniqueness and value of theirto the resources of a protected area. culture, their natural resources andThey are thus confused, frustrated, their traditional knowledge.disinterested or disillusioned with the Increasing confidence of communityinitiative. members leads them to seek out further education and training opportunities. Access to employment and cash leads to an increase in status for traditionally low-status sectors of society e.g. women, youths.Social empowerment Tourism maintains or enhances theDisharmony and social decay. Many local community’s equilibrium.in the community take on outside Community cohesion is improved asvalues and lose respect for traditional individuals and families workculture and for elders. Disadvantaged together to build a successfulgroups (e.g. women) bear the brunt of ecotourism venture. Some fundsproblems associated with the tourism raised are used for communityinitiative and fail to share equitably development purposes, e.g. to buildin its benefits. Rather than schools or improve roads. cooperating, individuals, families, ethnic or socio-economic groups compete with each other for the perceived benefits of ecotourism. Resentment and jealousy are commonplace.Political empowerment The community’s political structure,The community has an autocratic which fairly represents the needsand/or self-interested leadership. and interests of all communityAgencies initiating or implementing groups, provides a forum throughthe tourism venture treat which people can raise questionscommunities as passive beneficiaries, relating to the ecotourism venturefailing to involve them in decision- and have their concerns dealt with.making. Thus the majority of Agencies initiating or implementingcommunity members feel they have the ecotourism venture seek out thelittle or no say over whether the opinions of community groupsecotourism initiative operates or the (including special interest groups ofway in which it operates. women, youths and other socially disadvantaged groups) and provide opportunities for them to be represented on decision-making bodies e.g. the Wildlife Park Board. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. Special Interest TourismEnvironmental activitiesWTTC concern: • Political instability or increased competition for land could lead to loss of potential tourism destinations and degradation of existing destinations • Loss of landscape and wildlife could cause a decrease in customer satisfaction hence lower propensity to travel • Higher fuel prices could lead to operational price increases and corresponding decreases in the number of travelers in this price-sensitive marketWTTC subsequently proceeds to examine the key environmental issues under five headings: • Global warming • Depletion of the ozone layer • Acid rain • Depletion and pollution of land resources • Depletion and pollution of water resourcesWTTC presents a positive vision of tourism and environment: • Travel and tourism is an integral aspect of modern societies • Global awareness of environmental damage is developing rapidly • The resources of the world’s largest industry can and must be harnessed to achieve environmental goals • The industry has the potential to influence billions of customers per year and to use its leverage to achieve beneficial environmental effects • The customer challenge will exert a growing pressure to achieve environmental improvements • Environmental lobbies will add pressure to develop good environmental practice • Self-regulation must be developed rapidly and effectively and used to influence the development of appropriate and workable regulations • Corporate environmental mission statements are a vital first step toward self-regulation • Environmental leadership must come from the major international companiesSustainable DevelopmentDefinition:“The ability of a destination to maintain the quality of its physical, social, cultural andenvironmental resources while it competes in the marketplace”In discussing the responsibility for sustainable development in the field of special interest tourism -the four main areas needs to be addressed: • The premises on which sustainable development policy in tourism should be based • The most critical areas of sustainable development as applied to special interest tourism • How responsibility for sustainable development in tourism should be allocated • An agenda of suggested sustainable development actions for the tourism sectorAgenda to support a sustainable development program: • Maximum total visitation levels to a community/region • An obligatory tax to support tourism infrastructure planning, development and maintenance • Community-supported legislation to protect and preserve unique resources and heritage sites ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. Special Interest Tourism • Community and industry consensus concerning architectural and signage standards • Support for standards and certification programs that encourage staff development and the delivery of high-quality serviceEcotourismDefinition:“Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being oflocal people”Should adhere to the following principles: • Minimize impact • Built environmental and cultural awareness and respect • Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts • Provide direct financial benefits for conservation • Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people • Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental and social climate • Support international human rights and labor agreementsBenefits and importance of ecotourism: • Provides job and income for local people • Makes possible funds for purchasing and improving protected or natural areas to attract more eco-tourists in the future • Provides environmental education for visitors • Encourage heritage and environmental preservation and enhancementDangers and limitations of ecotourism: • Tourism may consume and over consume the resources that used by local people • The local population and the tourists may competing for scarce natural resources • Scientific knowledge of visitor impacts on remote areas • Tourism is multifaceted industry and almost impossible to controlTourists/visitors awarenessInfluencing travel choices and visitor flowsInfluencing travel choices and visitor flows means influencing the nature of trips taken. Key factorsrelevant to sustainability include: • When trips are taken: as already mentioned, travel out of season may often be more sustainable. • Places visited: strategic decisions should be taken about the level of visitation to be encouraged in different areas. For example, visits to protected areas may be encouraged because of the revenue they bring to conservation or, alternatively, they may need to be discouraged because of the ecological sensitivity of the area. • Transport used: the significantly greater environmental impact of travel by private car or air compared with other forms of transport has already been mentioned. • Operators and enterprises selected: encouraging visitors to select operators that follow sustainability principles will make consumption more sustainable. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. Special Interest Tourism • Group size: in many places, larger volumes of people arriving at the same time can be more disruptive to environments and communities. • Length of stay: in general, longer trips may bring more benefits to host communities and be more sustainable than short trips.Influencing visitor behavior and awarenessVisitors should be encouraged to: • Respect host communities and avoid all forms of disruptive behavior. • Find out about the natural and historic heritage and culture of the area. • Purchase local products. • Reduce personal environmental impact—e.g. using water and energy sparingly, recycling waste and not leaving litter. • Follow good practice with respect to outdoor activities, including wildlife watching. • Support conservation and social projects, financially or in other ways.Code of Ethics for Tourists  Enjoy our diverse natural and cultural heritage and help us to preserve it  Assists us in conservation efforts through the efficient use of resources, including energy and water  Experience the friendliness of our people and the welcoming spirit of our communities. Help us to preserve this attributes by respecting our traditions, customs and local regulations  Avoid activities that threaten wildlife or plant populations or that may be potentially damaging to our natural environment  Select tourism products and services that demonstrate social, cultural and environmental sensitivity UNIT 4: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. Special Interest Tourism PARTICIPATION IN SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Examine and explore the factors that affect participation in special interest tourism: demographic and market segmentation, socio-economics factors, social change and trends, consumer behavior, increased disposable income and political stability • Discuss on destination marketing, as well as the destination mix: attractions, facilities, infrastructures, transportations and hospitality resourcesMarket segmentationMarket segmentation is a concept in economics and marketing. The strategy of market segmentationrecognizes that few vacation destination areas are universally acceptable and desired.Therefore, rather than dissipate promotion resources by trying to please all travelers, specialistproviders should aim the promotional efforts specifically to the wants and needs of likely prospects.An effective market strategy will determine exactly what the target markets will be and attempt toreach only those markets.Marketing researchers typically have two (2) objectives in this regard: • To determine what segments or subgroups exist in the overall population • To create a clear and complete picture of the characteristics of a typical member of each of these segmentsThe target market is that segment of a total potential market to which the tourism attraction wouldbe most salable. A market segment is a sub-set of a market made up of people or organizationssharing one or more characteristics that cause them to demand similar product and/or services basedon qualities of those products such as price or function.A true market segment meets all the following criteria: • It is distinct from other segments (different segments have different needs) • It is homogenous within the segment (exhibit common needs) • It respond similarly to a market stimulus • It can be reached by a market interventionMarket segmentation can be defined as “the process of dividing a market into distinct groups ofbuyers who might require separate products and/or marketing mixes”Market segmentation analysis is typically based on the four factors of: Factors ExplanationSocio-economic or Demographic Categorizes tourists based on their socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, and income levelsProduct-led segmentation Which relates to the types of tourists to the particular tourism products such as attractions and facilities that the area has to offer or can potentially offerPsychographic Which involves grouping tourists by their attitudes, interest, lifestyles and travel motivationGeographic Which groups tourists by location of origin as related to the time- distance and cost of traveling to the tourist destination, and also ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. Special Interest Tourism considers the environmental and cultural contrast and similarities between the origin and destinationRequirements for effective segmentation 1. Measurability - The degree to which the segment’s size and purchasing power can be measured 2. Accessibility - Segments can be accessed and served 3. Substantiality - Segments are large or profitable enough to serve as markets 4. Actionability - Effective programs can be designed for attracting and serving segments 5. Differential - Segment must respond differently to different marketing mix elements and programsMarket segmentation determinants in special interest tourismDemographicsDemographics are the characteristics of a human population as used in the government, marketingor opinion research. Commonly used data are sex, race, age, income, disabilities, mobility (in termsof travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership,employment status and even location.A demographic trend describes in a population over time i.e. the average age of a population mayincrease or decrease over time. Certain restrictions may be set in place i.e. the one child policy inChina. Marketers typically combine several variables to define a demographic profile.A demographic profile provides enough information about the typical member of this group tocreate a mental picture of this hypothetical aggregate.Socio-economic FactorsSocio-economics - The study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. In manycases, socio-economic focus on the social impact of some sort of economic change. Such changesmight include: Closing factory, market manipulation, the signing of international trade treaties, newnatural gas regulation, etcExamples of socio-economic impacts: • New technologies such as cars or mobile phone • Changes in laws ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. Special Interest Tourism • Changes in the physical environment • Ecological changesThese may affect patterns of consumption, the distribution of incomes and wealth, the way in whichpeople behave and the overall quality of lifeSocial Change and TrendsSociology – is the study of society (to develop and refine a body of knowledge and theory abouthuman social activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of socialwelfare).Social change can be defined as alterations in basic structure of a social group or society. An everpresent phenomenon in social life, but has become especially intense in the modern era. Socialchanges came about when individuals or groups choose to go against social norms. The concept ofsocial change implies measurement of some of the characteristics of a group of individuals.Social change is a topic of sociology and social work, but also involves political science,economics, history, anthropology, and many other social sciences.Some of the social changes that may occur:  A change in social structure: the nature, the social institutions, the social behavior or the social relations of a society, community of people and so on  When behavior patterns change in large numbers, and this change is visible and sustained: once there is deviance from culturally-inherited values, rebellion against the established system may result, resulting in a change in the social order  Any event or action that affects a group of individuals who have shared values or characteristics  Acts of advocacy for the cause of changing society in a way subjectively perceived as normatively desirableConsumer BehaviorConsumer behavior is the when, why, how and where people do or do not buy products (blendselements of psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics). It main roles: • Attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups • Tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in generalCustomer behavior study based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing the three(3) distinct roles of (1) user, (2) payer and (3) buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential assetfor customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning ofmarketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer.Belch and Belch define consumer behavior as “the process and activities people engage in whensearching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services so asto satisfy their needs and desires. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. Special Interest TourismBelow is the Black Box Model of consumer buying behavior. Marketing Other Buyer’s Buyer’s black box Stimuli Stimuli Responses Product choice Product Economic Brand choice Price Technological Dealer choice Place Political Buyer Buyer Decision Characteristics Purchase timing Promotion Cultural Process Purchase amountBelow is the buyer decision process: Need Information Evaluation of Purchase Post-purchase Recognition Search Alternatives Decision Behavior 1. Problem recognition The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need 2. Information search An aroused consumer may or may not search for more information. How much searching a consumer does will depend on the strength of the drive, the amount of initial information, the ease of obtaining more information, the value placed on additional information and the satisfaction one gets from searching 3. Evaluations of alternatives Unfortunately, there is no simple and single evaluation process used by all consumers or even by one consumer in all buying situations. There are several evaluation processes: Attitude of Others Purchase Evaluation of Purchase Decision Alternatives Intention Unexpected Situational Factors 4. Purchase decision In the evaluation stage, the consumer ranks brands in the choice set and forms purchase intentions. Generally, the consumer will buy the most preferred brand 5. Post-purchase behavior The marketer’s job does not end when the customer buys a product. Following a purchase, the consumer will be satisfied and dissatisfied and will engage in post-purchase actions of significant interest to the marketer.Below are the personal characteristics that will affect consumer behavior: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. Special Interest Tourism Cultural Social Personal Psychological Age and life- cycle stage Culture Reference Motivation Groups Occupation Perception Economic Subculture Circumstances Buyer Family Learning Lifestyle Beliefs and Roles and attitudes Social class Personality and Status Self-conceptCultural factors • Culture - The most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behavior. It compromises the basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviors that a person learns continuously in a society. • Subculture - Each culture contains smaller subcultures, groups of people with shared value systems based on common experience. • Social classes - These are relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests and behaviors.Social factors  Reference groups - These groups serve as direct (face to face) or direct point of comparison or reference in the forming of a person’s attitude and behavior.  