Lots of DIFFERENT IDEAS on this.
Very much a CONTESTED view.
• “We’re really talking about a
converged interactive media industry.
There’s an increasing interplay
between gaming, online, TV and films
– it’s all coming together.”
Jon Kingsbury, NESTA, 2010
• Doctor Who has encompassed television, radio, cinema, literature
and videogames, across 50 years.
• All adds up to a rich metatext, with multiple access points –
although television is clearly the dominant medium.
• Now live in an age of trans-mediality
– Migration of content across media forms
– Sense of fragmentation
• New forms
– Computer games, simulations, SX cinema
• New representations
– Virtual worlds, interactive multimedia
• New relationships between producers, users and
• New patterns of organisation and production
Is New Media transforming culture?
Rise of interaction and networking
Production = less centralised and more fluid
Shift from production to produsage, or consumer
• Audience shift from passive to active
• Interactive or also more DEMOCRATIC?
• Generation Y, Digital Immigrants,
Google Generation, Screenagers…
• Rise of Generation C (Bruns)
– Content, Control, Creativity, Celebrity
• Intercreativity (Time Berners-Lee)
– Amateurs working to professional standards
• End of the artefact?
• End of the artefact as a finished construct?
– Mash-ups, etc
• “The print media company and the
TV network are hierarchical
organisations that reflect the values
of their owners. New media, on the
other hand, give control to all users.
The distinction between bottom-up
and top-down organisational
structure is at the heart of the new
generation. For the first time ever,
young people have taken control of
critical elements of a
communications revolution.” (p21)
• Celebrates key texts produced by media moguls and celebrated by wellknown critics
• Vague recognition of internet and new digital media, as an 'add on' to the
• A preference for conventional ideas where most people are treated as nonexpert audience 'receivers', or, if they are part of the formal media industries,
as expert 'producers'.
• Interest in the massive 'long tail' of independent media projects such as
those found on YouTube and many other websites, mobile devices, and
other forms of DIY media
• Recognition that internet and digital media have fundamentally changed the
ways in which we engage with all media
• Media now more democratic through people making and connecting
Fan 2.0 Categories (Fraser)
• Many scholars very much against the media 2.0 hypothesis
• Celebrates the “power of active users” , ignoring the commercial
structures that help to shape those powers
• Ignores real material and cultural constraints?
– Gender inequality?
– Who’s online?
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