Ancient Civilisations - Gangga Negara & Langkasuka
Gangga Negara & LangkasukaEmily JVKen Simer
GREAT KINGDOM OF GANGGA NEGARA• In the state of Perak, Malaysia• Centered at Beruas• Formed 5th Century• Means "a city on the Ganges" in Sanskrit• Kambuja peoples inhabited• Lost semi-legendary Hindu-Malay kingdom
EXTENT OF KINGDOM• Starting point for the spread of Islam in Peninsular Malaysia• Site of the greatest war between Gangga Negara & the invaders from India in 1400s.• Collapsed in the 11th century.(Year 1025 -1026)
ECONOMIC LIFE • Port and Trade Center – discovered artifacts in Beruas » Include coins, swords, tin ingots and pottery • Existence of arch » showcase a nation’s artistic and cultural– No two arches carry the same design. influences
Gangga Negara’s Culture• Kambuja people – Indo-Iranian of the Indo-European.• Beruas – Known as Gangga Negara today.• Colonel James Low and Quaritch Wales – One of the first researchers.
Contribution to the Malaysian identity today• Hindu – They found old Buddhist statue• Islam – Could have been the starting point of Islam
The Lost Kingdom of LangkasukaIntroduction:• An ancient Hindu Kingdom• Formed 2nd Century.• Founded at Kedah, moved to Pattani• Earliest kingdoms found on Malay Peninsula• Langkasuka means "Resplendent Land" in Sanskrit
Names of Langkasuka1. Chinese: • Liang Dynasty - "Lang-ya-xiu“ • Song Dynasty - "Lang-ya-se-chia" • Yuan Dynasty - "Long-ya-si-jiao" • Ming Dynasty - "Lang-se-chia“2. Malay and Javanese: • "Langkasuka“3. Tamil: • "Ilangasoka”
Extent of the Kingdom• Description by Chinese/Buddhist monks :- i. Frontiers - Thirty days journey from east to west, and twenty from north to south. ii. Capital City - surrounded by walls, having double gates, towers and pavilions• The Kingdom occupied modern day Northern Malaysia and Southern Thailand.
Economy• Mostly based on trades.• A trade centre highly influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism.• Had strong diplomatic relationship with China.• A wealthy kingdom. Proof: a) Discovery of Chinese, Arab and Indian coins. b) Great amount of statues and artifacts.
The Fall of LangkasukaConquered by Funan Became tributary of Empire the Srivijaya Empire (12th Century) (3rd – 6th Century)Replaced by Pattani Became teritory of Kingdom Majapahit Empire (13th Century) (15th Century)
Langkasuka’s culture & beliefs• The people practiced Hindu-Buddhism.• Towards the end of the civilisation, Islam was being practiced little by little.• It was one of the earliest civilisations to convert to Islam.
Contribution to the Malaysian identity today• In 1968, Malay film called Raja Bersiong or The King With A Fangs directed by Jamil Sulong was made from the initiative of Malaysias Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman.• A Thai movie entitled Queen of Pattani or Queens of Langkasuka, directed by Nonzee Nimibutr and loosely based on a south Pattani myth, was released in 2008.
• A 2011 Malay movie entitled The Malay Chronicles: Bloodlines was directed by Yusry Abdul Halim. The film is loosely based the origin of Merong Mahawangsa, the first King of Langkasuka.• When it had been erased from the map of the peninsula after some many centuries, the name Langkasuka again appeared in our history when it was mooted by our founding fathers as a possible name for independent Malaya.
• It is clear from these passages that Langkasuka has passed into Malay folklore as a west-coast kingdom, the predecessor of modern Kedah, with its capital at the foot of Gunong Jerai.
The colourfully painted designs of Pattani’s ‘korlae’ boats The Pattani’s main profession among men Malaysianwau design was influenced byLangkasuka culture