Family - Family members have a strong influence on buyer behavior. The family remains the most important consumer-buying organization in any society.  Role and status - A role consists of the activities that a person is expected to perform according to the persons around him or her. Each role carries a status reflecting the general esteem given to it by society. People often choose products that show their status in society.Personal factors  Age and life-cycle stage - The types of goods and services people buy change during their lifetimes. As people grow older and mature, the products they desire change. The makeup of the family also affects purchasing behavior.  Occupation - A person’s occupation affects the goods and services bought.  Economic situation - A person’s economic situation greatly affects product choice and the decision to purchase a particular product  Environment - Many marketers use a concept related to personality: a person’s self-concept (also called self-image). Each of us has a complex mental self-picture, and our behavior tends to be consistent with that self-image. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. Special Interest Tourism  Lifestyle - Lifestyle profile a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. When used carefully, the lifestyle concept can help the marketer understand changing consumer values and how they affect buying behavior.  Personality and self-concept - Each person’s personality influences his or her buying behavior. By personality we mean distinguishing psychological characteristics that disclose a person’s relatively individualized, consistent and enduring responses.Psychological factors  Motivation - A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. Creating a tension state causes a person to act to release the tension.  Perception - Perception is the process by which a person selects, organizes and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.  Learning - Learning describes changes in a person’s behavior arising from experience.  Beliefs and attitude - A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluation, feelings and tendencies toward an object or an idea.Increased Disposable IncomeDisposable income – total personal income minus personal current taxes. In national accountsdefinition, personal income, minus personal taxes equals disposable personal income – subtractingpersonal outlays (which includes the major category or personal/private consumption expenditure)yields personal/private saving.The marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is the fraction of a change in disposable income that isconsumed. Discretionary income is income after subtracting taxes and normal expenses (such asrent or mortgage, utilities, insurance, medical, transportation, property maintenance and etc) tomaintain a certain standard of living . Commonly, disposable income is the amount of ‘play money’left to spend or save.Political StabilityA political system is a system of politics and government – usually compared to the legal system,economic system, cultural system and other social systems.There are several definitions of ‘political system’: • A complete set of institutions, interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law) • Composed of the members of a social organization (group) who are in power • A system that necessarily has two properties: (1) a set of interdependent components and (2) boundaries toward the environment with which it interacts • A concept in which theoretically regarded as a way of the government makes a policy and also to make them more organized in their administration • One that ensures the maintaining of order and sanity in the society and at the same time makes it possible for some other institutions to also have their grievances and complaints put across in the course of social existence ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. Special Interest TourismDestination marketingClassification of visitor destination segmentsThe most commonly used classifications are based on whether the tourist travels with a group orindependently.The common terms are: • Group inclusive tour (GIT) • Independent traveler (IT)National tourism offices, international airlines, and others involved in international travel frequentlyused these designations. Here are some of the classification describing tourists by their degree ofinstitutionalization and their impact on the destinations: • Organized mass tourists • Individual mass tourists • Explorers • DriftersMass tourism can be defined as the act of visiting a destination with large amounts of people at onetime, and the study of the effect that large amounts of people can have on a particular destination, oron a particular destination which has been over-exposed by single tourists having been thererepeatedly. Designations ExplanationOrganized mass tourists This corresponds to the GIT. These people have little or no influence over their travel experience other than to purchase one package or another. They commonly travel in a group, view the destination through the windows of a bus, and remained in pre- selected hotels. Shopping in the local market often provides their only contact with the native populationIndividual mass tourists These people are similar to the previous category but have somewhat more control over their itinerary. For instance, they may rent an auto to visit attractionsExplorers These people fall in the IT classification. They plan their own itineraries and make their own reservations, although they may use a travel agent. They tend to be very sociable people who enjoy interacting with people at the destinationDrifters These people, the backpacker group, will seldom, if ever be found in a traditional hotel. They may stay at youth hostels with friends or camp out. They tend to mix with lower socio-economic native groups and are commonly found riding third-class rail or bus. Most tend to be young.The destination mixFor a location to develop as a tourist destination a number of interrelated components must bepresent, or brought into existence. The importance of destination mix components is in attractingtourists to visit a destination, or deciding to spend their vacation elsewhere if the destination mix isperceived to be inadequate relative to tourist needs and wants. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. Special Interest TourismThe destination mix consists of 5 elements: • Facilities • Attractions (including events) • Infrastructure • Transportation • Hospitality resources1. Facilities - Those support the growth of tourism and exist in such aspects as accommodation, food and beverage service and so on that meet the basic needs of tourists visiting the destination.2. Attractions - which as we have noted earlier underpin the industry and represent the main reason for tourists visiting the area to experience its natural, built or cultural environments.3. Infrastructure - This includes such aspects as roads, airports, water supplies, electricity and other public works, communication, and health care services. Depending upon the nature of the experience that they are seeking, for some tourists the availability of infrastructure may be a strong determinant of the decision to visit a location. As we will see in the following module, those tourists described as ‘psychocentric’ will generally be expecting ‘all the comforts of home’ while so-called ‘allocentric’ tourists may be prepared to accept whatever the location has to offer since for them the touristic experience also requires a degree of authenticity which may not be attainable if the location has little more than ‘home comforts’ to offer.4. Transportation - is closely related to infrastructure and is of paramount importance in the development of tourism. Clearly, if tourists are unable to access the location it will have little opportunity to attract tourists unless its attractions are so outstanding that tourists are prepared to suffer the inconvenience of a ‘rugged journey’ which for some may itself be an important aspect of the experience that they are seeking.5. Hospitality - This refers to the way in which services are provided and delivered to tourists visiting the area.What is more important is for us to recognize that all elements must exist in some form for thedestination to develop and, in order to meet the expectations of tourists, these components must beable to work successfully together, again in ways that meet tourist expectations.Should one of the destination mix components be absent, undeveloped, or functioning in ways thatdo not complement other elements, the future of the destination may be jeopardized. In the case ofsome countries it may be that while the basic attractions are spectacular, their potential remainsundeveloped because transport access is limited, infrastructure is undeveloped, or the servicerequired by tourists are not available.Of course, it is also apparent that for some destinations the lack of access and so on may offer adegree of protection from the impacts of mass tourism, and it is only inaccessibility that preventsmore than the hardiest of tourists visiting. It should also be acknowledged that some elements of thedestination mix may in fact be attractions in their own right.For example, it could well be that what attracts tourists to visit a particular destination is thereputation of a particular hotel or restaurant—consider, for example, the perception of Raffles Hotelin Singapore. In other instances, the form of transport may be the attraction as tourists make their ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. Special Interest Tourismreservations on The Orient Express, or take a rail trip through the Rockies, or travel centralAustralia on The Ghan.Classifying attractionsIn order to understand the linkages between attractions and tourism development, Mill andMorrison (1998) have developed a very useful model framework for classifying attractions on thefollowing basis: • Scope - which classified the attraction as either Primary or Secondary, Primary attractions, as the term suggests, are of such significance on the tourism map that tourists will travel considerable distances to visit them, and the visit may extend over several days or longer. Secondary attractions, on the other hand, are relatively less important, and may be visited only in the process of stopping over on the journey to the primary attraction. • Ownership - that recognizes that some attractions are owned by the public (or government) sector, others are owned and operated by private sector enterprises, and still others are owned by not-for-profit organizations. • Permanency - that recognizes that some tourism attractions are permanent site attractions while others are more in the nature of transitory events. • Drawing power - This refers essentially to the distance over which tourists are prepared to travel to the destination and its attractions. Clearly from the earlier discussion, primary attractions will have a drawing power that may extend internationally and nationally, while secondary destinations and attractions may only attract tourists from local, state or regional areas of origin.In considering tourism development at the global scale it is apparent that there are numeroussecondary destinations and attractions the drawing power of which may be limited to, perhaps, onlythe internal or domestic market.However, some destinations are obviously endowed with primary attractions (perhaps the only oneof its kind in the world) and tourists are prepared to travel globally to experience them. In all of this,whether a location is perceived as being either primary or secondary in terms of its attractions andits destination mix will reflect the nature of tourists who visit and the touristic experience that theyare seeking. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 39. Special Interest Tourism UNIT 5: APPEAL AND MOTIVATION IN SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Understand and explain the general concept of sociology of tourism • Discuss and analyze the appeal and motivation to take part in travel among different types of tourists’ personality and travel behavior • Explain about group influences on travel behaviorSociology of tourismIntroductionSociology:The science of society, social institutions and social relationshipsVisitors to a community or area create social relationships that typically differ greatly from theaffiliations among the indigenous population. The ultimate effects of travel experiences on thepopulation in the areas of origin as well as in places of destination should determine to what extentsocieties encourage or discourage tourism.Effects on individualFind an environment that is unfamiliar in terms of: • Geographically • Personally • Socially • CulturallyFaces problem which solutions must be found: • Manage resources of money and time • Manage social interactions and social relations • Determining the extent of Cultural DistanceCultural distance – refer to the extent to which the culture of the area from which the touristsoriginates differs from the culture of the host region - Must superficially study the country to bevisited.Travel experiences have a profound effect on the traveler as well as on society, because travelexperiences often are among the most outstanding memories in the traveler’s life.Effects on the familyAs a family is growing and the children are maturing, the trips taken as a family are highlights ofany year. The excitement of preparation and anticipation and the actual travel experience are ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. Special Interest Tourismmemorable occasions of family life. Travels with a measure of adventure are likely to be the mostmemorable.Family travel purposes: • Adventure • EducationalStudy before taking the trip and expert travel counseling greatly add to a maximization of the trip’sbenefitsEffects on societySignificant influence on national understanding and appreciation of other people. The presence ofvisitors in a country affects the living patterns of the indigenous peoples: • Tourism: security and crime • Resentments* • Changing population and travel interestsThe way visitors conduct themselves and their personal relationships with citizen of the hostcountry often has profound effect on the mode of life and attitudes of local people. Favorablesituations exist when visitors and residents of the host country mingle socially and become betteracquainted.* Negative social effects on a host society • Introduction of undesirable activities such as gambling • The so-called demonstration effect of local people wanting the same luxuries and imported goods as those indulged in by tourists • Racial tension; particularly where there are very obvious racial differences between tourists and their hosts • Development of a servile attitude on the part of the tourist business employees • ‘Trinketization’ of crafts and art to produce volumes of souvenirs for the tourist trade • Standardization of employee roles such as the international waiter – same type of person in every country • Loss of cultural pride, if the culture is viewed by the visitor as a quaint custom or as entertainment • Too rapid change in local ways of life because of being overwhelmed by too many tourists • Disproportionate numbers of workers in low-paid, menial jobs characteristic of much hotel and restaurant employmentMotivation: why people travel?Danger and ThrillsDue to a certain reason, also can be classified as Dark Tourism. For example, war in PalestineDue to this situation, a lot of people go to Palestine to offer help and humanity.Other example; tsunami in several countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Japan and Sri Lanka.People came from all over the world to look for their families, relatives and friends. Some offerhelps, some to get information about the disaster. