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Vulnerability samlet 2

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  • 1. modern/traditional LOST NUANCES? Nils Somby, photograph Trond Trondsen/Nordkappfoto
  • 2. The meta condition of monumentality/typology“Identifikasjon av typer beror i det hele tatt på at visse velbrukte former har nådd en slags inert tilstadder de ikke lenger utvikles for å svare på endrete behov.” “Typeformene ses med nye øyne, distansertfra opprinnelige funksjoner og isolert fra livssammenhengen de inngikk i. Typeformene har fått musealverdi, som formidlere av fortida” (Haugdal, 2007).In order to maintain a historical continuity the typology is transmitted into the monumental, institu-tional architecture.Typology, specificly the lavvo/nomadic type, may in this respect be seen as a meditator of the past, butthe representation of a culture should contain more, and gain actuality. Like Norberg-Schulz argues“Typebildet synliggjør stedet og skaper kontinuitet i tida. Det bærer med seg en historie og gir men-nesket ‘fotfeste i tiden’.“Tapet av sammenheng mellom funksjon og form er, i følge Norberg - Schulz, symtomatisk for en mod-erne tilstand, et stedstap” (s.136, Haugdal, Elin Kristine, 2007, Ny monumentalitet). Do the technol-ogy i phone based society suffer from a stedstap (loss of belonging to a place) and a collective memory;the relation to who we are, our origin, and why we exist? Facing two opponent forces, the tradition andthe new, how can aspects of the Sami culture be translated or pursued into a modern context, withoutrepeating the obvious cultural and monumental symbolism and create a more reliable and honest show-ing, to themselves and to the visitor?Taking in consideration the tendency of Sami people as a minority group and immigration into big cit-ies, culture no longer have a in situ connection? What iswhat happens when thetypebildet of a culture?
  • 3. resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscapeCollosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge the simpli ed/adapted ‘visitor - culture’
  • 4. things andsignificance‘To him, the physicality of materials can involve an individual with theworld, evoking experiences and texturing horizons of place throughmemory’ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Zumthor, interpretationof Zumthor’s chapter: “A way of looking at things”).Are things instruments to placing yourself in a contextual meaning? resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 5. Sisti, processed leather (treated with hemmabark), is a base material of the traditional duodji, Sami arts and craft. Other materials are bone, textiles (http://duodjikonsult.com/horn.html). Tendons (sener) from the reindeers are made into threads. Venison and fur are often dried outside the private properties, and create what Sunniva Skålnes calls ‘improvized architecture’. Tæger (selje, gran furu, bjørk, vier) are wooden materials that construct dense knitting tecniques. They must have been growing straight, and in sandy or wet ground. Sennagress is often cut late summer.The making of Sami use objects (bruksgjenstander) carry a social space. There are processes to tapping and drying it before it can be used in the footwear, skaller. The composition of di erent directions of the fur create Badjelgorži a rm grip to skallene. Norsk: Foss i Olmmáiváteatnu (Manndalselva). Her var en svær stein i elva, Geađgi, som ble brukt til ferdsel over. Den ble sprengt bort av ukjent Kvann and syregress as spices and grunn. Badjel betyr over, gorzi source of vitamins and as medicine betyr fossen. Norsk: Øvre Fos - (http://ndla.no/nb/node/3825). Vier, lyng, bjørk, etc. - plant dyeing of yarn (http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantefarg er). Skallebånd and bands to kofter have particular patterns with geographical and ‘stage -in - life’ referencecs.
  • 6. or etc....Two ways of processing natural resources.One short. One long.
