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Algae  seaweeds

Algae seaweeds



A lecture on marine algae (seaweeds)

A lecture on marine algae (seaweeds)



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    Algae  seaweeds Algae seaweeds Presentation Transcript

    • ALGAE ANDANGIOSPERMSAlexSlipperlimpet.co.uk
    • Why is algae so important?
    • Carbon sink Indicator Fertilser speciesWeather Food telling productiondevice Why? Nursery Coastal habitat defence Food for Symbiotic marine relationships species
    • Kingdom• ProtoctistaCharacteristics• Single celled to mutlicelled• Autotrophic• Form reproductive structures• Aquatic• Have flagellum at some point in their life• Many contain organelles which store and synthesise starch (pyrenoids)Types• Unicellular• Colonial• Filamentous• multicellular
    • •7 Phylum•Based on •Colour •Type of Chlorophyll •Food Storage substance •Cell wall composition•Focus on Multicelled or Macroalgae•3 Phylum •Chlorophyta •Phaeophyta •Rhodophyta
    • Green Algae (Chlorophyta)• Land based plants have arisen from evolutionof green seaweeds.• Mostly freshwater species (~700 marine species)• Some species common in nearshore environments• Structurally simple • Many unicellular or filamentous • Photosynthetic pigments and energy storage products similar to higher plants • May have shared a common ancestor with plants • No pigments to mask green color Habitat • Many live as epiphytes • Some species bore into calcium carbonate shells
    • Examples of Green Algae Enteromorpha • Often found in polluted areas; Used as bioassay tool Ulva (Sea Lettuce) • Found in areas with high nutrient levels Valonia (Bubble Algae) • Tropical and subtropical Caulerpa • Invasive species (C. taxifolia) Codium (Dead Man’s Fingers) • Multinucleated Halimeda • Calcareous alga
    • • Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) • Mostly marine (~1500 species) • Includes largest and most complex algae - kelps • Especially abundant on rocky coasts in temperate and polar regions • Dominant accessory pigment is fucoxanthin • Imparts yellow-brown to brown color • Structurally simple to complex • Some with simple flat thalli (Padina) • Others with complex structures • Holdfast, stipe, blade, pneumatocysts • Includes fast growing species • Some kelps can grow up to 50 cm per day! • Most anchored to substrate • Some float (Sargassum – Sargasso Sea) • Common in intertidal zone • Good at withstanding mechanical stress • Tolerant of exposure and desiccation
    • Examples of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) • Examples • Fucus (Rockweeds) • Intertidal and subtidal species; Ecologically important • Laminaria (Kelp) • Some species consist of a single blade • Commonly used for food • Postelsia (Sea Palm) • Usually on exposed rocky shorelines • Egregia (Feather Boa) • Common on rocky Pacific coast • Pelagophycus (Elk Kelp) • Large float • Macrocystis (Giant Kelp) • May reach 100 m and grow up to 50 cm day-1 • Most common in cold water
    • D. Red Algae (Rhodophyta)  Mostly marine (~4000 species)  Common in shallow water but also found in depths up to 200 metres.  Contain accessory pigments called phycobilins (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin)  Structurally less complex than brown algae • Most are filamentous • Much smaller than large brown algae  May be heterotrophic or parasitic  May incorporate calcium carbonate into tissues (Why?) • Coralline red algae • May be important in formation and cementing of coral reefs • May contribute to formation of carbonate sand • Some encrusting, others arborescent  Many are commercially important
    • Next session:•Bring life cycle of Red, Green and Brown seaweed. •Box Justification
    • Angiosperms
    • Key Features•Marine flowering plants•NOT seaweeds•Salt tolerant or able to withstand constant emersion•Oxygen absorbed from water•Produce rhizome roots•Only able to photosynthesise on leaves
    • Habitats
    • Eelgrass beds