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 41. Special Interest TourismChallengeIt is a call and summons to engage in any contest, as a skill, strength, etc. or something that by itsnature or character serves as a call to battle, contest, special effort etc. Suitable for people who wantto go over their limits especially allocentric tourists. This type of tourists also known as challengerThis motivation is full of adventure, so the people need to pay attention to their safetySkill ImprovementA tourist usually goes to a certain country to learn. In this case, often, the learners improvethemselves in terms of: • Acquire a foreign language • Get to know the culture of the country • Getting the certificate in courses they are takingEscape and RelaxationRecreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment’s ofone’s body and mind. While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or sleep, recreation isactive for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. Example of practicing orappreciating: • Art • Computer games • Yoga • Sledding • Shopping • Etc.DiscoveryMotivated by certain factors, one of them might be the pleasure of finding new knowledge; newdiscovery, which are: • Something new that has been learnt or found • The fact or process of finding out about something for the first time • The process or act of finding something or somebody unexpectedly or after searching • A previously unknown musician, actor, performance or other person who has been identified by somebody as having exceptional talent or unusual beauty • The recognition of somebody’s talent or beauty, leading to that person’s fameStatus and ImageSocial status – the honor or prestige attached to one’s position in society (one’s social position) -May also refer to a rank or position that one holds in a group, for example son or daughter,playmate, pupil, etc. Can be determined in two ways: • Achieved status – one can earn their social status by their own achievements ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. Special Interest Tourism • Ascribed status – placed in the stratification system by their inherited positionNoveltyThe quality of being new. It is also refers to something novel; which is striking, original or unusual.The term can have pejorative sense and refer to a mere innovation.Novelty can refer to: • Novelty item i.e. A small manufactured adornment, toy or collectible • Promotional item, novelties used in promotional marketing • Novelty (patent), part of the legal test to determine whether an invention is patentable • Novelty as described by the theory of emergence, regarding how new complexity arises from more simple interactions • Novelty dance, a type of dance that is popular for being unusual or humorous • Novelty song, a musical item that capitalizes on something new, unusual or a current fad • Novelty show, a competition or display in which exhibits or specimens are in way some novel • Novelty architecture, a building or other structure that is interesting because it has an amusing designPersonality and travel behaviorA typology of personalities was developed by sociologist David Riesman – a case of categorizingpersonalities on the basis of social character: 1. Tradition-directed • A rigid set rules, usually backed by powerful religious and beliefs, prescribed what should be done under what circumstances and why • In this societies, people wear, eat and drink that which tradition says they should and little else, for even minor deviations are punished 2. Inner-directed • Each person has to decide for himself, in view of his own enlightened self-interest, the proper course to take in a world that has becoming increasingly complex • Consumption of products and services is determined by the contribution this consumption makes to the long-term benefit of the individual 3. Other-directed • The person who directs his behavior toward securing the esteem and approval of his immediate peers • Consumption is determined by the contribution consumption makes to status and popularityWhile, the DISC behavior system categorizes behaviors through four styles; Dominance,Influencing, Steadiness, and Compliance. • Dominance: People who tend to have this characteristic in their travel personality tend to be in a hurry, will take the risky shortcuts, and may be competitive if it’s a whole caravan of drivers participating. • Influencing: When you travel with this type be prepared for chatter. While others are sleeping this is the guy telling jokes and stories. They are trusting and are optimistic about the trip. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. Special Interest Tourism • Steadiness: These are the ones who come prepared and seek to help out all the travelers journeying with them. They bring snacks for the group, they enjoy the journey and don’t need it hurried. Changes to the plan however make them nervous. • Compliance: The last style are your driver’s who keep the rules. Speed limit says 45 even though everyone else is doing 70? They still won’t budge. They have their trusty GPS ready and are exacting on the route they take. It will be rare to see these types making mistakes without noticing.However, one of the best known and most frequently employed type-casting approaches classifiespeople either as introverts or extroverts: • Introverts – people who are normally preoccupied with themselves and their own objective world • Extroverts – people oriented primarily toward others and the external, objective worldFor people that does not really belong in either category, could be solved by adding a third, in-between category of people- the term ambivert has been suggestedA very similar classification system categorizes people as: • Psychocentric – people are concerned with little problems and with themselves, and they are generally anxious, somewhat inhibited and non-adventuresome • Allocentric – persons are adventurous, self-confident, curious, outgoing and eager to reach out and experiment with life • Midcentric are person that are between the two extremes, and belong to neither of the extremesThe travel behavior of the above differs significantly in important waysTravel characteristics of psychographic types: Pyschocentrics Midcentrics AllocentricsTourists who like things beingTourist who go to places thatTourists who try new thingsplanned have been popularized by allocentric They don’t like things beingThey are afraid to take risks organized or planned They are not so adventurous,They often travel to places theyneither are they afraid They do not return to the sameare familiar with destination They like being adventurousGroup influences on travel behaviorA person joins groups because they satisfy certain needs. They protect, they help solve problems,they allow him to meet and associate with certain types of people, they provide models of behavior,they enhance his self-image and they provide him with numerous yardsticks for evaluating his ownbehavior.Example: • Someone who joins an exclusive country club may do so because it gives him status and allows him to meet with successful people in his community ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 44. Special Interest Tourism • A business person who travels frequently joins the Airlines Passengers Association to keep abreast of matters concerning airline safety, convenience, and fares, in addition to enjoying such benefits as hotel and car rental discountsA guided tour group provides at least five (5) fundamental benefits for its members. These arephysical, psychological, economic, and social in nature • Planned tours solve the problem of what to see within a limited amount of time. The itinerary condenses a large geographic area into a selective smorgasbord of highlights of tourist attractions. • The planned itinerary provides psychological security to group members, who know beforehand where they will be going and in what hotels they will stay • Also provides economic simplification and security. Group members know ahead of time the cost of the entire trip • The guided tour minimizes external social problems for group members. Tour coordinators and tour guides act as buffers between group members and the foreign social environment by arranging for transportation, interpreting and handling various problems that arise • The tour minimizes potential friction between group members and sets the scene for in- group solidarity. The group tour provides opportunities for sharing experiences and confronting the unfamiliar in a collective waySocial stratificationSocial stratification describes the way people are placed in society. It is associated with the abilityof individuals to live up to some set of ideals or principles regarded as important by the society orsome social group within it. The members of a social group interact mainly within their own groupand to a lesser degree with those of higher or lower status.Example of social stratification: • Wealth and income (most common) – ties between persons with the same personal income • Gender – ties between persons of the same sex and sexuality • Political status – ties between persons of the same political views/status • Religion – ties between persons of the same religion • Ethnicity/race – ties between persons of the same ethnic/racial group • Social class – ties between persons born into the same groupSocial class and travel behaviorWhat is social class?All human societies can be broken down into groups on the basis of status and prestige. Everysociety has functions that must be performed, and every individual assumes one role or another inperforming them.A social class consists of a large number of individuals who are approximately equal to each otherin terms of social status. The social class to which any given individual or family belongs candepend on several factors, but it is widely agreed that the most important factors are: • Education • Occupation • Wealth and income ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. Special Interest TourismA social class system Social class Membership Locally prominent families, third or fourth generation wealth. TheUpper-upper aristocracy. Merchants, financiers, or higher professionals. Wealth is inherited. Newly arrived in upper class. Nouveau riche. Not accepted by upper-upperLower-upper class. Executive elites, founders of large businesses, doctors and lawyers. Moderately successful professional, owners of medium-sized businesses,Upper-middle and middle management. Status conscious. Child and home centered. Top of average-man world. Non-managerial office workers, small businessLower-middle owners, and blue-collar families. Described as striving and respectable. Conservative. Ordinary working class. Semi-skilled workers. Income often as high as nextUpper-lower two classes above. Enjoy life. Live day to day. Unskilled, unemployed, and unassimilated ethnic groups. Fatalistic.Lower-lower Apathetic.Life characteristics and travelTravel Patterns related to AgeWith age (late sixties and upward) the traveler may become more passive. Family recreationpatterns are associated with life stages of the family. The presences of young children tend toreduce the number of trips taken, whereas married couple with no children is among the best travelprospects. As the children grow up, families will increase their travel activities. As the childrenleave home, the married couple more likely has more discretionary income and are financially ableto afford more travel.Senior Citizen MarketA major trend is the growth of the over-65 senior citizen market and the semi-senior citizen market– that is, those over 55 years old. Dubbed as the mature market, senior market, retirement market orelderly market. It is an important and growing market.IncomeBuying power is another factor for the tourism manager to consider. There is no question that alarge and increasing percentage of the population today has sufficient discretionary income tofinance business and pleasure travel, although some families may be limited to inexpensive trips.The frequency of travel and the magnitude of travel expenditures increase rapidly as incomeincreases. The greater the income, the more likely a household will travel.EducationAnother factor is education, because it tends to broaden people’s interests and thus stimulate travel.People with college education take more pleasure trips than do those with high school educations,and so on. Educators are forecasting continued increased in the average educational level, whichwould result in a continued positive impact on pleasure travel. Education is closely correlated withincome and occupation, so the rising level of education should help to increase the demand fortravel. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 46. Special Interest TourismTravel and the HandicappedThis group constitutes an excellent potential market for travel if the facilities and arrangements aresuitable for their use and enjoyment. The high percentage of disabled persons creates a substantialpotential for emergency situations, and the planning and management of travel equipment andfacilities must aim for a major reduction or elimination of such possibilities.The number of nights away from home differed considerably between those traveling withhandicapped persons and those without. Many households reported little difficulty in usingaccommodations, because of careful planning before making the trip. The majority of difficultiesencountered seemed to be at recreational facilities.The appeal of special interest tourismDemographics and psychographics types Demographics PsychographicsDemographics are the characteristics of a human Psychographics are any attributes relating topopulation, commonly used data are sex, race, personality, values, attitudes, interests or lifestylesage, income, disabilities, mobility (in terms of– also called IAO variables (interest, attitude,travel time to work or number of vehiclesopinion).available), educational attainment, homeownership, employment status and even location. For example, historical generations are defined byDistributions of values within demographic psychographic variables like attitudes, personalityvariables, and across households, are both offormation, and cultural touchstones.interest, as well as trends over time. When a relatively complete profile of a person orFrequently used in economic and marketing group’s psychographics make-up is constructed,research. this is called as psychographic profile.Demographics trends describe the changes inPsychographic profiles are used in marketdemographics in a population over time i.e. the segmentation as well as in advertising.average age of a population may increase ordecrease over time. Certain restrictions may beSome categories of psychographic factors used inset in place i.e. the one child policy in China market segmentation include: • Activity, Interest, Opinion (AIO)A demographic profile provides enough • Attitudesinformation about the typical member of this • Valuesgroup to create a mental picture of thishypothetical aggregate.VAL’s lifestyle modelThe acronym VALS, (for, Values; Attitudes and Lifestyles) is a psychographic segmentation.VALS places US adult consumers into one of eight segments based on their responses to the VALSquestionnaire. The main dimensions of the segmentation framework are primary motivation (thehorizontal dimension) and resources (the vertical dimension).The VALS approach is derived from a theoretical base in Maslow’s work (1954) – it has since beenreworked to enhance its ability to predict consumer behavior. Segmentation research based on ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 47. Special Interest TourismVALS is a product of SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. According to the VALS Framework,groups of people are arranged in a rectangle and are based on two dimensions.The vertical dimension segments people based on the degree to which they are innovative and haveresources such as income, education, self-confidence, intelligence, leadership skills and energy.The horizontal dimension represents primary motivations and includes three (3) distinct types: • Consumer driven by knowledge and principles are motivated primary by ideals – include groups called Thinkers and Believers • Consumer driven by demonstrating success to their peers are motivated primarily by achievement – these consumers include groups referred to as Achievers and Strivers • Consumers driven by a desire for social or physical activity, variety and risk-taking are motivated primarily by self-expression – include the groups known as Experiences and MakersAt the top of the rectangle are the Innovators, who have such high resources that they could haveany of the three primary motivations. At the bottom are the Survivors, who live complacently andwithin their means without a strong primary motivation of the types listed above. The VALSFramework gives more details about each of the eight groups.VALS Framework INNOVATORS HIGH RESOURCES HIGH INNOVATION PRIMARY MOTIVATION IDEALS ACHIEVEMENT SELF-EXPRESSION THINKERS ACHIEVERS EXPERIENCES BELIEVERS STRIVERS MAKERS LOW RESOURCES LOW INNOVATION SURVIVORS  Innovators – sophisticated, high self-esteem, upscale and image is important  Thinkers – conservative, practical, income allows many choices, look for value ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. Special Interest Tourism  Achievers – goal-oriented lifestyle, image is very important  Experiences – like ‘cool stuff’, like excitement and variety, spend a high proportion of income on fashion  Believers – conservative, like familiar and established brands  Strivers – trendy and fun loving, money defines success, concerned about the opinion of others  Makers – practical people, do it yourself, unimpressed by material possessions, prefer value to luxury  Survivors – few resources, buy at a discount, very modest market, little motivation to buy UNIT 6: SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS Chapter objectives • Define and outline visitor use planning in terms of establishing carrying capacity • Understand about risk management concept, it’s process and insurance as the most used risk management method • Discuss and differentiate on cultural and education awareness, and its impacts towards SIT • Explore on logistics and related services that may affect SITVisitor use planningThe major objectives in visitor use planning are that: • Visitors have ample opportunity to enjoy, appreciate and understand the attraction features • Visitor use does not reach a level that result in excessive congestion • Visitor use does not result in environmental degradation of the feature • Residents of the area are not preempted from visiting and enjoying their own attractionsTechniques employed to cope with the increasing number of visitors while still providing aninteresting touristic experience include: • Audio-visual briefing in a large information center with regulated flows of visitors • Banning of private cars • Restriction on group bus tours • Live entertainment provided • Continuing expansionEstablishing carrying capacityCarrying capacity is the maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptabledecline in the quality of experienced gained by visitors - Without an unacceptable adverse impacton the society, economy and culture of the tourism area.Establishing carrying capacities is based on the concept of maintaining a level of development anduse that will not result in environmental or socio-cultural deterioration or be perceived by tourists asdepreciating their enjoyment and appreciation of the area. Carrying capacities need to be establishedgenerally for the planning area and calculated more precisely for each development site. Carryingcapacities can be established for both undeveloped tourism places and those that are alreadydeveloped and perhaps even reaching or exceeding their saturation levels ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 49. Special Interest TourismMeasurement Criteria of Carrying CapacityIn determining carrying capacity, the two aspects to be considered are: • The indigenous physical and socio-economic environment • The tourism image and tourist productWith respect to the indigenous environment, the criteria for determining optimum capacity levelsinclude the following: • Physical • Economic • Socio-cultural • Infrastructure Determining optimum