  • 7. time perception The sami calendar and the namings of the months are based on the rythm of the nature and the reindeer management (http:// www.samer.se/1077). Our divi- sion of seasons contains 4 articu- lations, while the Sami culture rely on 8 seasons and a nuanced view on the environment in con- stant, cyclical change. resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 8. bulls unattended counting, marking, while grazing vaccinating, saw off during summer huge antlers navit SUMMER selected animals slaughtered SPRING AUTUMN making of dried venison and hide towards summer pasture WINTER General time perception? slow walk in melted, deep snow towards winter pasture calve arrival the bulls are kept inside fencesmaking of dried venison the reindeer -40ºcwinter slaughting group split in total darkness, smaller groups samene spread to improve out to cover a grazing effi- vast pasture ciency aidejavrre
  • 9. bulls grazing unattendedly counting, marking, vaccinating, saw off towards summer pasture huge antlers calves gaining weight calve arrival slaughting towards winter pasturemaking of dried venison winter slaughting big bull group collecting bulls many same - teams in fences -40ºc smaller total darkness herding groups survival SUMMER Giesse springSUMMER autumnSUMMER Gidágiesse Tjaktjagiesse SPRING AUTUMN Gidá Tjaktja springwinter autumnwinter Gidádálvve Tjaktjadálvve WINTER Dálvve http://www.samer.se/1077 Sami time organizing.
  • 10. vocabularyCan the vocabulary of a language/field used within what we definea culture, manifest some truths, attitudes or basic foundations of theculture in the showing of what is more articulated?What do the very detailed apps vocabulary tell about the society weare curretly structuring, the zeitgeist of the time? Can the vocabularyof the Samis reveal a different representative cultural picture?Are the general international/norwegian population opponent tothe Sami population through the difference of the i - phone societymaneuvering beyond concrete location, and the very direct contactto the local surroundings implemented in the Sami culture? resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 11. e l v ≈ v a n n ≈ b y g d F J E L L ≈ s t e d ≈ álda offerstadája 1) kjelde, 2) bekk, lita elv nuorra sund barta årestue, hytte alás det høgste av et fjellboatka innsnevring (avsmalning) suolu øy, holme bassi heilag stad, heilagdom (og som beaski 1) fjellklubb (ved kysten, ofte bunden saman meddearpmi elvemel, bakkekant ved vággi 1) dal, stutt dalsenkning ved adj, heilag) fastlandet med eitinnsjø, bratt lien bakke eller nær kysten, 2) lita bukt ved sjøen báiki stad, stad der nokon bur, heim smalt eid), 2) smal passasje over eit fjelldeatnu, eatnu stor elv njárga nes, odde, halvøy badje (stutt) avstand, lengd (som mid- bákti berg, flogfielbmá ei mindre elv som flyt stille, vuohppi kjos, lang og smal vik i elv tledd i stadnamn med tre ledd) barsi knaus, ein kolle som stikk fram ved enden av eitkjos eller innsjø siida 1) reinby, gruppe av reineiere som fjellgorzi foss vuotna fjord samarbeider, 2) buplass, heim ávzi trong, djup elvedal med svært bratte sider, skardluoppal utviding av ei elv, liten gála vadestad sadji stad, plass, rom coaltu rundaktig haug eller toppinnsjø som det går ei elv gjennom jávri innsjø, vatn goahti gamme, telt cohkka (20) fjelltopp, toppguoika stryk i elv gohpi rundaktig vik, brei bukt muvra varde (mur) dievvá rundaktig eller avlang haugnjearri grunt sttyk der elva er brei luokta vik, bukt duottar vidde, snaufjelljohka elv elv, mindre enn deatnu, mohkki krok, sving, bukt, vik buolza bratt morenerygg, tørr grushøgde (kame)eatnuskáidi landet mellom to elvar som sáiva 1) liten innsjø utan (større) tilløp, 2) ferskvatn m y r ≈ corru langstrakt forhøyning eller rabb (esker) borri fjell med jamne skråningar til to siderrenn samanveadji (87) mindre elv, bekk, dal med stáhppu smal keile ved sjøen cahca vasskilje, overgang mellom to fjellliten elv muotki eid, jfr. skáidi cearru nokså flat og ofte vid høgfjellsstrekning med lite vegetasjon háldi (som fjellnavn): rundaktig, høgt fjell s n ø ≈ t i l ≈ guovda vasspytt i skog som det hárji åskam, smal og lang åsrygg (møne) liehppa tverrbratt eller overhengande bergvegg, bratt veks sennagras rundt fjellside k om s t juovva ur ur jeaggi myr myr nibba (60) spiss fjellknatt nurki nov, hushjørne, utstikkar på eit fjell suotnju blautmyr der det veks oaivi 1) hovud, 2) avrunda fjell starr hoanka utoverhengande bergvegg luohkká bakke várdu høgd med vid utsikt r i m ≈ várri fjell vadda (80) open slette utan tre, med skog rundt riehppi dal som det er