Fast track media degree
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Fast track media degree



Slides from course at English and Media Centre, Sept 24 2010.

Slides from course at English and Media Centre, Sept 24 2010.



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Fast track media degree Fast track media degree Presentation Transcript

  • Media Theory: The One-Day Crash Course
  • Today we will cover
    Still image and moving image – structuralism
    Genre, narrative, representation
    Audience, reception, identity
    Theories about media and power
    Feminism and Poststructuralism
    Media 2.0 / Theories of Change
  • Using …
    Lots of slides
    Lots of images and moving images and sounds
    Extracts from books
    Lots of Charlie Brooker
  • Texts and Meaning
    Genre, Narrative, Representation
    Regulation v Responsibilities
    Futures and utopia / dystopia
    Funding, access and citizenship
    Global Culture
  • Plato and Mill
    2 philosophers from different times and places, but interesting to compare.
    Very different views on society.
    Very different views on keeping order.
    Very different views on education.
  • Semiotics
    From Saussure and Barthes.
    Micro to macro.
    Polysemy and fluidity at level of connotation
  • Signs
    Signifier and Signified
    Arbitrary / Symbolic
    More or less motivated
  • Problems
    Assumes meaning is singular?
    Doesn’t pay enough attention to individual identities?
    Pseudo-science (Gauntlett, 2008)?
  • Moving Image Analysis
  • Camera Helps to Deliver Meaning
    Shot Types - what’s meanings do a long shot and a Point of View (POV) shot help deliver?
    • Long shot – establishing shot, shows the viewer where they are in the scene. POV –feel as though you are part of the scene
    Shot Types Helps to Situate the Viewer
    Angle – (high angle POV shot = superiority, low angle POV shot = weakness)
    Movement - Zoom can highlight emotion on a character, Jerky hand held POV shot can provide tension and involvement in action sequences (e.g. Cloverfield)
    Focus / Detail – Used to highlight important elements to the narrative / storyline
  • Editing Helps to Deliver Meaning
    Manipulation of Time / Space –flashbacks, Jump Cuts, Cross Cuts, etc
    Rhythm and Pace – Fast paced / frequent cuts = action, slow paced / infrequent cuts = drama/ romance
    Persuasion – Edit tries to influence your view of the events
    Ellipsis–When parts of the story (narrative) are edited out (can be explicit and implicit)
    Dialectical montage (Eisenstein) – 2 different shots put together to construct meaning
  • Sound and Image
    Provides Anchorage(Romantic music + 2 people staring into each others eyes tells you that you are watching a romantic scene)
    Contrast or Flow (can provide an indication as to whether the direction of a movie is changing or staying the same)
    Diegetic Sound (sound that originates from within the movie narrative – e.g. the sound of a CD playing when an actor presses play.)
    Non-diegetic sound(sound that is not part of the narrative – e.g. background music)
    Contributes to Mise en Scene
  • Mise en scene
    Refers to the overall Atmosphere / Ambience of a scene
    What contributes to mise en scene?
    - Costume- Lighting- Props- Sound- Actors
    Moving image = still images moving (Semiotics can be applied to help explain meaning)
    - Where the scene provides a sense of realism (2 types:- Generic = realistic for the type of genre, Cultural = relaistic because it mimics real life)
  • Micro to Macro
    What are Microelements?
    – individual elements (such as camera angles, editing, sound, elements of mise en scene) Elements can be diegetic and non-diegetic.
    What is Macro?
    • What meaning the individual elements amount to
    But always remember THE ACTIVE AUDIENCE MAKES THE MEANING (based on cultural experiences and literacy). There may be many ways a film can be interpreted (Polsyemy)
  • Genre
  • Football for Film Theory
  • Auteur Theory
    Alex Ferguson vsArsene Wenger
    Ferguson = dour, hard Scot, fierce, intimidates referees, excellent ‘man management,’ his teams never give up, big spender, sometimes bends rules, win at all costs.