capacity levels Determining carrying capacities relative to tourism image or visitor satisfaction levels Physical • Acceptable levels of visual impact and • Overall cleanliness and lack of pollution congestion of the destination environment • Point at which ecological systems are • Lack of undue congestion of the maintained before damage occurs destination environment • Conservation of wildlife and natural • Attractiveness of the landscape or vegetation of both the land and marine townscape environments • Maintenance of the ecological systems and • Acceptable levels of water, air and noise flora and fauna of natural attraction pollution features Economic • Extent of tourism that provides optimum • Cost of the holiday and value for money overall economics benefit • Level of tourism employment suited to the local community Socio-cultural • Extent of tourism development that can be • Intrinsic interest of the indigenous absorbed without detriment to the socio- community and cultures cultural lifestyles and activities of the • Quality of local arts, handicrafts, cuisine community and cultural performances • Level of tourism that will help maintain • Friendliness of residents cultural monuments, arts, crafts, belief systems, customs and traditions without detrimental effects Infrastructure • Adequate availability of transportation • Acceptable standards of transportation facilities and services facilities and services • Adequate availability of utility services • Acceptable standards of utility services • Adequate availability of other community • Acceptable standards of other facilities facilities and services and servicesRisk management ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 50. Special Interest TourismRisk management can be defined as “a strategic process that will protect the assets and ensure thefinancial stability of an organization from the consequences of competitive business decision”.Risk management will: • Reduce uncertainty and the potential for accidental or unanticipated loss • Provide the basis for maximizing opportunity • Risk management is a core skill for any business and most effective when it is promoted at the senior management level and practiced throughout the organizationRisk management mission statement: • Outlines the overall philosophy and dedication of the company towards risk management and its implementation • Usually a one-page document that is posted prominently where employees will see it and where it will be a constant reminder of its importanceAn effective risk-management program has the following basic elements: • Senior management and board directors are committed to a broad-based, strategic risk management process, and must be practiced at all levels of the organization • Written risk management policies and procedures must be established for the most prominent risks, with specific objectives and targets • There are clearly defined roles and responsibilities for managing and controlling risks • Performance evaluations include specific risk management objectives to ensure accountability • Adequate resources and tools are allocated to ensure goals and objectives can be met • Ongoing employee training is essential • There are testing and monitoring of all programs and procedures, particularly emergency and business recovery plans, with continual improvement as the goal • Regular reports include independent audits prepared for senior management and board directors. These reports concise information regarding the status, including deficiencies, of all risk management programs.Risk management process Risk Management Process Key Components1. Risk Identification • Knowledge of exposures through on-site inspections, discussions with management/staff • Review of products, services, processes and contracts • Review of historical activities and losses • Identification of possible risk scenarios2. Risk Analysis • Loss frequency and severity • Probability of occurrence • Maximum possible loss • Maximum probable loss • Consequences of loss • Possible impact on each stakeholder • Public perception ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 51. Special Interest Tourism3. Risk Control • Due diligence process • Occupational health and safety standards • Environmental standards • Fire protection engineering • Crisis and emergency plans • Business recovery plans • Claims and litigation management • Risk communication • Continual monitoring, audits4. Risk Treatment • Contractual transfer • Risk retention/deductibles • Insurance/self-insurance/no insurance • Alternative risk financingBenefit for risk management programs: • Effective strategic planning • Better cost control • Enhance stakeholder value • Increase knowledge and understanding risks to systematic, well-informed and thorough method of decision making minimize disruptions • Better utilized resources • Strengthening culture for continued improvement • Creating the best practice and quality organizationInsuranceInsurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of uncertain lossand can be defined as “the equitable transfer of the risk of loss, from one entity to another, inexchange for payment”.Insurance is an integral part of the risk management process.The insurance plan will determine: • Which assets and hazards to the business will be insured • How mush of the assets and hazards will be covered through an insurance policy and how much will be self-insured (covered by the business itself) • The type of insurance needed for visitors of a particular destination are depends on the level of danger and activities involvedFor example, outdoor tourism operators might have to purchase insurance because; • The nature of the activities – because of the risks of injury to participants associated with many of the outdoor tourism experiences, and because of the legal avenues and remedies available to participants, it is not reasonable to expect business owners and operators to assume such risks without insurance • Access to land – many land managers require operators to carry insurance as part of their contractual land access agreement o permit systems. This is often the case when operating in municipal, provincial and national parks, as well as on Crown and private island • Industry partners – trade partners such as wholesalers, travel agencies and tour operators often require insurance ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 52. Special Interest Tourism • Protection of business and assets – many outdoor tourism operators have accumulated significant assets and equity. The physical and financial assets must be protected through property and liability insurance • Protection of employees – insurance does not cover injuries or death caused to employees themselves. This is covered by workers compensation benefits. Insurance will indirectly provide coverage to employees through the liability insurance coverage.Loss exposure by the organization can be divided into three (3) elements: Items subject to loss Potential cause of the loss Financial consequences of loss • Physical assets – tangible • Human causes – loss • What will be the financial property like buildings, caused by human consequence in the event equipment, merchandise, behavior such as of the loss of a physical etc vandalism, arson or theft. asset, the loss of revenue • Loss of use of physical In outdoor tourism, this because of the loss of a assets – physical assets also refers to mistakes physical asset, a lawsuit, damaged or destroyed to made by a guide or the loss of key the point of loss of use. • Natural causes – loss personnel? How much Such damaged may result caused by natural forces money will be lost if a in the operator incurring such as weather, natural lodge damaged by a fire a loss of revenue avalanches, tornados, can only be rebuilt in the • Legal liabilities – the hail, rock fall, etc spring? threat of lawsuits because • Economic causes – loss • When dealing with of negligence or breach caused by increased physical assets, it is of contract. This is one of competition, changes in important to calculate the the more common risks currency rates, a financial consequences in outdoor tourism downturn in the based on the replacement • Personal health and economy, changes in cost of those assets rather earning capacity – consumer tastes and than the original purchase owner/operator or a key behavior, etc. these price, the book value, or employee/guide becomes events are generally not the market value unable to work because insurable of the injury, illness or death. Part of this risk could be covered by a personal accident insuranceWhat insurance cannot do…? • Insurance will not make activities safer and will neither reduce the possibility of, nor stop incidents from happening • Insurance usually part of the post-incident component of the risk management process • Insurance is also part of the recovery process of a business • Recovery refers to how a business will recover and survive after a catastrophic event such as fatality, a large lawsuit, or a fire that burned the lodge to the ground • Insurance might play a major part of the recovery process, but it will not save a business’ reputation • Insurance does not ensure a business’ post-disaster survival ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 53. Special Interest TourismCultural awareness and educationCultural awareness and sensitivityDefinition and dimensionsCulture relates to the norms, values and beliefs that influence and shape individuals, businesses anddestinations – it is a strong determinant of behavior. Culture influences every aspect of our lives andoften people are unaware of why they do and see things in a particular way.One of the biggest problems in the customer service exchange within the tourism industry is thecommon assumption that everyone has the same needs, expectations and behavioral patterns, whenin fact the actions and reactions of people are a result of their cultural conditioning and thereforemay differ. It is therefore, important for tourism businesses to identify the specific culturalcomponents relevant to their organization, their market and their product/service offering.Cultural SensitivityTour managers need to develop an informed sensitivity to foreign cultural differences. It isimportant for those who are dealing with inbound foreign group or escort tours outbound to othercountries. Cultural knowledge smooth interactions with foreign nationals and help adjustexpectation and provides a rich topic for tour narration.Two (2) terms that we have to be aware in cultural sensitivity: • Ethnocentrism – beliefs that one’s own nationality or ethnic group is superior to all others. i.e. British, American, Jewish • Stereotyping – tendency to belief that an unvarying pattern or manner marks all members of a group (as opposed to statements that may apply to some members of each ethnic group, but do not apply to all of its members). I.e. aborigine people are not educated, Japanese can’t speak English, and Muslim is terrorists.Establishing the link between tourism and cultureIt is often the search for a cultural exchange that is an inherent part of the motivation for the touristto travel. The first step to meeting customer expectations is to ascertain and understand them.Understanding the needs and expectations of the consumer and designing products and services tomeet these is relatively straightforward concept, but it is also vital to consider the factors of culturalbackground and conditioning.Customer loyalty is often affected by the perception of the level of service provision – affect theirrepeat purchase decision. Service quality perception and satisfaction is affected by a person’scultural background. Therefore, tourism businesses should be aware of important culturalcharacteristics, including values, attitudes, language, etiquette, customs and manners. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 54. Special Interest TourismMastery of the person’s language is not required, but trying to learn just a few simple words andacknowledging customs can make a big difference to their level of enjoyment and subsequentsatisfaction. Learning about customers and their values, beliefs and motivations helps to understandtheir responses and ultimately to better interpret their requirements.Another aspect of culture is body language and whilst subtle, it is easily possible to offend throughinappropriate (albeit inadvertent) gestures that demonstrate a lack of respect and subsequentlyundermine the business relationship.The National Centre for Languages stresses the requirement for cultural skills in business,specifically the tourism industry, indicating that cultural and language skills are beneficial for,amongst others, hotel reception, tourist attraction and restaurant staff, in welcoming guests, dealingwith enquiries, taking bookings and guiding visitors.Importance of culture to tourism businessesThere are a number of compelling reasons for those working in tourism to pay attention to culturalawareness: • Cultural awareness matters to all stakeholders in the tourism industry, both the tourists themselves and the service providers. • For tourists, understanding the culture of the destinations visited is likely to enhance their experience and increase their enjoyment, whereas a lack of understanding has the opposite effect. • Culture conditions people to abide by certain norms and expectations, and if the hosts fail to recognize these, it makes for a less positive experience. • Employees should be culturally aware in order to provide effective customer care that meets the needs, and exceeds the expectations of customers. • From a business perspective, the industry decision makers need to have an understanding of diverse cultures as they are responsible for making decisions or formulating policy affecting culturally diverse tourists – ultimately affect income generation and competitiveness that will impact upon long-time survival.Culturally appropriate products and services and their benefitsRecognition of cultural diversity is one way in which tourism businesses can achieve this: 1. Adaptations that appeal to British tourists Briton tends to have certain expectations of the accommodation product and often this reflected in their perceptions of quality. They also stereotypically enjoy the consumption of tea whilst abroad. 2. Importance of symbolism in the tourism offer From an aesthetic perspective, it is important for an organization to recognize the importance of symbolism within certain cultures. Problems may be caused when symbolic values are incorrectly interpreted. Furthermore, advertising must also be considered from a cultural perspective, as symbol commonly used in one culture and incorporated into product marketing, may be considered inappropriate in another. 3. Concept of time and impact on visits ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 55. Special Interest Tourism The concept and perception of time varies across cultures. In western cultures, time is viewed as a finite resource, one that is constantly depleting. Eastern cultures have the opposite perspective, that time are an infinite resource and are therefore unlimitedIssues when trying to adapt to cultural normsWeiermair outlines a number of specific issues and implications facing tourism businesses anddestinations regarding the extent to which cultural norms should be considered: • Should destinations offering local tourism activities include activities widely considered to be global cultural norms, such as theme parks or Disney style development? • Should local food become internationalized to suit other cultures? • Should tourism employees interact with culturally diverse customers in a professional manner or in a manner based on local tradition? • Should cultural goods and heritage be managed, modernized and marketed to appeal to an international audience or should they be preserved in their original manner and presented through museum type products and services?In any case, answer would depend on both the business and the destination in question, it is clearthat these are important considerations for tourism organizationsEducationEducation can be defined as “any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind,character or physical ability of an individual”.In its technical sense, education is “the process by which society deliberately transmits itsaccumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another”.Teachers in educational institutions direct the education of students and might draw on manysubjects, including reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. There is also education infields for those who want specific vocational skills, such as those required to be a pilot. In addition,there is an array of education possible at the informal level, such as in museums and libraries, withInternet and in-life experience.Systems of formal educationThe right to education has been established as a basic human right: since 1952, Article 2 of the firstProtocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee theright to education.At world level, the United Nations’ International Covenant on Economic, Social and CulturalRights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13. Education is a concept, referring to theprocess in which students can learn something: • Instruction refers to the facilitating of learning toward identified objectives, delivered either by an instructor or other forms • Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor designed to impart learning to the student ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 56. Special Interest Tourism • Learning refers to learning with a view toward preparing learners with specific knowledge, skills or abilities that can be applied immediately upon completionTypes of education 1. Primary education Primary (elementary) education consists of the first 5-7 years of formal, structured education. In general, main education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. 2. Secondary education Comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, “post-secondary”, or higher education (i.e. university, vocational school for adults). The purpose can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. 