vanskelegmuotta snø i sin alminnelighet å koma til, med utvida nisjeforma gielas 1) kjøl, 2) lang, smal åsvahca nysnø dalbotn rássa høgfjellsstrekning utan vegetasjon, dekt av små moski stad der det ikkje går an å flate steinar eller uroppas urørt snøciegar ”beitet” snø koma fram, dal stengd i botnen roavvi stad der det har vore skogbrann; langt, ikkje gorgnehat (40) stad der ein kan høgt, skogkledd fjellseanas kornsnø (i februar og mars) stiga opp (t.d for vinterveg inn på GÀISI Fjelltindceavvi tettpakket snø land) bihci rimfrost i sin alminnelighet, geahci ende, spissskávvi tynn skare ráktu steinhelle, skiferhelle rim på marka gurra skar, kløft, hakkcuonu ordentlig hard skare goavdi heller, opning under noko suhci fastfryst isrim på trær njunni 1) nase eller framende, spiss, 3) bergnase 4) tut,cearga snødriv, snøskavle geaidnu veg ritni rimfrost på trær, særlig nå 5) nebbjassa Snødriv på rabbe (snaufjell) snøen har falt på suhcisievla snø gjennomtrekt av vann sealli trær fri for rimfrost (om vinteren) maras brei høgde i terrenget med forkrøplet bjørkeskog,soavli snøsørpe lav høgde med skog suoldni dugg på markaoavlu nesten bare vann i snøen vuopmi skogland (i motsetning til skoglaust høgfjell, laksi dugg (vatn) på gras, trær og duottar) busker All words are taken from the dokument Bruk av landskapet - historisk og kulturell forståelse av landskapet Odd Mathis Hætta, autumn conference, NLA, Kautokeino 2009.
  • 12. Juopmobákti Sálorihtá CuoppugieddiNorsk: Norsk: Norsk:Firkanta stein overfor skog- Sted. Salo er mannsnavn, no Voll. Cuoppu er et lite dyr somgrensa under Goddegurra, slektsnavn. Rihtá er felle til lever i myr, gieddi betyr eng,stor som et lite hus. Juopmu er fangst av større rovdyr. voll. (Cuopposuoidni er en ko-syregress, som man brukte å rtvoksende gress-sort som blekokte grøt på. Bákti betyr berg. brukt som fyll i madrasser.) The municipality of Kåfjord has collected 2200 names of locations, most of them Sami. These names tell about how the landscape is used and harvested from, and about the local history. These are some examples. All photos and descriptions are collected from http://www.gaisi.no/hoved.php
  • 13. Landscape voicesJoik can be seen as a communicator (formidler) of the subjective cognitive memory of Samipeople. The memory of Sami carries an immaterial understanding of the culture and knowledgerelated to it. “As long as we continue to joik, we’ll remember who we are” (Jones - Bamman, 1993).Why does joik function so well in establishing a cultural identity? I argue the points below allto-gether shape it as a dynamic medium.◆ Subjective space of interpretation (tolkningsrom) and invilvement (deltagelse) “...Den avspeilerandres subjektive oppfatning av mennesket, eller av dyr eller landskap hvis det er det joiken erbetegnet etter” (Jernsletten 1978:110).◆ Duble subjectivity (the messager and the reciever) creates social interaction (Vansina:1985).◆ Ethnical/national positioning◆ Cosmologial positioning“...berättelser talar om vilka vi är. Detta inkluderar ursprung, förfäder, världsbild och kunskaper.Det är en spegelbild av vårt liv (Kuokkanen 2000:421).”“...folkloren handlar om i och med att förnippas med en grupp för vilken den är meningsfull”(Arvidsson 1999:21). resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 14. Joik lydklippJoik lydklipp Joik lydklipp
  • 15. visitorsHow is the Sami region communicated to a visitor today?Can the Sami institutions, desentralized, but as a whole, with their pre-sent ‘architectural’ character be seen/valuated as a museum of Sapmi?It might look like, in fear of not remembering/claiming the importance ofthese institutions, they have been compensated with a spectacular archi-tectural response. I would ask if this ‘response’ contribute in maintainingthe museum (read: the Sapmi culture read as a tourist) as ‘another place’,that differ from the real genius loci/character of the place. This mean-ing as a visitor of Inner Finnmark and in the meeting of the institutionsthat welcome them, in reality the visitors do not travel to Sapmi and theauthentical vernacular state, but what the Sami people themselves regardupon as ‘another place’.Welcome to another place- resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 16. oil, gas and wealth OH YEAH, this is exactly what I expected!spectacular, authentic cultural symbols
  • 17. “It appears that people react to environments in the terms of themeanings the environments have for them. ...Environmental evalu-ation...is more a matter of latent that of manifest function, and it islargely affected by images and ideals” (Rapoport, 1977:60).
