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To Lisbon or to prison?

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Presentation of impact/issues/solution wrt the second Intellectual Property Enforcement Directive IPRED2 EC EU (as of 6 December 2006) from http://action.ffii.org/ipred2

Presentation of impact/issues/solution wrt the second Intellectual Property Enforcement Directive IPRED2 EC EU (as of 6 December 2006) from http://action.ffii.org/ipred2

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  • 1. To Lisbon or to prison? Jonas Maebe Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements (COD 2005/0127) With thanks to Ante Wessels 6 December 2006
  • 2. IPRED2: General overview IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 3. Think of the children • Counterfeit and copyright piracy goods: • Produced with child labour • Endanger public safety/health • Fund organised crime and terrorists • Destabilise economy and governments IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 4. IP infringer = criminal • Criminalise all intentional IPR infringements on a commercial scale IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 5. All IPRs • Directive applies to all kinds of “intellectual property” • Patents • Copyright • Trademarks • Sui generis rights of database makers • ... IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 6. Not all IPRs are equal • Patent infringement: regular business practice • Trademark confusion • EC: the economic impact of the “sui generis” right on database production is unproven • Plant variety rights: cross-pollination • ... IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 7. Intentional IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 8. Intentional • Basic principle of criminal law: everyone is supposed to know the law (“Sorry, I didn’t know killing was illegal.”) IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 9. Intentional • Basic principle of criminal law: everyone is supposed to know the law (“Sorry, I didn’t know killing was illegal.”) • Intentional: in criminal law, may mean “consciously, not accidentally” (“I wrote this patent-infringing program accidentally while sleeping.”) IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 10. Commercial scale • Some proposed definitions: “direct or indirect economic advantage” • May even apply to private persons (advantage: paying less for a product) • Needed condition: intent to earn a profit IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 11. Trademark infringement http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/5169520.stm IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 12. Trademark infringement “We are a small company based in north Wales - these [lawsuit] costs would have been nothing to Burger King but they probably would have cost us our business.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/5169520.stm IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 13. Trademark infringement v. http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Ch/2006/2355.html IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 14. Database infringement v. http://www.ivir.nl/publications/hugenholtz/fordham2001.html#verwijzing12 IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 15. Database infringement v. http://www.ivir.nl/publications/hugenholtz/fordham2001.html#verwijzing28 IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 16. Copyright infringement http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601088&sid=a5gfABLl6v3E IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 17. Copyright infringement “… serious threat to national economies and governments.” “… increasingly linked to organised crime.” “… lucrative activities in the same way as other large-scale criminal activities such as drug trafficking.” http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601088&sid=a5gfABLl6v3E IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 18. Other problems IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 19. Other problems • Include private agents in criminal investigations IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 20. Other problems • Include private agents in criminal investigations • Allow governments to start investigation without a prior report IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 21. Other problems • Include private agents in criminal investigations • Allow governments to start investigation without a prior report • Regulate also abetting, aiding, organising, ... IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 22. Other problems • Include private agents in criminal investigations • Allow governments to start investigation without a prior report • Regulate also abetting, aiding, organising, ... • No provisions against abuse (but is TRIPs requirement!) IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 23. Think of the IP holders? • Many negative effects for companies in IP- intensive sectors • Not many active industry proponents • Max Planck Institute for IP: “risk that … freedom of market actors to engage in business is curtailed beyond proportion” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 24. Think of the IP holders? • Many negative effects for companies in IP- Ot proponents intensive sectors N • Not many active industry y Max Planck Institute for tl that … • e x ac to engage in business freedom of market actors IP: “risk is curtailed beyond proportion” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 25. Main advocate: EC • Preamble: emotional arguments (organised crime, child labour), no reasoned studies • Dutch Minister: Frattini mentioned copying a Ferrari, but shouldn't Ferrari solve that itself? • Massive opposition from most industries until patents taken out IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 26. Legal basis: ECJ C-176/03 € IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 27. Competence extension? • Here: • No arguments about trade distortion • Only lays down “at least maximum fine of €X or Y years in prison” • Proposal even increases fragmentation IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 28. Law Society IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 29. Law Society “clearly goes beyond the scope of the ruling in Commission v Council” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 30. Law Society “clearly goes beyond the scope of the ruling in Commission v Council” “It could also lead to moves by certain companies to re-locate outside the EU” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 31. Law Society “clearly goes beyond the scope of the ruling in Commission v Council” “It could also lead to moves by certain companies to re-locate outside the EU” “difficult to see how litigation will be avoided if the proposal is pursued in its present form” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 32. Law Society “clearly goes beyond the scope of the ruling in Commission v Council” “It could also lead to moves by certain companies to re-locate outside the EU” “difficult to see how litigation will be avoided if the proposal is pursued in its present form” “Could this be used unfairly by bigger companies to bully smaller companies or individuals? ” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 33. Law Society “clearly goes beyond the scope of the ruling in Commission v Council” “we question “It could also lead to moves by certain whether an across-the-board criminalisation ofcompanies to re-locateIP infringements commercial scale outside the EU” throughoutsee how litigation will be avoided if “difficult to the EU is actually in the public interest and whether it serves justice effectively.” the proposal is pursued in its present form” “Could this be used unfairly by bigger companies to bully smaller companies or individuals? ” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 34. Political process IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 35. The previous episode • IPRED1: harsh civil sanctions/means • Anton Piller orders: private agents can search premises • Mareva injunctions: freeze/confiscate assets for 30 days before hearing accused party IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 36. Parliament: ITRE • Advisory Committee • Result (Hammerstein report): • Scope limited to copyright piracy and trademark counterfeiting • Privatisation of criminal investigation removed • No investigations without prior complaint IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 37. Parliament: ITRE (2) • But: • Definition of counterfeiting still includes regular business conflicts • Copyright piracy not defined at all • Some specific penalties still included (contrary to ECJ judgement) IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 38. Parliament: LIBE • Advisory Committee • Draft report (Wieland) • Less attention for civil liberties than ITRE • Removes “intentional” condition • Criminalises “facilitating” • Vote: 11 December IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 39. LIBE: our concerns • AM 21 (Wieland): scope (open + everything) • AM 2 (Wieland): -intentional, +facilitating • AM 51 (Guardans): aiding/abetting/... • AM 59/66 (Newton-Dunn): “serious crime” • AM 60 (Newton-Dunn): specific fines IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 40. Parliament: JURI • Responsible Committee • Draft report (Zingaretti) • Wide scope, keeps state initiative, worsens privatising investigations, no abuse prevention, remains ECJ incompatible • Will be improved by rapporteur • Amendments discussion (+vote?): 20 December IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 41. Industry • General consensus (except big pharma?) that patents should be excluded • Few signs of who is actively supporting this directive (music/movie publishing industry?) • Fairly silent overall after Commission indicated that taking out patents is ok IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 42. What have we done • http://action.ffii.org/ipred2 • General analysis and amendment proposals • Analysis of available tabled amendments • Research into civil conflicts wrongfully criminalised by the proposal IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 43. What needs to be fixed? IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 44. What needs to be fixed? • Scope: ITRE + “in so far rights are harmonised” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 45. What needs to be fixed? • Scope: ITRE + “in so far rights are harmonised” • Infringements: unmodified emulation IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 46. What needs to be fixed? • Scope: ITRE + “in so far rights are harmonised” • Infringements: unmodified emulation • Infr. commercial scale: ITRE com. scale + “loss” IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 47. What needs to be fixed? • Scope: ITRE + “in so far rights are harmonised” • Infringements: unmodified emulation • Infr. commercial scale: ITRE com. scale + “loss” • Private agents: ITRE ok IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 48. What needs to be fixed? • Scope: ITRE + “in so far rights are harmonised” • Infringements: unmodified emulation • Infr. commercial scale: ITRE com. scale + “loss” • Private agents: ITRE ok • Police initiative: ITRE ok IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 49. What needs to be fixed? • Scope: ITRE + “in so far rights are harmonised” • Infringements: unmodified emulation • Infr. commercial scale: ITRE com. scale + “loss” • Private agents: ITRE ok • Police initiative: ITRE ok • Provisions against abuse: to be added IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 50. Conclusion • All fixes lead to implementation of TRIPs • “Max Planck Institute” and “Law Society of England and Wales” extremely critical • Main reason for directive seems competence extension • Rejection? IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 51. Information, analysis, mailing list http://action.ffii.org/ipred2 IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)
  • 52. Starbucks v. STARPREYA http://www.juicecaster.com/juicecast.php?id=6459 IPRED2: criminalisation of intellectual property infringements 6 December 2006 (COD 2005/0127)