3. Higher education Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage or post secondary education, is the non- compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a secondary school. Normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities. 4. Adult education It takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning and e-learning. A number of career specific courses are now available to students through Internet. 5. Alternative education Also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education. This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs, but also form of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods. 6. Indigenous education Increasingly, the inclusion of indigenous models of education (method and content) as an alternative within the scope of formal and non-formal education systems has come to represent a significant factor contributing to the success of those members of indigenous communities who choose to access these systems, both as students/ learners and as teachers/instructors. The inclusion of indigenous ways of knowing, learning, instructing, teaching, and training is important in ensuring that students and teachers are able to benefit from education in a ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 57. Special Interest Tourism culturally sensitive manner that draws upon, utilizes, promotes and enhances awareness of indigenous tradition. Enhances educational effectiveness, success and learning outcomes by providing education that adheres to their own inherent perspectives, experiences and worldview. Effect of raising the awareness of the individual traditions and collective experience of surrounding indigenous communities and peoples, thereby promoting greater respect for and appreciation of the cultural realities of these communities and peoples.Logistics and related servicesLogisticsLogistics can be defined as “the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficientand effective flow of goods, services and related information from one point of origin to point ofconsumption in order to meet customer requirements”.Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, materialhandling, packaging and occasionally securityTransportationLinks the various destinations and ferries people, goods and services – tourism is all about travel;and the role of transportation in its operation is vital. It is largely due to the improvement oftransportation that tourism has expanded. The advent of flight has shrunk the world, and the motorvehicle has made travel to anywhere possible.Transportation system of a tourist destination has an impact on the tourism experience whichexplains how people travel and why they choose different forms of holiday, destination andtransport. Access to tourist sites varies according to the nature of the site, the state of infrastructure,and the efficiency of the public transport system.As in increasing of the awareness of environmentally sectors, the transportation offered in suchdestinations are changes to more environmental-friendly, producing minimal greenhouse gasses (i.e.trishaw, bicycle, horse). Such approaches called green logistics.Passenger transportation structure ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 58. Special Interest Tourism TRANSPORTATION Air Road Rail Water Other Bus Inland Auto Maritime Motor Bike Vehicles Used forAccessThe objective of access management is to enable access to land uses while maintaining mobility androadway safety through controlling access location, design, spacing, and operation. Themanagement of destination accessibility to the extent of land, air, as well as water areas which areutilize for visitors to enter the destination.The control of accessibility and mobility to and within a tourism destination is one of the mostimportant management tools to regulate flows, reduce traffic congestion and pollution and meettourists’ and residents’ requirements. A destination is in many respects defined by its ability toprovide appropriate visitor access into a destination and dispersal throughout the destination.The dispersal of visitors throughout a region can provide economic and social benefits includingimproved services to the host community. Development of appropriate access for visitors to andwithin a destination includes considerations of a number of key factors.Determinants in developing appropriate access in a destination: 1. Understanding visitor demand Determining the need for investment in transport and access facilities should be based on an assessment of the size and growth of both residents and visitor markets, including demand for transport types of these segments. A destination focus on attracting a combination of visitor markets will need to plan a variety of transport options. 2. Consideration of the planning environment Planning for the long-term transport and access infrastructure for a destination needs to take into consideration a destination’s geographical location, community needs and values, legal restrictions and investment potential, as well as the potential ecological, economic and social impacts of development. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 59. Special Interest Tourism 3. Ensuring transport connectivity Visitors can use a wide range of different transport types during their trip. Ensuring linkages and connectivity between transport options is important in providing a destination that is easy to reach but also easy to travel within. Connectivity between visitor attraction in terms of access routes and transport option can also influence a visitor’s initial destination choice, length of stay and overall satisfaction.VisaVisa is an indication that a person is authorized to enter particular countries which issue the visa –subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry. A visa does notgenerally give a non-citizen any rights, including a right to enter a country thus remain there.The possession of visa is not itself a guarantee of entry into the country which issue it and the visacan be revoked at any time. The visa process merely enables the host country to verify the identityof the visa applicant before the entry of the applicant. Special permit may also be required, such asresidency permit or work permit.In planning and managing a particular destination, it is crucial to understand visa requirement forboth employees and visitors towards the destination.Types of visa Types of visa ExplanationTransit visa Usually valid for 5 days or less, for passing through the country to a third destination.Tourist visa For a limited period of leisure travel, no business activities allowed. Some countries do not issue tourist visa.Business visa For engaging in commerce in the country. These visas generally preclude permanent employment, for which a work visa would be required.Temporary worker visa For approved employment in the host country. These are generally more difficult to obtain but valid for longer periods of time than business visa.On-arrival visa Granted at a port of entry. This is distinct from not requiring a visa at all, as the visitor must still obtain the visa before they can even try to pass through the immigration.Spousal visa Or partner visa, granted to the spouse, civil partner or de facto partner of a resident or citizen of a given country, in order to enable the couple to settle in that country.Student visa This allows its holder to study at an institution of higher learning in the issuing country.Diplomatic visa Sometimes called official visa, is normally only available to bearers of diplomatic passportsWorking holiday visa For individual traveling between nations offering a working holiday program, allowing young people to undertake temporary work while traveling.Courtesy visa Issues to representative of foreign governments or international organizations who do not qualify for diplomatic status but do merit expedited, courteous treatment.Journalist visa Which some countries require of people in that occupation when traveling for their respective news organizations. i.e. Cuba, North Korea, US. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 60. Special Interest TourismMarriage visa Granted for a limited period prior to intended marriage or civil partnership based on a proven relationship with a citizen of the destination country.Immigrant visa Granted for those intending to immigrate to the issuing country. They usually are issued for a single journey as the holder will, depending on the country, later be issued a permanent resident identification card which will allow the traveler to enter to the issuing country an unlimited number of times.Pensioner visa Also known as retiree visa or retirement visa, issued by a limited number of countries (Australia, Argentina, Thailand, etc), to those who can demonstrate a foreign source of income and who do not intend to work in the issuing country. Age limits apply in some cases.Special category visa Is a type of Australian visa granted to most New Zealand citizens on arrival in Australia. New Zealand citizens may then permanently reside in Australia under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.Electronic visa The visa is applied e.g. over the Internet and stored in a computer and is tied to the passport number.ID Card Introduced by the UK on 25 November 2008, will replace the visa stickers in foreigners’ passports over a gradual period.Entry and duration periodVisas can also be: • single-entry which means the visa is cancelled as soon as the holder leaves the country; • double-entry, or multiple-entry which permits double or multiple entries into the country with the same visaCountries may also issue re-entry permits that allow temporarily leaving the country withoutinvalidating the visa. The validity of a visa is not the same as the authorized period of stay in theissuing country – the visa validity usually indicates the time period when entry is permitted into thecountry.Once in the country, the validity period of a visa or authorized stay can often be extended for a feeat the discretion of immigration authorities. Overstaying a period of authorized stay is consideredillegal immigration. Entering a country without a valid visa or visa exemption may result indetention and removal (deportation or exclusion) from the country.Undertaking activities that are not authorized by the status of entry can result in the individual beingdeemed deportable.Visa extensionsMany countries have the mechanism to allow the holder of a visa to apply to extend a visa. Incertain circumstances, it is not possible for the holder of the visa to do this, either because thecountry does not have the mechanism to prolong visas or, most likely, because the holder of the visais using a short stay visa to live in a country. Some countries also may have limits as to how longone can spend in the country without a visa, further creating a barrier to visa runs.Exit visas ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 61. Special Interest TourismSome countries have a requirement that an individual obtain an exit visa (i.e. permit) to leave thecountry. This happens mostly in countries where there is political, economic or social turmoil thatresults in an increased rise in emigration. Sometimes this requirement also applies to foreignnationals. The exit visa can also be withheld if there are pending court charges that need to besettled or penalties that have to be meted out.Visa refusalA visa may be denied for a number of reasons, some of which being that the applicant: • Has committed fraud or misrepresentation in his or her application • Has a criminal record or has criminal charges pending • Is considered to be security risks • Cannot prove to have strong ties to the current country of residence • Intends to reside or work permanently in the country she/he will visit if not applying for an immigrant or work visa respectively • Does not have a legitimate reason for the journey • Has no visible means of sustenance • Does not have travel arrangement (i.e. transport and lodging) in the destination country • Does not have a health/travel insurance valid for the destination and the duration of stay • Does not have a good moral character • Is applying on excessively short notice • Is a citizen of a country with whom the host country has poor or non-existent relations • Has previous visa/immigration violations • Has a communicable diseaseAccommodationAccommodation is one of the important elements in tourism industry - Also known as lodging, is adwelling or place of temporary residence.People who travel and stay away from home for more than a day need a place to sleep, rest, shelterfrom weather and wild, storage of luggage and access to common household functions such ascooking . However, the term accommodation is not limit to the concrete building (i.e. hotel, motel,resort or hostel), it is also covers in a wild nature area which is campsite (i.e. in a tent, caravan).Whatever the type of hotel or service accommodation and wherever its location, it should: ACCOMMODATIONS • Fit well with its surroundings, having regard to its sitting, scale, design, materials and landscaping • Be in Non commercialthe local environment harmony with Commercial • Must be continuously maintain and renovate as to harmonize with the flow of tourist demand and trend (i.e. boutique hotel) Bed & Time-share Private Non profit Institutional Hotels MotelsAccommodation structure Breakfast Facilities Chains Independent ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 62. Special Interest Tourism Foodservice Like the lodging industry, food service also one of the important elements in tourism industry. Travelers, including foreign visitors, spend more money on food than anything else except transportation, and travelers account for about one-third of the total sales in the food service industry. The food service consists of restaurants, travel food service and vending and contract institutional food service. Over the past two decade, the food and beverage business has grown at a phenomenal rate. New concept and trends in the business include the ethnic restaurants, especially those with an oriental or Mexican flavor; increased demand for health foods, fish, local produce and regional dishes; and variety in portion sizes. Today, with the introduction of gastronomical tourism (or food tourism), the food and beverage business is expected to increase more. Food services structure FOOD SERVICES Fast Food Traditional Cafeterias Restaurants RestaurantsIndependent Chain Independent In-hotel Minimal Specialty Specialty Specialty Service Ethnic Full Broad Menu Local Service Local ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 63. Special Interest Tourism UNIT 7: SPECIALIST PROVIDER FOR SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM Chapter objectives • Identify the specialist providers for SIT and outline their roles and responsibilities • Explore the roles and responsibilities of different tour operator organizations • Explain and differentiate the tour operators products/services: package holidays and non- package holidaysSpecialist tourism providersSpecialist tour operators now organize such packages for those groups which can be taken to themost appropriate location in the world.Specialist operators fall into six (6) categories: 1. Those for specific groups, for example Club 18-30 for young people who want a fun and exciting holiday, SAGA Holidays for senior citizen who may want a coach tour or a winter break in the sun 2. Tours to specific destinations e.g. Australia, the Far East 3. Those taking people to exotic and exclusive places e.g. safari in Kenya, sightseeing in China 4. Those who provide specific accommodation as part of the package e.g. villa in Spain, a caravan at the seaside, a camping holiday in the south of France 5. Those who have a specific transport as part of the tour and as part of the attraction e.g. flight on Concorde, a journey on the Orient Express, a cruise down the Nile 6. Specialist interest operators e.g. wine-tasting in Bordeaux, hang-gliding in Wales, train- spotting in India ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 64. Special Interest TourismUnlike wholesalers, specialist tour operators bypass the traditional sales avenue through travelagents and sell directly to customers. The overwhelming majority of companies sold their productsboth directly and via travel agents. A number of operators who use both marketing approachesindicated that the overwhelming proportion of their sales result from direct contact with theircustomers.Direct marketing is attractive to them because they can reduce their costs considerably by notpaying commissions to travel agents. The majority of specialist tours are sophisticated travelers whoare willing to avoid travel agents, most of whom only sell conventional tour packages. The clientsof specialist tour operators fit the profile of allocentric travelers and most have already hadconsiderable travel experiences – who seek experiences in specific out-of-the-ordinary destinations.Importantly, travel specialist display considerable loyalty towards the destinations they market.After all, their entire business depends on specialized tours to a narrow range of destinations, andwhile they have the ability to construct custom holidays for individual travelers, they cannot easilysubstitute their destinations. They seek resorts which cater for their particular market niche and suchresorts may be a limited proportion of any destination area opportunity set.Resorts of varying size are usually included in the company opportunity set because mass touroperators in particular need to be represented in all of the most popular/fashionable resorts: but theyalso include one or two resorts in a destination area which are unique to that tour operator. Sometour operators, especially the specialist ones have endeavored to develop products which minimizethe negative socio-economic benefits for the host community. A number of destinations have alsosought to attract more sustainable forms of tourism that minimize the cost and maximize thebenefits of tourism for the local population.Conversely, a number of small specialist tour operators, run by individual entrepreneurs, appear tobe embracing