  • 18. tradition/instant In what context is knowledge placed?Individ - family - neighbourhood - municiplity - country - world Individ - world resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 19. http://saamiblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/pre-christian-sami-religion-and-gods.html line of knowledge instant knowledge app ‘still in use’ in time after download, subject: 30 mill. downloads of an app % 100 80 The industry of domesticating 60 reindeers is traced back t the 40 18th - 19 th century, but accord- ing to rock carvings the people 20 of the Sami region has benefited DAYS from wild reindeers. Other Sami 0 30 60 90 traditons can be traced back to ancient generations.
  • 20. sami monumentHow is the contemporary Sami region communicated to a visitor?Jean - François Lyotards definition of monumensjon:‘I monumensjon legges “den simple kendsgerning, at et hvilket som helst stykke, hvor ube-tydelig og trivielt det end måtte være [...] i samme øjeblik som det indføres i museet og for-synes med sin identifikationsmærkat, forvandles til et monument”‘Likefullt, i et akvarium blir selv fisken til et kulturelt objekt. Hentet ut fra sin naturlige sam-menheng, satt inn i menneskeskapte rammer - i det arkitektoniske rommet - gis fisken enkulturhistorisk betydning’ (Haugdal, 2007, about the Lofot aquarium)It is the architectural framing, and not the object displayed (here: the fish), creating denmuseale monumensjon. Can the Sami institutions (desentralized, but considered as a wholecultural region) with their present ‘architectural’ character be valuated as objects of a mu-seum feature of Sàpmi, like a museal monumensjon?It might look like, in fear of not remembering/claiming the importance of these institutions,they have been compensated with a spectacular architectural response. I would ask if this‘response’ contribute in maintaining the museum (read: the Sapmi culture understood of anaverage visitor) as ‘another place’, that differ from the real genius loci/character of the place.This meaning as a visitor of Inner Finnmark and in the meeting of the institutions that wel-come them, in reality the visitors do not travel to Sapmi and the authentical vernacular state,but what the Sami people themselves regard upon as ‘another place’.Welcome to another place- resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi lifespan of knowledge
  • 21. tana bru Sculpture/’non architecture’ aimed for ‘non - Sami’ people. ? samediggi karasjok màze kro museum ofkautokeino fjellstue kautokeino kulturhus sàpmi
  • 22. Stortinget agreed on the Sami law in 1987, which constituted Sametinget (http://www.samediggi.no/artikkel.aspx?MId1=337 7&AId=3645&back=1&MId2=3483). Their independence asked for a new serie of + architecture to accomodate their management. majavatn hotell àrran lulesamisk senter samelandsenteret, karasjok buletjàvri turistsenter kautokeino kulturhus kautokeino fjellstue màze kro tana bridge bulet eco siida lujavri samesenter russland samediggi karasjok ‘improvized architecture’ (skålnes, sunniva, Arkitektur n, nr.. 3 2008)extrovert monumental introvert vernacularSymbolism? Functionalism?

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