    Wenger – intellectual, thinker, continental, master tactician + focus on diet, doesn’t spend lots of money, develops young players, ‘the beautiful game’ but teams often lack strength
  • Star Theory
    Rooney v Fabregas
    Rooney – fast, hard, combative but not stylish and often lacks discipline, works incredibly hard for the team. Best player in England team but not glamorous.
    Fabregas – stylish, slight, continental, skilful, sometimes devious, sometimes lacks maturity and sometimes plays as individual.
  • Genre
    Man Utd v Arsenal matches – often very dramatic, twists and turns, lots of hype, often combative and sometimes managers feud. Played very fast and furious.
    Sub genre – Man Utd matches
    Sub genre – Arsenal matches
  • Marxist Analysis
    Sporting competition as expression of capitalism.
    Premiership football as ultimate expression of capitalism – transfer fees, wages, sponsorship, TV money, crass commercialism re shirts etc.
    Ferguson v Wenger in context of amount of spending.
    Domination of foreign players in context of international economics, impact on rest of football league.
    Degree to which each team / player conforms to dominant ideology – hegemonic function
  • Feminist Analysis
    Exclusion of females / tokenistic or sexist representations + references
    Patriarchy / capitalism / competition
    Gender traits – combat, high-octane drama
    Psychoanalysis – football as ‘phallic’ (goal as ‘climax’)
    Additional contexts – female spectatorship, female participation, ‘reading against the grain’
  • Gender Theory
  • Feminism
    Fighting gender inequality
    Fighting objectification
    Fighting a phallocentric ‘common sense’
    Creating alternative ways of seeing the world (through a ‘female gaze’)
    Demonised and misunderstood (often by women … ‘I’m not a feminist but …’
    Not the same as lesbianism (although lesbians can be feminists)
  • A brief history of Feminism…
    It’s sometimes difficult to distinguish feminism from other ideas related to women, or to define feminism. TorilMoisuggests that we distinguish between ‘feminism’ as a political position, ‘femaleness’ as a matter of biology and ‘femininity’ as a set of culturally defined characteristics.
    For Moi, Feminist criticism [or theory], then, is a specific kind of political discourse: a critical and theoretical practice committed to the struggle against patriarchy and sexism.
  • Feminisms
    Feminism isn’t a straightforward, unified political position, though.
    ‘A Room of One’s Own’
    Votes for Women
  • Cixous
    Cixous is probably best known for her deconstruction of binary oppositions, claiming that they represent women negatively in the patriarchal value system.
    Cixous’s binaries:
  • Women in Film
    Kaplan / Mulvey – the ‘male gaze’:
    Men look at women (as objects)
    The viewer is forced to identify with this gaze
    So the camera is from a male POV
    Representation – cultivation over time
    Character types
    Roles in narratives (eg love interest)
    Complex examples – eg Lara Croft
    Sociology and Semiology – public / private, roles, images, meaning systems
  • Mulvey and the Male Gaze
    1975 – Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema
    Male characters are ‘bearers of the look’
    Schopophilia (Freud) - pleasure in looking
    ‘The determining male gaze projects its fantasy onto the female figure’. (1989: 19)
    Cinema screen acts as distorting mirror (Lacan) for spectators who then (mis)recognise themselves
  • Gender Trouble
    Gender is not natural, it is learned and PERFORMED
    Playful renegotiation of gender = gender trouble (a subversive act)
    Madonna seen as icon of gender trouble (or Lady Gaga more currently?)
    Gauntlett – Media, Gender, Identity
    Kendall and McDougall ‘Just Gaming’
  • Media, Community, Audience
  • Media Audiences and The Sociological Imagination
    Although we might think of media habits as mundane and idiosyncratic, the fact that we all have them shows structural forces afoot. (Ruddock: 77)
  • Defining Media Audiences
    Targeting of media products
    Mode of address
    Distribution and circulation
    People using media
    People attributing meaning to media
    Media pleasures
    all determined by socio-cultural factors
  • Audience Research
    Producing data from research
    Providing empirical evidence of audience behaviour or discursive evidence of audience responses.