sustainable tourism as a core element of their business. They try to attract customersthrough their contention that their product and operations are complementary with the ideas ofsustainable tourism, such as being small-scale and encouraging contact with the local people.It could be argued that for those small operators, which focus on a narrow niche market, theemphasis on sustainable tourism helps them to differentiate themselves from the large mass marketoperators, with which they cannot compete on priceTour operatorsA tour operator typically combines tour and travel components to create a holiday - Also known astour wholesaler, puts together a tour and all of its components and sells the tour through his/her owncompany, retail outlets, and /or approved retail agencies.They can offer vacation packages to the traveling public at prices lower than an individual travelercan arrange because tour wholesaler can buy services in large quantities at discounted prices. Tourwholesaling businesses are usually one of four kinds: • The independent tour wholesaler • The airline working in close cooperation with a tour wholesaling business • The retail travel agent who packages tours for its client • The operator of motorcoach toursCharacteristics of the tour operating industry ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 65. Special Interest TourismConcentration and integration:The package holiday market is dominated by a very small number of internationally operating touroperators. The main trends in the industry are economies of scale, horizontal and verticalintegration.Through these strategies, tour-operators can achieve considerable buying power and control overtheir suppliers, as well as the distribution of their products. Horizontal integration refers to asituation when companies join together with the aim to remove competition, to increase economiesof scale, and to increase purchasing power. Horizontal integration comprises mergers at the samelevel in the tourism distribution or supply chain, i.e. mergers between different tour operatingcompanies.Vertical integration implies the take-over or formation of businesses at different levels of the supplyor distribution chain. For a tour operator this means investment into either suppliers throughbackward integration (e.g. accommodation, transport) and/or forward integration (e.g. travelagents).The main advantages are control over supplies in terms of quality, availability, access and price, andthe ability to reach consumers.Vertical integration is a significant feature among the leading tour operators and has drasticallyincreased in recent years. The four largest UK operators all own charter airlines, accommodation,ground-handlers and travel agents.Specialization:Intense integration practices have also led to increased specialization and the development of nicheoperators and niche products. Small and medium size operators have to compete with larger,integrated companies.As vertically integrated operators capture a large proportion of mainstream package holidays,independent operators (also sometimes vertically integrated) increasingly focus on specialization.Independent tour operators compete by providing high quality, specialist and tailor-made services,which is responding to the trend that holidaymakers are becoming more discerning about theholidays that they take.They often specialize in geographical areas or activities.The Differences between Mainstream and Niche (Independent) Tour Operators ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 66. Special Interest TourismTour Operators Commercial ObjectivesAs for any company, the commercial objective of tour operators is profit maximization. A keyfeature of the mainstream operators are very low profit margins (on average 2-3% of the totalrevenue after all expenditures are paid), and thus the large companies focus on increasing market-share, i.e. increasing the volume of passengers carried, by selling on price and serving an extremelyprice sensitive market.Mainstream tour operators seek to maximize profits in three ways: 1. Minimize costs of the packages that they put together through bulk buying, owning suppliers, providing a basic product, i.e. accommodation and transport, while additional services are being sold as add-ons (e.g. excursions), and extremely tight yield-management 2. Maximize revenue by maximizing the volume of sales to make up for low profit margins and price sensitivity of the mainstream market. Given the relatively fixed costs of operating in a destination and a perishable product, avoiding being left with unsold packages is essential, even if this means selling under cost price – i.e. a concentration on bums-on-seats. 3. Pricing strategies are an essential tool for tour operators in the UK but price increases can only be used in a very limited way, within this very competitive and price sensitive market. Pricing strategies, i.e. discounts, are used to lure consumers into shops and to persuade them ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 67. Special Interest Tourism to buy early, thus allowing tour operators to get rid of excess capacity as early as possible and to earn interest on deposits made on holidays to be taken months later.Influence of Large Tour OperatorsBy the nature of their role and the sheer volume of their operation, large tour operators influencemany aspects of tourism development and impact: 1. Image creation: Given the fact that selling a tourism product depends largely on imagery, the marketing and distribution channels that bring customers and suppliers together play a crucial role. The image of the product is created by the tour operators’ promotional activity at home in generating areas, frequently with very limited destination input. 2. Customer demand: tour operators have direct access to the clientele. As the bulk of package holidays are sold through travel agents belonging to vertically integrated tour operators, they are providing the images, information and options upon which customer awareness, demand, and buying behavior are based. This enables them to open new destinations and grow them rapidly. 3. Product price: With many destinations offering a similar product and being marketed in a similar way, price is a major decision making factor for consumers. Package holidays are often deliberately priced low in order to generate high demand. 4. Size, path and type of tourism: The major benefit provided by mainstream tour operators to developing countries is that they can significantly increase the volume of tourist arrivals, ideally leading to employment generation, export earnings and economic development. However, this also affects the nature of the destination. High volumes are achieved by providing low cost holidays through economies of scale, bulk-buying, and low input prices. The first element, high volumes, does not go without the other, low prices, and vice versa. However, there are trade-offs. High volumes of price-sensitive, low spending customer groups are not always the most appropriate. If tourism is developed to meet the needs of mainstream customers, it makes it more difficult to invest in more diverse areas and products, which may have greater involvement of poor and small-scale producers. 5. Government strategy in destination. Governments may rely on multinational companies to develop tourism in a particular destination, and in return offer financial incentives, assistance in terms of marketing, access to slots and routes for airlines, or commitments to fund infrastructure investments. 6. Contractual arrangements with suppliers: Tour operators are able to offer highly competitive prices to their customers because of their ability to bulk-buy supplies at low cost. For local suppliers (e.g. hoteliers, excursion providers), the high volume and relative security of contracts from tour operators is attractive. However, the need to secure these contracts and operate at low prices can make it difficult for local providers to invest in a differentiated product or allocate extra resources to commitments. The reliance of the larger operators and their local staff on earnings from excursion programs can create conflict with other suppliers – often poor producers – of sightseeing and activities. 7. Linkages and market opportunities for locally-provided services : there is little incentive for large tour operators to expand access for local entrepreneurs, where they are selling a standardized product in which security and familiarity are more important to the customer ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 68. Special Interest Tourism than local flavor. The EU Package Travel Directive further encourages operators to encourage their clients to use the operators’ own excursions and to stay within the confines of the products over which the originating market operators have control. Furthermore, tour operators often earn important revenue from their own sale of excursions, which would be undercut by promoting services sold by local businesses. 8. Leakage of expenditure: ‘Leakage’ refers to tourism payments that never reach the destination - because they pay for services of companies in the originating or other off-shore country – or those leave the destination to pay for imported goods. A general consensus has been that leakages are higher if integrated Northern tour-operators are involved rather than locally-owned enterprises. This relates to the fact that integrated companies frequently own the main elements of the package holiday, i.e. transport and accommodationSmall operators have a less dramatic influence on tourism volumes, but can still significantly affectthe path of development by putting a new area or new type of product on the map. Part of theirproduct appeal is frequently a destination focus and the inclusion of local products, and they are lesslikely to own downstream operations - Thus independent operators rely more on destination inputsand can provide important markets for local products.They are more focused on enhancing product quality rather than price competition, and can alsooften have a more balanced relationship with suppliers due to the product characteristics andvolumes generated.Tour operators’ organization/sThe two major tour operator associations in the US are the National Tour Association (NTA) andthe United States Tour Operators Association (USTOA). In Europe, it is the European TourOperators Association (ETOA). And in the UK, it is the Association of British Travel Agents(ABTA) and the Association of Independent Tour Operators (AITO).The primary association for receptive North American inbound tour operators is the ReceptiveServices Association of America. Meanwhile, in Malaysia, the tour operator’s organization thatwidely known is Malaysia Travel and Tour Association (MATTA).ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH TRAVEL AGENTS (ABTA)ABTA is the UK travel trade association for tour operators and travel agents. Previously known asAssociation of British Travel Agents, it name was changed on 1 July 2007 to ABTA, the TravelAssociation to reflect its wider representation of the travel industry. On 1 July 2008, it merged withthe Federation of Tour Operators.For more then 50 years, ABTA and its members have been helping holidaymakers to get the mostform their travel by working to high professional standards and offering choice, value and quality.Articles of AssociationThe Articles of Association set out in broad terms the rules of membership, including its joiningcriteria, Member’s rights and obligations, and its Account Rules (Article 10). The Account Rules ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 69. Special Interest Tourismset out the financial criteria that members must meet if they are conducting certain type of business.Their purpose is to help ensure that members are on a firm financial footing.Consumer ProtectionThere is no statutory for airlines providing flight-only or other companies providing anyaccommodation-only holidays to give consumer protection in unforeseen difficult circumstances.ABTA looks after consumer protection from the tour operator end of the contract.ABTA members protect themselves for consumer protection (unforeseen events) claims via theABTA Protection Plan. Unforeseen events have mainly included travel operators going intoadministration or liquidation.ABTA’s main aims are: • To maintain high standards of trading practice for the benefit of it’s members, the travel industry at large, and the consumers that they serve • To create as favorable a business climate as possible for its membersCode of ConductThe primary aims are: • To ensure that the public receive the best possible service from its members • To maintain and enhance the reputation, good name and standing of ABTA and its membersIt is essentially a guide to good practice. Consumers place their trust in ABTA because they canmake sure that their members adhere to the Code of Conduct. Each year, they report on the numberand nature of the Code breaches, and how they’ve been resolved.Enforcement and AppealThe Articles of Association and The Code of Conduct are subject to enforcement and appealprocedure. This underpins a comprehensive consumer complaints service, which includes access toindependent arbitration and meditation schemes. These services provide consumers withconfidence, as well as helping to save members considerable sums of money.ASSOCIATION OF INDEPENDENT TOUR OPERATORS (AITO)AITO is a British based travel trade organization that represents around 150 specialist andindependent tour operators. The organization is typically composed of outbound tour operators butrecently allowed domestic tour operators to join.Members operate to over 140 countries with activities spanning a range of interests includingadventure, city break, culture, fly drive, luxury, safaris and sports. AITO represents some ofBritain’s best specialist tour operators. Members are independent companies, most of them owner-managed, specializing in particular destinations or types of holidays.The common aim is to provide the highest level of customer satisfaction by concentrating on threemain pillars: Choice, Quality and Service, enshrined in the association’s Quality Charter. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 70. Special Interest TourismCompanies admitted to AITO are all vetted and fully bonded for client’s protection, in compliancewith UK and European regulations. They are also bound by AITO’s own Code of Business Practice.Sustainable TourismGreen tourism and responsible travel are key concerns for AITO and its members. Each potentialmember’s sustainable tourism credentials are examined before they may join, to ensuresustainability and that local cultures and the environment are treated with the utmost care andrespect.AITO members recognize that the destinations where they provide holidays are the life blood of theindustry, and they need to protect them with a responsible travel and sustainable policy. AITO is thefirst tourism industry association to incorporate into its business charter a commitment toResponsible Travel and Green Tourism.Sustainable guidelines for its members based upon five (5) key objectives: • To protect the environment – its flora, fauna and landscape • To respect local cultures – traditions, religions and built heritage • To benefit local communities – both economically and socially • To conserve natural resources – from office to destination • To minimize pollution – through noise, waste disposal and congestionNATIONAL TOUR ASSOCIATION (NTA)NTA is the primary group tour industry association in North America. Its membership includes: • Group tour operates, who package and sell group tours in the US, Canada and Mexico • Suppliers, whose businesses include hotels, attractions, restaurants, bus companies, airlines, passenger vessels, sight-seeing companies, destination marketing organizations and other travel and tour entitiesThe association provides marketing assistance, educational programs, governmental representationand communication for its membership and it annually produces the NTA Convention and Tour andTravel Exchange. This event offers the members the opportunity to conduct intensive businesssessions and attend education seminars that increase professionalism in the industry.NTA requires its members to adhere to a strict code of ethics that ensures proper business activitybetween individual members, for the ultimate good of the traveling public.UNITED STATES TOUR OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (USTOA)USTOA also represents the tour operators. The goals of USTOA are: • To ensure consumer protection and education • To inform the travel industry, the government agencies and the public about tour operators’ activities and objectives • To facilitate travel on a worldwide basisMembers must subscribe to the organization’s strict code of ethics. Members are required torepresent all information pertaining to tours, to maintain a high level of professionalism and to stateclearly all costs and facilities in advertising and promotional materials. