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Focus on word formation

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One way to learn new words is to be aware of the way English words are formed. Many words are usually made up of three parts: a prefix, a stem and a suffix. You can use this knowledge to increase your …

One way to learn new words is to be aware of the way English words are formed. Many words are usually made up of three parts: a prefix, a stem and a suffix. You can use this knowledge to increase your vocabulary.

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  • 1. UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMASFocus on word formation
  • 2. word formation HOW? WHAT? adding affixes (prefix/suffix)creation of new words to the root of a word
  • 3. word formation WHY?Learn… how English words are formed the spelling of words new word familiesIncrease… vocabulary knowledge reading comprehension
  • 4. word formation root word?central part …for example,real word ‘comfort’stands on its own (root word)
  • 5. word formation a prefix?group of lettersadd to the beginning of a rooteach one has a meaning…for example, dis + comfort = discomfort
  • 6. word formation Prefix Meaning mis- ‘wrong’ or ‘badly’‘misspelled’ ‘wrongly spelled’ sub- ‘under’‘subway’ ‘a way under the ground’ pre- ‘before in time’‘prepacked’ ‘packed before’ un- ‘not‘unhurt’ ‘not hurt’
  • 7. word formation a suffix?group of lettersword endingend of a root word…for example, comfort + able = comfortable
  • 8. word formation Suffix ExampleVerb suffixes -ed walk + ed = walked -ing say + ing = sayingNoun suffixes -ness happy + ness = happiness -sion divide + sion = division -ment excite + ment = excitement -tion educate + tion = education -cian music + cian = musicianAdjective suffixes -al accident + al = accidental -er tall + er = taller -able accept + able = acceptable -ary imagine + ary = imaginary -est large + est = largest -ful help + ful + helpfulAdverb suffixes -ly love + ly = lovely -fully hope + fully = hopefully
  • 9. word formation…some family words,employ: employed, employee, employer, unemployed, unemploymentuse: useless, usable, used, using, user, misusefriend: friendly, friendship, friendless unfriendlyfaith: faithful, faithfully, unfaithful, unfaithfully
  • 10. word formation…Final Tips There are no rules to help you remember which prefix you should use Knowing the meaning of the prefix can help If you’re uncertain whether the prefix you’ve used is correct, check the word in a dictionary There are some spelling rules to help you learn why and when this happens
  • 11. word formation…Final Tips Adding a suffix to some root words will change the spelling of the new word Adding suffixes to words can show how a word will be used in a sentence Adding suffixes to words can show what part of speech the word belongs to (noun, verb, adjective, adverb)
  • 12. UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMASFocus on word formationProf. Silvia Pereira