    Done commercially by media producers and distributors – ratings, market research
    Done critically by media academics
  • The Imagined Reader
    Breakfast cereal
    Holiday destination
    Fast food
    TV show
  • Audience Theories
    Creating new ideas / new ways of thinking about media audiences.
    Audience research used to test out audience theories.
    Uses and gratifications.
    Reception theory.
    Postmodern theory.
    Media 2.0
  • Models of Mass Media
    ‘Classic’ (outdated or timeless?) models:
    Shannon and Weaver, 1949
    Galtung and Ruge, 1965
    Blumer and Katz,1974
  • Shannon and Weaver, 1949
  • Hypodermic Model
    ‘Effects’ theory is / was often limited to the idea that the media ‘inject’ messages into audiences who are seen as passive.
    The constant attempt to ‘prove’ that media violence creates violent citizens (eg horror films, video nasties in the 1980s, videogames now) is based on this false premise.
    Effects and ‘moral panics’.
  • Galtung and Ruge, 1965
    Gatekeeping the flow of information
    Agents in gatekeeping are owners, editors, journalists etc who create agendas (eg news agendas) and then select and construct media information to fit the agenda.
  • Two Step Flow Model
    McQuail and Windahl, 1986
    The stars are ‘opinion leaders’
    The circles are everyone else
  • Uses and Gratifications
    Blumer and Katz, 1974
    We USE media (active, not passive) for:
    Personal Relationships
    Personal Identity
  • Ideology and Interpellation
    Key example = gender based magazines
    Nuts does four things:
    1. Represents men to men.
    2. Represents men to women.
    3. Represents women to men.
    4. Represents women to women.
  • Men’s magazine covers = women
    Women’s magazine covers = women
  • Complicity
    Althusser: interpellation
    Winship: complicity and
    (false) belonging
    Gauntlett – irony / play
  • The active audience
    Marxist ideology theory presents the media as a controlling force.
    Effects theories tend to assume a passive audience.
    Reception theory sees audiences as active makers of meaning.
    Audiences may read the media as the producers intended (preferred reading - hegemonic).
    They may partly share the preferred response (negotiated reading)
    They may interpret the text in an alternative way (oppositional, counter-hegemonic reading).
  • Ownership and Media Power
    A Marxist view of media will focus on the relationship between the providers of media, broader power structures and the messages in media products circulated by these power-holding institutions. This is media hegemony / ideology theory.
    Outfoxed is a key example.
  • Outfoxed
    • What does Outfoxed reveal?
    • Is this a shock?
    • Power and influence
    • Democracy and representation
    • Who owns your media?
    • How are you influenced?
  • Identity and Locality
    Local Media
    National Media
    Public Service Media
    Commercial Media
    Deregulated Media
    Global Media
    Cultural Imperialism – eg Hollywood film
    Diaspora – eg Bollywood
    What happens to our identities?
  • Global Shifts
    Communication across borders
    Distribution technologies
    Capitalist context (free trade)
    Potential erosion of national identities
  • Geography
    America and cultural imperialism
    (but UK is not typical)
    Leads to cultural hybridity
    No longer defines
    origin of content
  • Key questions:
    How do local media networks and audiences accommodate competing and overlapping narratives of global, local and national identities?
    Where is power located?
    How is identity constructed?
    Is your identity postmodern?
  • Examples
    Hollywood and Bollywood
    Coca Cola and McDonalds
    9/11 footage
    Big Brother franchise / The Office US
  • Reception
    David Buckingham on global audiences and children and Julian on local / global : view Media Mag site clip (but ignore the twitch!)
  • Stimulus
    Bartley Green - global identity??