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 71. Special Interest TourismMALAYSIA ASSOCIATION OF TRAVEL AND TOUR AGENTS (MATTA)The national association representing the travel and tour agencies in Malaysia - Non-GovernmentalOrganization and main objective is to serve the members and the tourism industry. MATTA boastsa membership of over 2,800 members, comprising local tour and travel organizations as well asnumerous overseas affiliations.It is also the national umbrella representative body for the entire travel industry in the country .MATTAs objective is to promote the interests of the travel and tour industry in Malaysia. MATTAworks closely with the Ministry of Tourism (Motour) as well as Malaysia Tourism PromotionBoard (MTPB), help organize fairs, seminars, convention and workshops both to create publicawareness of the tourism industry as well as to benefit its members.Objectives • To unite, supervise and coordinate the activities of the members. • To publicize, encourage, promote and extend the tourist and travel trade. • To adjudicate and settle any differences which may arise between members whenever its arbitration is requested by both parties concerned. • To develop friendship and common purpose among the members of the tourist and travel industry. • To make representations on behalf of members to Government and all organizations with which the Association has common interest. • To encourage the highest ethical standards of business conduct within the trade. • To study and promote the interest of the tourist and travel trade and profession and to educate the public regarding the function of tours and travel agents. • To discourage unfair competition without in any way interfering with initiative and enterprise based on fair trading.Tour operators’ products/servicesPackage holidaysPackage holiday consists of transport and accommodation advertised and sold together by a vendorknown as a tour operator. Other services may be provided like a rental car, activities or outingsduring the holiday. Transport can be via charter airline to a foreign country.Package holidays are a form of product bundling. Package holidays are organized by a tour operatorand sold to a consumer by a travel agent. Some travel agents are employees of tour operators, othersare independent.Non-package holidayNon-package holiday is where for example if you arrange your flight and accommodationseparately without combining any of these elements under the same service or companyPackaging a tourThe work involved in producing the package cam be divided into four (4) main stages: 1. Operations - Begin with planning, market research/enables the tour operators to determine which tour sells. Once the tour destination, approximate dates, the length of tour has been ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 72. Special Interest Tourism determined, the next stage is to negotiate with the supplier of transportation and ground services. 2. Costing - An accurate costing at the various components of the package tour is vital stage in the development of the tour – the package must be offered at an attractive price. 3. Brochures production - For distribution to travel agents and potential clients. Brochures will typically contain general information on the tour operator and its products. 4. Promotions - Media advertising is an effective promotion and includes advertising to travel industry professionals. Tour operators can use direct mailing and group sales representative to promote to the potential clients.Planning a TourThe tour company gathers information relative to each destination/s and/or combination ofdestinations and evaluates each element suppliers in terms of: • Quality of services • Price of services • Price/value relationship • Overall quality of destination • Time to spend in each destinationElements of a tour are: (1) Transportation, (2) lodging/accommodation, (3) dining, (4) sightseeing,(5) attractions and (6) shopping. The tour planner also considers any other criteria as determined bythe company.To deliver a product/service of consistently good quality to the customer, the tour company andsuppliers must work together in choosing destination to create the product/service itself with animage that is consistent to their expectation.Tour CostingCosting principles are simple: you must cover expenses and you should make a profit. Or else, youshould have a break even point: the minimum number of paying customers or the minimum amountof cost paid that the company should have in order not to lose money.Once all the elements of tours and quotations have been assembled, it is time to ascertain the cost ofoperating the tour and determine what your selling price will be.In any budgetary process, two (2) kinds of costs exist: • A fixed cost – the one that never changes, no matter how many people are on your tour. For example, a particular bus may cost RM 200 a day, no matter if twenty or forty people are on it • A variable cost – the one that changes according to how many people take your tour. For example, if it cost RM 5 per person to visit a mini museum, then you will have to spend RM 100 for twenty peopleBrochure Production ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 73. Special Interest TourismThe tour/vacation package brochure should be different from business package brochure. Inproducing and advertising the tour brochure, it usually depends on the available budget. To thebenefit of customers and travel company, a tour brochure needs to contain the following: • General information about the destination • Itineraries that are clearly laid out • Photographs, maps/diagrams to reinforce the information given • Departure/return dates and prices • Inclusions and exclusions • Booking terms and conditionsAdditional brochure contents include: • Identity or name of the facility and logo • Descriptive facts and illustration of the facilities/attractions • Unique selling features UNIT 8: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 74. Special Interest Tourism SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM’S PROSPECTS Chapter objectives • Outline the relationship between tourism and environment in aspect of the positive and negative impacts of tourism towards the environment • Discuss about the perspective on different types of socioeconomic impacts and host and guest relationship • Measuring economic cost and benefits, as well as identifying the different types of economic impacts measurement • Explore on SIT future: the role of Internet and professional travel agents, as well as travel trends and predictionsRelationship between tourism and the environmentIn its broadest definition, environment comprises all the natural and cultural surroundings of people.In this topic, environment refers to the physical environment, which includes natural and builtcomponents. The natural environment is what exists in nature – climate and weather, the land andits soil and topography, geology, water features, and ecological systems.The built environment comprised of man-made physical features, mainly all types of buildingincluding archaeological and historic sites. The three (3) aspects of the tourism-environmentrelationship are: • Many features of the physical environment are attractions for tourists • Tourists facilities and infrastructure constitute one aspect of the built environment • Tourism development and tourist use of an area generate environmental impactsExacerbating the potential problems of the environmental impact of tourism is that it is oftendeveloped in environmentally fragile and vulnerable environments, such as on small islands, incoastal, marine, mountainous and alpine areas, in certain arid lands, and at archaeological andhistorical sites, because these types of places offer important resources or attractions for tourists.There are three (3) types of related environmental concerns in developing tourism • The prevention or control of environmental impacts generated by the tourism development itself; including tourist use of areas and remedying problems if they do arise • The need for continuous management of resources of tourism • Maintenance and, where necessary, improvement of the overall environmental quality of the tourism areas for the benefit of both tourism and residentsTypes of environmental impactsPositive impacts 1. Conservation of important natural areas Tourism can help justify and pay for conservation of important natural areas and development of parks and reserves, including the establishment of national and regional parks because they are attractions for tourists. Without tourism, these natural areas might be developed for other uses or allowed to ecologically deteriorate, with a consequent loss of environmental heritage. Marine conservation, especially of reef areas, is receiving much attention in some places because these are important attractions for tourism, and furthermore protect beaches from erosions. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 75. Special Interest Tourism 2. Conservation of archaeological and historic sites and architectural character Provides the incentive and helps pay for the conservation of archaeological and historical sites that might otherwise be allowed to deteriorate, thus resulting in the loss of the cultural heritage of areas. 3. Improvement of environmental quality Can help provide the incentive for ‘cleaning up’ the overall environment through control of air, water and noise pollution, littering and other environmental problems, and for improving environmental aesthetics through landscaping programs, appropriate building designs, signs controls and better building maintenance. 4. Enhancement of the environment Development of well-designed tourist facilities (for example, attractive, landscaped hotel) may enhance rural or urban landscapes that are otherwise dull and uninteresting. 5. Improvement of infrastructure An economic as well as environmental benefit, local infrastructures of airports, roads, water, sewage and solid waste disposal systems and telecommunications can be improved through the development of tourism. 6. Increasing environmental awareness In places where residents have limited interest in and concern about the natural environment and its conservation, observing tourists’ interest and nature and realizing the importance of conservation to the economic success of tourism can encourage local awareness in this subject.Negative impacts 1. Water pollution If a proper sewage disposal system has not been installed, there may be pollution of ground water from the sewage, or if a sewage outfall has been constructed into a nearby river, lake or coastal sea water and the sewage has not been adequately treated, the effluent will pollute that water area. Can also result from recreational and tourist transportation motor boats spilling oil and gas and cleaning their bilges into the water. 2. Air pollution Can result from excessive use of internal combustion vehicles (cars, buses, motorcycles) used by and for tourists in particular areas. 3. Noise pollution Noise generated by a concentration of tourists, tourist road and off-road RVs such as dune buggies and snowmobiles, airplanes, motor boats and sometimes certain type of tourist attractions such as amusement parks or car/motorcycle race tracks may reach uncomfortable and irritating levels for nearby residents and other tourists. 4. Waste disposal problems Littering of debris on the landscape. Improper disposal of solid waste from hotels, restaurants and resorts can generate both litter and environmental health problems from vermin, disease and pollution as well as being unattractive. 5. Visual pollution May results from several sources: ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 76. Special Interest Tourism • Poorly designed hotels and other tourist facility buildings • Use of unsuitable building materials on external surfaces • Badly planned layout of tourist facilities • Inadequate or inappropriate landscaping • Use of large and ugly advertising signs • Overhead utility (electric and telephone) lines and poles • Poor maintenance of building and landscaping 6. Ecological disruption Overuse of fragile natural environments by tourists can lead to ecological damage, for example; • Killing or stunting the growth of vegetation in parks and conservation areas by many tourists walking through them and compacting the soil around the vegetation, • Trees being cut by hikers and campers for use as fuel to make campfires, and • Erosion resulting from overuse of hiking and riding trails in steep-sloped areas • Also, road development may interfere with normal animal migration patterns 7. Environmental hazards Poor land use planning, sitting, and engineering design of tourists facilities, as well as any type of development, can generate erosions, landslides, flooding and other problems. In some cases, good planning may not prevent damage by environmental disasters but may greatly reduce the extent of it. 8. Damage to archaeological and historic sites Overuse or misuse of environmentally fragile archaeological and historic sites can lead to the damage of these features through excessive wear, increased humidity, vibration, vandalism, graffiti writing and so forth. 9. Land use problems If not well developed according to sound land use planning principles, tourism development can result in land use problems. Without integrated land use and infrastructure may become overloaded, leading to traffic congestion and insufficient water supply and sewage disposal systems.Perspective on socioeconomic impactsHost and Guest RelationshipsSome types of socioeconomic impacts are the normal changes and stresses resulting from any kindof economic development, even when the residents and the tourists are of the same culturalbackgrounds and socioeconomic levels, as is often the case with domestic tourism. Other impactsresult from socioeconomic differences between the residents and tourists of either the same ordifferent cultural background – the respective levels of social, economic and political developmentof the residents and tourists can be critical factor.A third type of impact can result from substantial cultural differences between residents and tourists– may relate to basic value and logic systems, religious beliefs, traditions, customs, life-styles,behavioral patterns, dress codes sense of time budgeting, attitude towards strangers and many otherfactors.Differences in languages between tourists and residents can create frustrating situations andsometimes lead to misunderstanding. Compounding the complexity of resident-tourist relationships ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 77. Special Interest Tourismis the situation that often there are various different cultural and socioeconomic levels representedamong the tourists visiting the areas, and there may also be different cultural backgrounds andsocioeconomic levels represented among the residents, all of which may come into contact with oneanother.Tourists-residents encounters occur in three (3) main contexts: • Where the tourist is purchasing some good or service from the host • Where the tourist and host find themselves side by side (for example, on a beach or at a nightclub) • Where the two parties come face to face with the object of exchanging information or ideasTypes of socioeconomic impactsPositive impacts 1. Economic benefits Direct economics benefits include provision of employment, income, and foreign exchange, which lead to improved living standards of the local community and overall national and regional economic development. Increased government revenue, through various types of taxation on tourism that can be used to develop community and infrastructure facilities and services and assist in general economic development. An important indirect economic benefit is that it serves as a catalyst for the development or expansion of other economic sectors. Another indirect benefit is improvement made to transportation and other infrastructure facilities and services for tourism that also serve general national, regional and community needs. 2. Conservation of cultural heritage Can be a major stimulus for conservation of important elements of the cultural heritage of an area because their conservation can be justified. These elements include: • Conservation of archaeological and historic sites and interesting architectural styles • Conservation and sometimes revitalization of traditional arts, handicrafts, dance, music, drama, customs and ceremonies, dress and certain aspects of traditional life-styles • Financial assistance for the maintenance of museums, theaters and other cultural facilities and activities and for supporting the organization of special cultural festivals and events because they are important attractions for tourists as well as being used by residents 3. Renewal of cultural pride A sense of pride by residents in their culture can be reinforced or even renewed when they observe tourists appreciating it. In multi-cultural countries, regional tourism can help maintain the cultural identity of the minority cultural groups. 4. Cross-cultural exchange Can promote cross-cultural exchange of tourists and residents learning more about one another’s cultures, resulting in mutual understanding and respect. Domestic tourism can ideally help achieve cross-cultural understanding and build a sense of national unity among diverse groups of peopleNegative impacts ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 78. Special Interest Tourism 1. Loss of potential economic benefits Can sometimes be generated if many tourist facilities are owned and managed by outsiders. Potential foreign exchange earnings are reduced when imported goods and services are utilized in tourism. 2. Economic and employment distortions Can take place geographically if tourism is concentrated in only one or a few areas of a country or region. Resentments by residents in the undeveloped areas may ensue from this situation. Employment distortions may be created if tourism attracts too many employees from other economic sectors. Resentment and conflict may arise within families if tourism provides new and higher wage employment for certain family members. There may be resentment by residents if migrant workers are brought in to work in tourism. 3. Overcrowding and loss of amenities for residents If there is overcrowding that resulting in residents cannot conveniently use the facilities, they will become irritated and resentful of tourism. Domestic tourists also may become resentful if their own attractions are congested by foreigners. 4. Cultural impacts Over-commercialization and loss of authenticity of traditional arts and crafts, customs and ceremonies can result if these are over-modified to suit tourist demands. In extreme cases, there may be loss of cultural character, self-respect and overall social identity because of submergence of the local society by the outside cultural patterns of seemingly affluent and successful tourists. Misunderstanding and conflict can arise between residents and tourists because of differences in language, customs, religious values and behavioral patterns. Violations of local dress codes by tourists may be resented by residents and even lead to conflicts if strong religious values are being transgressed. 