The Colonial Experience: The Dutch Simer Ken JV Emily
COLONIZATION• to send colonists to or establish a colony in (an area)• to settle in (an area) as colonists• to transform (a community) into a colony• the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies• to take control of (an area) by any means
Colonial Era In 1492 Columbus discovered America and brought gold and wealth back to Spain. Therefore, to balance Spanish supremacy in Europe, Portugal had to startcolonizing other countries as well.
Reasons for the Dutch to invade the Portuguese colonies in Malacca (almost the same as any other European force)
1) Control the spice trade ( spice ingredients of preservation)2) Control important trade route to the East, to balance the superiority of Arabs traders and Spaniards.3) Discover the sea route to the east through Cape of Good Hope4) Process superior sea power and naval expertise5) Spread Christianity
COLONIZATION• Malaysia was once a colonized land.• Was subjugated by other powers for total period of 446 years since 1511 until 1957.• Portuguese 1511-1641• Dutch 1641-1824• British 1824-1942• Japan 1942-1945• British 1945-1957
Dutch and Portuguese• In the early 17th Century, Dutch began to rise up as a maritime super power.• It started contesting with the Portuguese power in the east .• It had strong relationships with the Johor Sultanate since 1606.• Dutch granted Johor supremacy and Johor will help the Dutch to expel the Portuguese from Malacca.
Dutch Defeats The Portuguese• The Dutch began launching several attacks on Portuguese Malacca but all attempts failed.• 14th January 1641, the Dutch took possession of the fortress of Malacca. (With the help of the Sultan of Johor, Sultan Abdul Jalil)• Initially, the Dutch was grateful and signed a treaty with Johor.• Granted Johor free access to trade in Malacca as a sign of friendship.
Dutch Expands it’s Influence• The Malays thought with the help of the Dutch, they could regain Malacca.• Instead, the Dutch formed a government under VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) after the capture of Malacca.• Longest period of Malacca under foreign control (183 years)• Marked the decline of the importance of Malacca.
Dutch’s Influence• The VOC had no intention in developing Malacca’s trade.• Rather develop Batavia as the main Eastern base of the VOC.• Only importance of Malacca:- 1. Was a strategic outpost between the East and West 2. Did not want Malacca to fall into any other European hands.
Dutch’s Desires Revealed• In 1650, Dutch attempted to monopolize tin trade in Perak and Selangor.• It failed - opposition from the local people.• Force the Sultan of Perak to sign a treaty to sell the tin only to the them. Accused the Sultan of Selangor for favouring the British East India Company. Had to give up desire for tin monopoly - Attack by Panglima Kulup Ali in 1650 to the Dutch settlements in Pangkor Island and Hilir Perak.
Friendship Broken• In 1782, the Dutch-Johor friendship was severely tested due to commercial rivalry between them.• Dutch laid siege to Riau 29th October 1784 (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie)• 1784 agreement – Sultan Mahmud III was forced to surrender Riau• Although Sultan Mahmud III is acknowledged as the ruler of Johor, it was in fact under Dutch influence.
Final Conquest• The Sultan’s disenchantment was intensified when the Dutch sent a Resident to Riau.• Launched an military attack on the Dutch settlement in Riau.• The Dutch recaptured it in the same year.• Last expansion of the Dutch influence in the Malay Peninsula – the Napoleon War in Europe.
Dutch impact on the people• Religion – Christianity: The Dutch, like the Portuguese also wanted to spread Christianity. However, the Portuguese were Catholics and most of the Dutch invaders at that time in Malacca were protestants. – Churches: Obviously, the Dutch built churches in order to spread Christianity in a more organised yet subtle manner.
• Malay language Risico = risiko (risk) Boek = buku (book)Dundoek = sepanduk (banner)
• Historical sites A significant icon visible in Dutch Square is Red Clock Tower. It was erected in 1886 in honour of a generous Chinese tycoon named Tan Beng Swee. Some called it Tan Beng Swee Clock Tower.
The Christ Church ofMalacca is the oldestprotestant church inMalaysia. Once youenter, Last Supperpainting made of glazedtiles is visibly over thealtar. The ceiling in thechurch is the mostnotable feature, wherebythe beams over 15 mlong each was madefrom a single tree.
The Stadthuys, also known as the "Red Building" among the locals is one of themost visited and most photographed Tourist Attractions in Malacca. Today, it is theHistorical Museum of Malacca.
INFLUENCE ON THEMALAYA NATIONThe Anglo-Dutch Treaty of1824Signed on the 17th March 1824 between theBritish and Dutch.• Singapore, Malacca and Penang Island under the British influence. (Malaya)• The South of Singapore and East India under the Dutch influence (Indonesia)
GeographicallyThe line that separated the influence betweenthe British and the Dutch became the borderbetween Indonesia and Malaysia.
Architectural Buildings• Dutch Square, Malacca• Christ Church Malacca was formerly the Dutch Reformed Church of Malacca.• It is the oldest surviving Dutch church building.• Symbol of the Christian faith of the Dutch people in Malacca.Road Systems• Structures had become more organised and had a better road system.• Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock and Jonker Street were focused as the areas for development and trading.