  • Identity: British Film
  • Films do not present a neutral, transparent view of reality, but offer instead a mediated re-presentation of it.
    Types of Realism
    Plural readings
  • Identity: TV Drama
  • Social Document?
  • Why is Skins controversial?
  • Wiring the Audience
  • Doing Videogames
  • Filmic / Bookish Games and less so
  • Games and Media Concepts
  • Activity: Media Literacy
    ‘Meat and drink’ textual analysis of Medal of Honor.
    Personal response to GTA?
    Concepts for Rock Band?
  • Textual analysis?
  • Cultural Imperialism
    Local Resistance
  • McMillan (2007)
    Deregulation erodes national boundaries
    Market imperatives vs public service
    Star TV – “multidomestic’ strategy
    CNN Gulf War coverage
    China and Korea – state control
    BBC and CNN now global media networks
    Governments – economy v control
    Result = hybridity
  • Hybridity
    Space between local and global
    Hybrid programming – lucrative
    Cloning, developing, collaging
    The Dictionary of Happiness
    Wise Men Survive
    Joy Luck Street
  • Questions about media and identity
    Local identity caricatured – eg Indian
    The painful awareness of local inadequacies in terms of etiquette, vocabulary and accent compared to Western counterparts is particularly acute in societies that have been colonized and that have been subjected to reminders of their backwardness through centuries of media and cultural propoganda (McMillan, 2007: 132)
    Local media producers economically complicit
  • Franz Fanon and postcolonial power
    Laughing at oneself is an extension of the subjective positioning of the colonized that – internalization of inferiority.
    But other examples of resistance – women on screen in hybrid game shows.
  • Fan Cultures
  • Fandom
    Whilst most audience theories, and the audience research that tries to prove them are concerned with ways in which people give meaning to media as one aspect of their identities, fandom describes audience behaviour which demonstrates a more involved interplay between the media text or product and a person’s life and identity.
  • Fandom (Hills)
    Everybody knows what a ‘fan’ is. It’s somebody who is obsessed with a particular star, celebrity, film, TV programme, band; somebody who can produce realms of information on their object of fandom, and can quote their favoured line or lyrics, chapter and verse. Fans are often highly articulate. Fans interpret media texts in a variety of interesting and perhaps unexpected ways. And fans participate in communal activities – they are not ‘socially atomised’ or isolated viewers / readers.
    (Hills, 2007: ix)
  • Theories of fandom (Hills)
    Imagined communities (X-philes)
    Constructing physical space for textual meaning (Granada Studios)
    Fan, cultist, enthusiast, petty producer.
    Performance as aspect of consumption.
    Fandom as networking of intersecting tastes.
    Fandom and political expression.
  • Fandom and Identities
    Unexpected / unintended responses
    Alternative readings of texts
  • Celebrity
    The Demotic Turn (Turner, 2010)
  • Media Studies 1.0
    Media Studies 2.0
    Recognition that media audiences in general are already extremely capable interpreters of media content
    A belief that students should be taught how to ‘read’ the media in an appropriate’critical’ style
    Very much a contested idea –
    Buckingham, Turner, Laughey, Lister et al
  • What is media 2.0?
    Sense of watershed?
    If so, is this
    Mid 1980s? (rise of the PC)
    2003/4? (rise of web 2.0)
    Rise of cyberculture
  • Meanings
    Huge shifts
    analogue to digital media
    artefact to broadcast/download
    Has media changed or has the audience?
    Is this anything new?
    “The new media determine a segmented, differentiated audience that, although massive in terms of numbers, is no longer a mass audience in terms of simultaneity and uniformity of the message it receives. The new media are no longer mass media…sending a limited number of messages to a homogeneous audience. Because of the multiplicity of messages and sources, the audience itself becomes more selective. The targeted audience tends to choose its messages, so deepening its segmentation.”