5. Social problems Problems of drugs, alcoholism, crime and prostitution may be exacerbated by tourism, although tourism is seldom the basic cause of such problems. However, it appears that tourism contributes to crime, especially on a seasonal basis – occurs through the generation frictions between the host population and tourists and the fact that the target criminals is expanded and situations are created where gains from crime may be high and the likelihood of detection smallMeasuring economic costs and benefitsThe macro level means economic measurement of costs and benefits. Micro levels of projectfeasibility analysis constitute important components of tourism planning and are utilized as majorcriteria, along with environmental and socio-cultural factors. The basic input for preparingeconomic analysis is tourist expenditures – visitor expenditure surveys are conducted to determinethe amount and distribution of tourism spending. If little or no tourism exist in the planning area,then expenditures can be projected based on various assumptions, including tourist spendingpatterns in similar destination areas.Types of economic impact measurement ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 79. Special Interest Tourism 1. Contribution to gross national or gross regional product (GNP/GRP) Tourism is seldom shown as separate sector but is included in services, transportation and other sectors in national or regional accounts. Consequently, estimates often based on the income generated by tourism. Tourism can be as important component of the economy, ranging up to 5 and 10 percent of the total GNP or GRP for both domestic and international tourism in some large countries or regions, and can be much more important in smaller countries with well-developed tourism sectors and especially some island tourist destinations. 2. Contribution to foreign exchange earnings The gross foreign exchange can be calculated from the foreign tourist expenditure patterns – essential to determine the import content of tourism to derive the net foreign exchange earned. Potential foreign exchange earnings are reduced when government exempt custom duties or taxes on foreign-owned companies as investment incentives. 3. Employment generation The local employment generated by tourism is measured based on direct or primary and indirect or secondary jobs: • Direct employment – which is involved in tourism enterprises • Indirect employment – the jobs generated in the supplying sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries and manufacturing 4. Multiplier effect * The term multiplier is used to describe the total effect, both direct and indirect, that an external source of income has on an economy. Based on tourist expenditures, the multiplier effect refers to the number of round of spending with regards to the initial expenditures within the local economy or the ways in which tourist spending filters through the economy. 5. Contribution to government revenues Potential revenues include hotel and other uses or expenditure taxes, airport departure taxes, custom duties on imported goods used in tourism, income taxes on tourism enterprises and persons working in tourism, and property taxes on tourism establishment. Input-output analysis is now widely used to examine economic impact if the basic tables have been prepared for the country or region - Easier to accurately calculate the economic impact of tourism. Provide a basis for enhancing tourism economic benefits. 6. Cost-benefit analysis Can be conducted generally at the macro national and regional levels - Should be more specifically calculated along with feasibility analysis at the project level. Cost-benefit analysis is a technique used to determine how much benefit the economic sector will produce in terms of foreign exchange, employment, and income and government revenues, related to the costs of development. Economic cost and benefits must be combined with socio-cultural and environmental costs and benefits to arrive at an overall evaluation of the net costs and benefits of tourism to an area. A feasibility study is detailed systematic analysis of all aspects of a particular project in order to determine its financial, marketing, environmental and social feasibility.*Multiplier effect – how tourism spending flows into the economy ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 80. Special Interest Tourism Tourist spends for: Travel enterprises spend for: Ultimate beneficiaries: Accountants Wages and salaries Appliance stores Lodging Tips and gratuities Architects Food Payroll taxes Automobile factory Beverages Commissions Bank workers Entertainment Music and entertainment Carpenters Clothing etc. Administrative & general Cooks Gifts and souvenirs expenses Doctors Photography Professional services Engineers Personal care, Purchase of food beverages, etc Farmers drug & cosmetics Purchase of good sold Government Internal Purchase of materials & supplies Insurance workers transportation Repairs and maintenance Manufacturing workers Tours & Advertising, promotion & Porters sightseeing publicity Plumbers Miscellaneous Utilities Publishers Transportation Resorts License Restaurants Insurance premiums Transportations Wholesale establishment Leakages of Leakages of import content Leakages of imported Imported content contentSpecial interest tourism’s futureDid you know 10% of the entire Global workforce is employed in tourism? Many countries areexperiencing a shortage of trained, knowledgeable travel professionals due to this high growthindustry.Below are excerpts from research studies by the World Travel & Tourism Council; the results of asurvey by Statistics Canada and Conference Board of Canada, Canadian Travel Distribution Report;and TICO, the Travel Industry Council of Ontario on the growth of tourism locally and around theworld.A survey by Statistics Canada showed 37% of people online window-shopped for travel services,and 55% of Canadians, or more than 6 out of 10 purchased directly from a travel agency. A studyby Conference Board of Canada, Canadian Travel Distribution Report finds an even higherpercentage of travellers use the services of a travel agency. TICO, the Travel Industry Council ofOntario reports Ontario travellers spent over $4 billion in overseas travel. Cruises, weddings,honeymoons, luxury and adventure travel (all ages) are fast growing travel markets.Quotes from The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC): ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 81. Special Interest Tourism"Global Travel and Tourism Exceeded US$6 Trillion in 2005; “We are witnessing the power,speed and vitality of Travel & Tourism and how they can bring economic opportunity and jobs topeople and economies seeking sustainable development”."The industry is expected to grow 4.6 per cent (real terms), to US$6.5 trillion in 2006. The globalTravel & Tourism industry is expected to produce 2.5 million new jobs in 2006, comprising 76.7million jobs, or 2.8 per cent of total world employment. Travel & Tourism are expected to createnearly 10 million new jobs globally, for a total of 234.3 million jobs or 8.7 per cent of totalemployment".Richard Miller, Executive Vice President of WTTC said, "Although events like the tsunami,bombings and hurricanes, as well as a major increase in the price of oil, could have dampeneddemand, it appears that consumers are becoming more resilient, and Travel & Tourism continue tobe a significant part of everyday life”.The role of InternetThe Internet is a great way to research information however for many, the amount of informationhas become totally overwhelming, time consuming and at times unreliable. Customer care may be aconcern as the internet is impersonal. When there is a question or concern about a product and/orservice purchased online it is often difficult to secure assistance making it time consuming toresolve matters (if at all) without a live person to deal with.Some companies are unresponsive to customer concerns and instead choose to "hide" behind theInternet. Further, booking travel over the internet may be quite complex as products are not alwaysclearly described in an accurate way; consumers do not have the advantage of best product andprice comparisons without knowledge of all possible travel suppliers; insurance options are ofteninadequately described or explained; as is entry requirements e.g. passports, visas, health andsecurity policies and procedures.Highly trained professional travel agents ensure important information is provided and understoodby their client prior to travelling. Highly trained professional travel agents ensure importantinformation is provided and understood by their client prior to travelling. These are excellentreasons for travellers to use the personal services of an agent rather than book over the Internet.Providing credit card and personal information on the Internet is required when booking online, thisshould be a concern to everyone. Regardless of security and firewalls, many corporations simplycant keep up with hackers and scammers.The role of professional travel agentsThe services of a professional travel agent is invaluable. They are trained to research and pricecompare for the best tour, cruise, airline, hotel etc. and to provide information on travel insuranceoptions; climate, entry requirements (e.g. passport, visa and health requirements) beforerecommending and booking the best travel product to their client. There is a shortage of well trainedstaff in the travel industry due to high growth therefore; career opportunities should continue toincrease.Travel trends and predictions ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 82. Special Interest TourismTravel with a purposeThe rise of the package holiday and bucket and spade culture during the past half century led us tobelieve that travel was about jetting off for two weeks of sun, sand and souvenirs. And morerecently, the advent of low-cost airlines has seen tourism become, for many people, a race to tickoff trophy experiences and destinations.We collect the passport stamps and the digital photos, and then move on to the next unmissablesight. If I walked into a high street travel agent today, the first question I would be asked is Wheredo you want to go? Ive always thought that this was the wrong question: it isnt the where thatsimportant; its the why and the how. I want to go on holiday to re-charge my batteries or toreconnect with myself.Sometimes I want to meet new people or to discover and learn about another place and anotherculture. When deciding what my next holiday will be, I try to place the focus more on what I needfrom the holiday and what I can give back to destinations and local people.As the cost of flying increases (whether its due to increases in the cost of aviation fuel, tax rises orthe imposition of emissions trading) and carbon guilt sets in - meaning we no longer feel entirelycomfortable boasting about our overseas holidays - the why and how of travel will surely becomemore important.When we travel in the future, it will be with more of a purpose, with not only our own needs inmind, but also those of the destination. This new way of traveling could be described as deeptravel. It will be about getting under the skin of a place. We already seek out authenticity - realexperiences rather than fake culture packaged up for tourists - but travel in 2020 will go further.It will be about the appreciation of local distinctiveness, the idiosyncrasies and the detail, the thingsthat make a place unique and special. It will be as much about the smell of fresh spices in Kerala inIndia and the colorful tailors of Hoi An in Vietnam as it is about rediscovering the exotic andlocally distinctive closer to home - be it bluebells in an English wood or the taste of Wensleydalecheese.Keeping it localAs the cost of flying increases, well see the end of the truly low-cost airline. Consequently, thelocal approach will become central to travel - not only as a new mindset in the quest for localdistinctiveness but also as a factor affecting our choice in destinations. To coin a new term, travel in2020 will be geo-local. In other words, holidaymakers will travel much closer to home.Well begin to travel more within our own countries and continents, and less frequently beyondthem. A British family might head to Cornwall to stay in a locally run Cornish cottage, shop forCornish crafts and enjoy a cream tea. Holidaymakers will increasingly discover that the exoticnessof the unknown doesnt have to take the form of a desert island in the middle of the Pacific.Tourism will no longer be dominated by Westerners either. Well see residents of India and Chinabecoming more mobile than ever before from a leisure perspective. Already, hotels in India andChina that once hosted Western visitors almost exclusively are beginning to see proportion ofdomestic guests’ rise, in some cases overtaking the number of foreigners.By 2020, well also see the majority of hotels getting their produce, employees, materials, servicesand the like from sources within their immediate vicinity. I refer to this as hyper-local sourcing. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 83. Special Interest TourismWell see a new type of hotel - the ten-kilometer hotel - for which all food and materials will havebeen sourced from within a ten-kilometer radius.In addition, these hotels will provide energy and water for guests on a metered system, and separatecharges for each will appear on their bill. Discounts will be offered for those visitors who keep theirenergy and water use below average.Alternative transportDriven by the increased cost of flying, travel will begin to develop parallels with the slow-foodmovement. Well gradually see an appreciation of slow travel, with journeys made by train, boatand bike gaining in popularity. People will gain a greater appreciation for the journey itself, asopposed to the restless striving for the next destination.This change in mindset will be coupled with improvements in other forms of transport, making thewhole experience more enjoyable. I hope that well see carbon caps set for every airline and that aninvestment in rail travel - and a consequent reduction in cost - will be one of the direct beneficiariesof carbon trading. Planning rail travel will also be easier as timetables are designed to link up fasttrains between countries and one global website is created through which to book them all.In the same way that travelers now choose tour companies and hotels based on their responsible-tourism credentials, new websites will allow you to choose flights from the lowest-carbon airlinefor your particular journey. Although there is a widespread belief within the industry that there isntany alternative to kerosene aviation fuel, I think we will see airlines increasingly making use ofenvironmentally friendly bio-fuels. And were sure to see the implementation of new ideas, such asadding giant sails to cruise ships to reduce their enormous carbon footprint, and the return to oldideas such as using airships for shorter journeys.Holiday labelingOver the past few decades, weve seen the food industry introduce an array of labels: fair trade,organic, locally produced and increasingly, carbon ratings. I think well eventually see a similarscheme being applied to holidays, although I dont think that the labeling will be limited to thecarbon content. Although it would be fiendishly difficult to implement, a truly holistic approach toresponsible tourism would include a rating for the holidays impact on local communities andcultures, as well as on the local environment.Destinations: changing climates and future planningClimate change is already having a profound impact on tourism and will soon start to change whichdestinations we feel comfortable about visiting and when. The traditional holiday migration ofNorthern Europeans to Southern Europe during July and August will be threatened by temperaturesthat are too hot for many tourists.Many destinations will also be forced to change their focus. Many lower Alpine ski resorts alreadyhave to either close or place the emphasis more on summer walking holidays. Coral bleaching,coastal erosion and a rise in sea level will threaten many traditional diving and beach destinations.Extreme weather events are also likely to become more frequent, reducing the tourist season inmany destinations, such as those in the Caribbean.The consequences of global warming, including crop failures and changes in water availability, willlead to mass migration and increased social and political instability - threatening tourism in some ofthe countries that are most dependent upon it. Given the reality of climate change, destinations need ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.
  • 84. Special Interest Tourismto actively plan ahead to ensure that they attract the right kind of visitors to the right areas of theircountry in a way that maximizes sustainability.ConclusionFor too long, tourism ministers have single-mindedly pursued increased tourist numbers withoutfully understanding either the local economic benefits of different types of tourists or the true costof tourism to local cultures and the environment. Smart destinations will no longer just pursue moretourists per se. Instead, they will focus more on the types of tourists they need and matching these tothe most suitable areas and communities within their country.As a result, economic benefits will be maximized, while social and environmental costs are kept toa minimum. Well also see a change in the way that destinations are presented and marketed totravelers. There will be further growth in consumer-led, online peer-to-peer travel advice and thiswill spark a democratization of travel.By this I mean that travelers and locals alike will gradually be more empowered to speak on behalfof a diversity of new and interesting places. Everyone will begin to have a say in the destinations ofthe future, threatening the current monopoly of the mega-icons and must-see sights, whether it bethe Inca Trail, Kilimanjaro or the Taj Mahal. The repercussions on destinations will be vast.Negative impacts such as overcrowding will be reduced and the benefits of tourism spread morebroadly. ©2012 World-Point Academy of Tourism Sdn. Bhd. All Rights Reserved.

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