Family Man (Social specie)Tribes, Clans, Maﬁas, Governments, Fraternity…
¿?How to understand what makes us human, without dealing with the social factor?
! human & social behavior are one* “ Humans are intensely social creatures and one of the major functions of our brains is to enable us to interact successfully in social groups. ” Tania Singer / Cognitive Neuroscience* at least some believe that...
By exploring the nature and evolution of macaque social organization, we can develop our knowledge of the rise of societies and their transformation during the course of evolution.Professor Darío MaestripieriUniversity of Chicago HUMAN ≡ RHESUS MACAQUE Comparative Human In the struggle for survival, both resorted to the same solution: Development SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Evolutionary Biology Neurobiology
…in the last episodyWhat make us human? ≡ = =↑ 99% = ↓93% HUMAN CHIMPANZEE HUMAN RHESUS MACAQUE > More different genetic spoken, but more similar in social behavior.
SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE ?HUMAN ≡ RHESUS MACAQUE > Deal with friends > Build partnerships > Power struggles = ↓93% > Trading in inﬂuence... • Use sex for social purpose = • Tends to nepotism • In both there is a quest for power (by itself) and as a means to get everything else (food, sex .. et) ----> MACACHIAVELISMO (MACACO + MACHIAVELO) ≠ • Female Role What make us human? SOCIAL FACTOR
HUMAN 1 RHESUS MACAQUE 2 CHIMPANZEE 3Chimpanzee is more “intelligence” in many aspects thanMacaco. But the macaque is most successful (¿?) > Because, like humans macaques are sociable.
What make us human? SOCIAL FACTOR SocialFamily Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence To Howard Gardner“We are more Were very gooddedicated to our understanding whatchildren than any others think, orother species.” trying to do it. (Mind reading & empathy)
SOCIAL FACTOR Social neuroscience > Focusing on how the > Investigate the brain mediates conﬂuence of neural social interactions and social processes. (Methodology) • Functional MRI, • Transcranial magnetic stimulation, • Electrocardiograms, + • Electromyograms, • Endocrinology...
Social neuroscience Social These structures evolved with specie: neural and hormonal mechanisms >create organizations beyond the to support them. individual (families, cities, civilizations, and cultures...) (because social behavior helped these organisms to survive) SN started to provide insights into > Often used as synonyms. neural mechanism underlying our capacity to*: > Sometimes the term empathy is dividing it into two subcomponents, emotional and cognitive empathy. Represent others people’s Share the feelings of others intentions and beliefs (in the absence of any direct emotional stimulation to themselves) Mentalizing (ToM) Emphaty These concepts refer to our ability to put ourselves in the shoes of another person, be it in their mental or emotional shoes. > Allow human beings to represent the states of other people (mental or emotional) > Predict others’ behavior Successfully engage in social interactions.* T. Singer. There is neurological evidence for these division.
Mentalize > Distinct and relay on different Emphatize neuro-cognitive circuits ☺+ ☹ = ☺☺ (share others feelings) sharing the grief of a close friend feels fundamentally different than (reﬂect upon others) understanding what this person is having as thoughts and intentions, the latter lacking a bodily sensation. > Empathy is crucial for the creation of affective bonds between mother and child, and later >This ability is absent in monkeys and only exists in a between partners and larger social rudimentary form in apes. groups > The lack of a ToM in most > Observation or imagination of autistic children could explain another person in a particular their observed failures in emotional state automatically communication and social interaction activates a representation of that state in the observer with its associated autonomic and somatic responses. Brain activity associated with different empathic responses ( domains ofSeveral studies have repeatedly given touch, smell and pain):evidence for the involvement ofthree brain areas: ● Activation in anterior insula (AI) cortex, ● the temporal poles, (associated with the processing and feeling of ● the posterior superior temporal disgust)sulcus (STS) and most consistently ● Activation in secondary somato-sensory ● an area in the medial pre-frontal cortex (SII) (involved in processing and feelinglobe (mPFC) the sensation of touch). >Activate when mentalizing about thoughts, intentions or beliefs of others butalso when people are attending to their own mental states.
≠ > Evidence for neuronal correlates of mind reading and empathy Emphatize Mentalize sharing sensations and emotions with others > different ontogenetic trajectoriesability to understand the mental states of others associated with limbic and para-limbic structures Related with structures that belong to (‘‘emotional’’ or ‘‘social’’ brain) Neo-cortex reﬂecting the differential development of the underlying brain structures developed late in phylogeny. developed early in phylogeny.
Mirror neurons…. The discovery of mirror neurons demonstrated that a translation mechanism is present in the primate brain and automatically elicited when viewing others’ actions A newborn macaque imitates tongue protrusion more than just imitation....> Mirror system might underlie our ability > in Terms of Evolutionary Theoryto understand other people’s intentions provides a great ADVANTAGE (to humans) by providing us with an automatic Human can bring an action to conclusion >simulation of their actions, goals and before it concludes in real timeintentions. (having the possibility of taking immediate action to avoid danger)
ReferencesSinger, Tania. The neuronal basis and ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: Review of literature and implications forfuter research. Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Welcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College of London,17 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UKhttp://eprints.nuim.ie/1003/1/Haydn__MPP_issue_4_2007.pdfGurmin, J. Haydn. Edith Stein, and Tania Singer. A comparison of Phenomenological and Neurological Approaches to the ‘Problem of Empathy’. MaynoothPhilosophical Papers Issue 4 (2007). An Anthology of Current Researchhttp://primate.uchicago.edu/dario.htmhttp://www.redesparalaciencia.com/1659/redes/2009/redes-46-macacos-y-humanos-el-secreto-del-exitohttp://www.redesparalaciencia.com/1637/redes/2009/redes-45-el-experto-y-sabio-inconscientehttp://www.elcervellsocial.net/backend/imagenes_panel/almacen_documentos/textos_profesores.pdfhttp://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurociencia_socialhttp://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurona_espejohttp://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=11777http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/69/6/1810Gustatory neural coding in the amygdala of the alert macaque monkeyT. R. Scott, Z. Karadi, Y. Oomura, H. Nishino, C. R. Plata-Salaman, L. Lenard, B. K. Giza and S. Aou. National Institutefor Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Japan.