    Sabbah 1985
  • Meanings
    Now live in an age of trans-mediality
    Migration of content across media forms
    Sense of fragmentation
    New forms
    Computer games, simulations, SX cinema
    New representations
    Virtual worlds, interactive multimedia
    New relationships between users and technology
    New patterns of organisation and production
  • Meanings
    Is New Media transforming culture?
    Could infer from above that changes are technological, textural, conventional, and therefore cultural
    Rise of interaction and networking
    Production = less centralised and more fluid
    Shift from production to produsage,or consumer to prosumer
    Audience shift from passive to active
  • Meanings
    “We’re really talking about a converged interactive media industry. There’s an increasing interplay between gaming, online, TV and films – it’s all coming together.”
    Jon Kingsbury, NESTA, 2010
  • Meanings
    Generation Y, Digital Immigrants, Google Generation, Screenagers…
    Rise of Generation C (Bruns)
    Content, Control, Creativity, Celebrity
    Intercreativity (Time Berners-Lee)
    Amateurs working to professional standards
    End of the artefact?
    End of the artefact as a finished construct?
    Mash-ups, etc
  • David Gauntlett
    Media 1.0
    Fetishises 'experts', whose readings of culture are seen as more significant than those of other audience members
    Celebrates key texts produced by media moguls and celebrated by well-known critics
    Otional extra of giving attention to famous 'avant garde' works produced by artists recognised in the traditional sense, and which are seen as especially 'challenging'
    A belief that students should be taught how to 'read' the media in an appropriate 'critical' style
    A focus on Western mainstream traditional media
    Vague recognition of internet and new digital media, as an 'add on' to the traditional media
    A preference for conventional research methods where most people are treated as non-expert audience 'receivers', or, if they are part of the formal media industries, as expert 'producers'.
  • David Gauntlett
    Media 2.0
    Focus on everyday meanings produced by the diverse array of audience members
    Interest in the massive 'long tail' of independent media projects such as those found on YouTube and many other websites, mobile devices, and other forms of DIY media
    Attempt to embrace the truly international dimensions of Media Studies – including a recognition not only of the processes of globalization, but also of the diverse perspectives on media and society being worked on around the world
    recognition that internet and digital media have fundamentally changed the ways in which we engage with all media
    media audiences seen as extremely capable interpreters of media content, with a critical eye and an understanding of contemporary media techniques, thanks in large part to the large amount of coverage of this in popular media itself
  • The shift
    Media 1.0 was about FIND. Media 2.0 is about FILTER
  • Tapscott – “Grown up Digital”
    “The print media company and the TV network are hierarchical organisations that reflect the values of their owners. New media, on the other hand, give control to all users. The distinction between bottom-up and top-down organisational structure is at the heart of the new generation. For the first time ever, young people have taken control of critical elements of a communications revolution.” (p21)
  • Some more thoughts (1)
    Could postmodernism, in retrospect, now be seen as an attempt to get to grips with changes from materially rooted technological change?
    Views on social media tend to be polarised:
  • Some more thoughts (2)
    Many scholars (eg Barabazon) very much against the media 2.0 hypothesis
    It is very cynical about theory, but does draw heavily from theorists such as Bourdieu and McLuhan
    Celebrates the “power of active users” , ignoring the commercial structures that help to shape those powers
    Ignores real material and cultural constraints?
    Gender inequality?
    Who’s online?
  • Some more thoughts (3)
    Revolution or augmentation?
    “Even what we might with some justification want to call revolutions in technology turn out to have been long in the making” (MacKenzie, 1999)
    Convergence as key?
    Not just common tools and access, but nature of the data (ie all digital, all binary)
    But is convergence new?
    Telephone always been used for both communication and broadcasting
    Newspapers experimenting with radio in 1930s
  • Participation and Collaboration
  • A media ecology?
    Castilles – we are living in an age of “informed bewilderment”
    Can we look at media as a living system? An ecological view?
    We can thus embrace diversity, complexity and adaptation
    Unit of cultural exchange getting smaller and smaller – ie, BIODIVERSITY
    Many established media species need to adapt or become extinct
  • Moral Panics
    Cohen, S, 1972.
  • Deviance / Threat
    media plays a part in defining and shaping social problems and perceptions of threat.
    This media representation and subsequent societal reaction may INCREASE the deviance and threat.
    “An initial act of deviance, or normative diversity (for example, in dress) is defined as being worthy of attention and is responded to punitively. The deviant or group of deviants is segregated or isolated and this operates to alienate them from conventional society. They perceive themselves as more deviant, group themselves with others in a similar position, and this leads to more deviance.”
    (Cohen, 1972: 18)
  • Classic structure
    Concern: that the behaviour of the group or category in question is likely to have a negative impact on society.
    Hostility: towards the group in question increases, and they become "folk devils". A clear division forms between "them" and "us".
    Consensus: a widespread acceptance that the group in question poses a very real threat to society.
    Disproportionality: The action taken is disproportionate to the actual threat posed by the accused group.
    Volatility: Moral panics are highly volatile and tend to disappear as quickly as they appeared due to a wane in public interest or news reports changing to another topic
  • A Haunt of Fears
    18th Century theatre
    19th century ‘penny dreadfuls’
    Music Halls 1890s
    Silent movie crime films
    Horror Comics 1950s
    Rock and Roll
    Video Nasties 1980s
    Video games 2000s
  • Sound familiar?
    They wore peaked caps, neck scarves, bell-bottom trousers, and a hairstyle cropped close to the scalp, with a "donkey fringe" over the forehead.
    There were pitched battles between rival gangs, armed with iron bars, knives, powerful catapults, and even guns. They patrolled their neighbourhoods shouting obscenities and pushing people down.
  • Sound familiar?
    They wore peaked caps, neck scarves, bell-bottom trousers, and a hairstyle cropped close to the scalp, with a "donkey fringe" over the forehead.
    There were pitched battles between rival gangs, armed with iron bars, knives, powerful catapults, and even guns. They patrolled their neighbourhoods shouting obscenities and pushing people down.
    The first ‘hooligans’ riots in Aug 1898
  • Report: ‘The Needs of Youth’
    "Relaxation of parental control, decline of religious influence, and the movement of masses of young people to housing estates where there is little scope for recreation and plenty for trouble ... The problem is a serious challenge, the difficulty of which is intensified by the extension of freedom which, for better or worse, has been given to youth in the last generation."
  • Report: ‘The Needs of Youth’
    "Relaxation of parental control, decline of religious influence, and the movement of masses of young people to housing estates where there is little scope for recreation and plenty for trouble ... The problem is a serious challenge, the difficulty of which is intensified by the extension of freedom which, for better or worse, has been given to youth in the last generation."
  • ‘We live in a decaying age. Young people no longer respect their parents. They are rude and impatient. They frequently inhabit taverns and have no self-control.’
    Inscribed on Egyptian tomb, 4000 BC
    ‘I see no hope for the future of our people if they are dependent on frivolous youth of today, for certainly all youth are reckless beyond words... When I was young, we were taught to be discreet and respectful of elders, but the present youth are exceedingly wise [disrespectful] and impatient of restraint’
    Hesiod, 8th Century BC
    ‘What is happening to our young people? They disrespect their elders, they disobey their parents. They ignore the law. They riot in the streets, inflamed with wild notions. Their morals are decaying. What is to become of them?’
    Plato, 4th Century BC
  • Common themes
    Popular culture is damaging
    New cultural forms and technologies are dangerous/ ‘bad objects’
    Working class people cannot be trusted
    Young people are most at risk
    Innocence of childhood must be protected
    Young people are dangerous
  • How does a moral panic emerge?
    Apparent rise in criminal or anti-social acts
    Often a specific shocking incident
    Search for explanation in public discourse
    Scapegoat ‘found’ in popular culture
    Blame attributed in news coverage
    ‘experts’ consulted e.g. teachers, social workers, police officers
    Demands for action- e.g.change in law
    Research disregarded or ridiculed
  • The case of Childs Play 3
    Murder of James Bulger by two boys
    Shocked public reaction
    Trial: search for blame
    Father’s videoshop membership info
    CP3 picked on by press
    Spurious links with narrative offered
  • The case of Childs Play 3
    Violent media and ‘effects’
    The Newson Report and ‘Video Nasties’
    Late Show debate / survey
    Martin Barker on screen violence
    Martin Barker on Moral Panics
  • Recent panics
    Online activity
    Campus killings / knife and gun crime / gangs and Youtube
    Texting, internet and literacy
    Electronic media and obesity
    Screen / web addiction
    Social skills in decline due to internet
  • Children and TV: Key Research
    David Buckingham – loads
    Dafna Lemish
    Sonia Livingstone
  • Research Traditions
    American – dominated by developmental psychology
    European – dominated by Sociology / Cultural Studies
  • Lemish (2007)
    Critical analysis of 50 years of literature / research on children and television from a global perspective.
    Tv as ‘shared and homogenizing’ force in global child culture.
    Tv still dominant medium (maybe not the same for youth / young adults)
    Childhood as market for corporations
    Complex relationship between children, childhood and TV
  • TV and Child Development
    ‘Reading’ TV (from Cultural Studies) sees making meaning from TV as active, in relation to socio-cultural contexts.
    (See Buckingham (2003, add page numbers ) – in library - and BFI Look Again – on moodle - for models of children’s ability to decode television meanings at different ages).
    Fantasy – Reality distinction (average age 8)
    By 12, awareness of complexity of ‘reality’
    Development of genre distinction – becomes more developed
    Development of moral judgment (average age 7, linked to intention before action age 10)
    Para-social interaction (identification) – class and gender are important (eg girls identify with boys’ TV but not vice versa)
    Imagination – different research approaches get different results (TV reducing imaginative capacity or TV as stimulus for imagination)
    Note that research on TV and development views the child as an ‘apprentice adult’ and thus works by comparing children’s perceptions of TV meaning to adults’, rather than treating
  • TV and Behaviour
    Violence (see Martin Barker)
    Immediate, copy cat, long-term cultivation
    Effects model (see Gauntlett) vs Cultural Studies
    Psychology v Sociology
    Catharsis – different ‘version’ of effects, but still assumes straightforward influence on behaviour.
    Intervening variables – pre-disposition, family context, demographics (see Morrison on Bulger)
    Pro-social behaviour – educational (broadly), empathy, modifying of extreme behaviours, reflection (on own life), citizenship (see Buckingham).
    Advertising – ‘pester power’, artificial ‘needs’, sense of self (in economic and lifeworld context)
    Sexual Behaviour – see Buckingham (English and Media Centre research) – exposure to explicit and implicit sexual content and ‘cultivation’ effects. Western focus – very different in other cultures.
    Leisure and Health – see Kline, Stewart and Fraser.
  • Postmodernism
  • TheoryLyotard - Postmodern ConditionBaudrillard - simulation Hyper-realityRelativismBricolageIronyPick and mixRemix culture
  • Prosumers
  • Convergence
    Anytime, Anywhere
  • The ‘Standards’
    Using effective strategies to develop pupils’ ICT skills.
    Extensive repertoire of teaching and learning strategies, including use of ICT.
    Discussing with pupils the use of ICT and how it could enhance their learning.
  • DJ Shadow
  • Second Life
  • Zizek
    Virtual reality = product deprived of its substance.
    “Just as decaffeinated coffee smells and tastes like real coffee without being real coffee, Virtual reality is experienced as reality without being so. What happens at the end of this process of virtualization, however, is that we begin to experience ‘real reality’ itself as a virtual entity”.